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thought was the only object of commerce worth his attention. In fteering fouthward he discovered the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola, abounding in all the necessaries of life, and inhabited by a humane and hospitable people.
On his return he was overtaken with a storm, which had nearly proved fatal to his ships and their crews. At a crisis when all was given up for loft, Columbus had prefence of mind enough to retire into his cabin, and to write upon parchment a short account of his voyage. This he wrapped in an oiled cloth, which he inclosed in a cake of wax, put it into a tight cask, and threw it into the fea, in hopes that fame fortunate accident might preserve a depofit of so much importance to the world. He arrived at Palos in Spain, whence he had failed the year before, on the 15th of March, 1493. He was welcomed with all the acclamations which the populace are ever ready to bestow on great and glorious characters; and the court received him with marks of the greatert respect.
In September of this year, (1493) Columbus failed upon his second voyage to America ; during the performance of which, he discovered the iflands of Dominica, Marigalante, Gaudelupe, Montserrat, Antigua, Porto Rico and Jamaica ; and returned to Spain in 1496.
In 1498 he failed a third time for America ; and on the ift of August discovered the CONTINENT. He then coafted along westward, making other discoveries for 200 leagues, to Cape Vela, from which he crofled over to Hispaniola, where he was seized by a new Spanish Governor, and Tent home in chains.
In 1502 Columbus made his fourth voyage to Hispaniola ; thence he went over to the Continent-discovered the bay of Honduras ; thence failed along the main fhore easterly 200 leagues, to Cape Gracias a Dios, Veragua, Porto Bello and the Gulf of Darien.
The jealous and avaricious Spaniards, not immediately receiving those golden advantages which they had promised, and lost to the feelings of humanity and gratitude, suffered their efteem and admiration of Columbus to degenerate into ignoble envy.
The latter part of his life was made wretched by the cruel persecutions of his enemies. Queen Isabella, his friend and patroness, was no longer alive to afford him relief. He fought redress from Ferdinand, but in vain. Disgusted with the ingratitude of a monarch, whom he had served with so much fidelity and success, exhausted with hardships, and broken with the infirmities which these brought upon him, Columbus ended his active and useful life at Valladolid, on the 20th of May, 1506, in the 59th year of his age. He died with a composure of mind suited to the magnanimity which distinguished his character, and with sentiments of piety becoming that supreme respect for religion which he manifested in every occurrence of his life. He was grave though courteous in his deportment, circumfpect in his words and actions, irreproachable in his morals, and exemplary in all the duties of his religion. The courts of Spain were so juft to his memory, notwithstanding their ingratitude towards him during his life, that they buried him magnificently in the Cathedral of Seville, and erected a tomb over him with this inscription,
COLUMBUS has given a New WORLD
Among Among other adventurers to the New World in pursuit of Gold, was Americus Vespucius, a Florentine gentleman, whom Ferdinand had appointed to draw sea charts, and to whom he had given the title of chief pilot. This man accompanied Ojeda, an enterprizing Spanish adventurer, to America; and having with much art, and some degree of elegance, drawn up an amusing history of his voyage, he published it to the world. It circulated rapidly, and was read with admiration. In his narrative he had infinuated that the glory of having first discovered the continent in the New World, belonged to him. This was in part believed, and the country began to be called after the name of its supposed first discoverer. The unaccountable caprice of mankind has perpetuated the error; so that now, by the universal consent of all nations, this new quarter of the globe is called AMERICA. The name of Americus has supplanted that of Columbus, and mankind are left to regret an act of injustice, which, having been sanctioned by time, they can never redress.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF AMERICA.
BOUNDARIES and EXTENT.
THE Continent of America, of the discovery of which a succinct
1 account has just been given, extends from Cape Horn, the southern extremity of the Continent in latitude 56° south, to the north pole; and spreads between the 40th degree east, and the rooth degree west longi. tude from Philadelphia. It is nearly ten thousand miles in length from north to fouth ; its mean breadth has never been ascertained. This extensive continent lies between the Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Atlantic on the east. It is said to contain upwards of 14,000,000 square miles,
Climaie, Soil, and Productions. ] In regard to each of these, America has all the varieties which the earth affords. It stretches through the whole width of the five zones, and feels the heat and cold of two summers and two winters in every year. Most of the animal and vegetable productions which the eastern continent affords, are found here; and many that are peculiar to America. · Rivers.] This continent is watered by some of the largest rivers in the world. The principal of these, are Rio de la Plata, the Amazon and Oronoke in South America—The Misliflippi and St. Lawrence in NorthAmerica.
Gulfs.] The Gulf or Bay of Mexico, lying in the form of a bason between North and South America, and opening to the east, is conjectured by fome, to have been formerly land ; and that the constant attrition of the waters of the Gulf Stream, has worn it to its present form. The water in the Gulf of Mexico is said to be many yards higher, than on the western side of the continent in the Pacific Ocean. "
Gulf Stream.] The Gulf Stream is a remarkable current in the Ocean, of a circular form, beginning on the coast of Africa, in the climates where
he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my country.nen pointed as they passed, and said, “ Logan is the friend of white men.” I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not sparing even my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have fought it: I have killed many : I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbour a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? -Not one."
Of their bravery and address in war they have given us multiplied proofs. No people in the world have higher notions of military honour than the Indians. The fortitude, the calmness, and even exultation which they manifeft while under the extremelt torture, is in part owing to their savage insensibility, but more to their exalted ideas of military glory, and their rude notions of future happiness, which they believe they shall forfeit by the least manifeftation of fear, or uneasiness, under their sufferings. They are fincere in their friendships, but bitter and determined in their resentments, and often pursue their enemies several hundred miles through the woods, surmounting every difficulty, in order to be revenged. In their public councils they observe the greatest decorum. In the foremost rank fit the old men, who are the countellors, then the warriors, and next the women and children. As they keep no records, it is the business of the women to notice every thing that passes, to imprint it on their memories, and tell it to their children. They are, in fhort, the records of the council; and with surprising exactness, preserve the ftipulations of treaties entered into a hundred years back. Their kindnels and hospitality is scarcely equalled by any civilized nation. Their politeness in conversation is even carried to excess, since it does not allow them to contradie any thing that is asserted in their presence. In short there appears to be much truth in Dr. Franklin's observation, “ We call them lavages, because their manners differ from ours, which we think the perfection of civility; they think the same of theirs.”
The firft peopling of America.] It has long been a question among the curious, how America was first peopled. Various have been the theories and speculations of ingenious men upon this subject. Dr. Robertson * bas recapitulated and canvafled the most probable of these theories, and the refolt is,
1. That America was not peopled by any nation from the ancient continent, which had made any confiderable progress in civilization; because when America was first discovered, its inhabitants were unacquainted with the necessary arts of life, which are the first eslays of the human mind toward improvement; and if they had ever been acquainted with them, for instance with the plow, the loom, and the forge, their utility would have been so great and obvious, that it is impossible they should have * Hist. America, Vol. I, Page 22, C 2