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Immediately after the interment of the corpse, the members of the Cincinnati held a meeting in Savannah, and resolved, • That in token of the high respect and veneration in which the society hold the memory of their late illustrious brother, Major-General Greene, deceased, George Washington Greene, his eldest son, be admitted a member of this fociety, to take his seat on his arriving at the age of eighteen years. This son of the General's lately embarked for France, to receive his education with George Washington, son of the Marquis de la Fayette, that aćtive and illustrious friend of America.
General Greene left behind him a wife and five children, the eldest of whom, who has been juft mentioned, is about thirteen years old.
On Tuesday, the 12th of August, the United States in Congress assembled came to the following resolution : • That a monument be erected to the memory
of Nathaniel Greene, Esq. at the seat of federal government, with the following inscription:
Sacred to the Memory of
who departed this Life,
in Honour of his
have erected this monument.
NOTE (D) for Page 112.
HE enthusiastic zeal and great services of the Marquis de la Fayette,
a particular derail. At the age of nineteen he espoused the cause of America, with all the ardor which the most generous philanthroру could inspire. At a very early period of the war, he determined to embark from his native country, for the United States. Before he could complete his intention, intelligence arrived in Europe, that the American insurgents, reduced to two thousand men, were flying through Jersey before a British force of thirty thousand regulars. This news so effectually extinguished the little credit which America had in Europe, in the beginning of the year 1777, that the commissioners of Congress at Paris, though they had previously encouraged this project, could not procure a vessel to forward his intentions. Under these circumstances they though t it but honest to dissuade him from the present profecution of his perilous enterprise. It was in vain they acted so candid a part. The flame which America had kindled in his breast, could not be extinguished by her
misfortunes. · Hitherto,' said he, in the true spirit of patriotism, I • have only cherished your cause—now I am going to serve it. The • lower it is in the opinion of the people, the greater will be the effect of
my departure; and since you cannot get a vesel, I fhall purchase and • fit out one to carry your dispatches to Congress and myself to America.' He accordingly embarked and arrived at Charleston early in the year 1777; Congress soon conferred on him the rank of major-general. He accepted the appointment, but not without exacting two conditions, which difplayed the elevation of his fpirit: the one, that he hould serve on his own expence; the other, that he Mould begin his fervices as a volunteer.
He was soon appointed to command an expedition to Canada. The plan was to cross the lakes on the ice ; the object, to seize Montreal and St. John's. He was now at the age of twenty, and must have keenly experienced the allurements of independent command ; but his cool judgment, and honest heart, restrained him from indulging a passion for military fame, under circumstances that might have injured the cause which he had so zealously espoused. He found that, in case of his proceeding, the army under his command would be in danger of experiencing a fate similar to that of the unfortunate Burgoyne. With a boldness of judgment, that would have done honor to the most experienced general, and without advancing beyond Albany, he relinquished the expedition. Soon after, he received the thanks of Congress for his prudence.
In the four campaigns which succeeded the arrival of the marquis de la Fayette in America, he gave repeated proofs of his military talents, in the middle and eastern states ; but the events that took place under his .command in Virginia, deserve particular notice.
Early in the year 1781, while the war raged to the southward of Virginia, the marquis de la Fayette was detached on an expedition against Portsmourh; but here his active zeal received a check, no less fatal to his hopes than when he was obliged to relinquish the expedition to Canada. The engagement near the capes of the Chesapeek, between the French chef d'escadre d'Estouches, and the British admiral Arbuthnot, which took place on the fifth of March, 1781, defeated the enterprise. Upon this event, he marched back to the Head of Elk, where he received an order from General Washington to return to Virginia, to oppose General Philips, who had joined General Arnold at Portsmouth. Although the troops under his command were in want of almost every thing, he nevertheless proceeded with them to Baltimore. Here he learned that General Philips was urging preparations to embark at Portsmouth, with upwards of three thouland men. With the Marquis de la Fayetre it was a moment of extreme distress and embarrassment. In his whole command, there was not one pair of shoes; but the love and confidence he had universally excited, enabled him to obtain a loan of money, which procured him fome necessaries for his troops, and gave renewed vigor to his march. lie supposed Richmond to be the object of General Philips, and therefore marched thither with fo great expedition, that he arrived at that place the evening before General Philips. He was joined the first night after his arrival by Major-General Baron Steuben, with a corps of militia. In this manner was the capital of Virginia, at that time filled with almoit
all the military stores of the state, saved from the most imminent danger, The British appeared the next morning at Manchester, just opposite to Richmond. The two armies surveyed each other for fome time, and then General Philips, apprehending it to be too liazardous to attack the Marquis de la Fayette in his strong position, very prudently retired.
Such was the great superiority of numbers, by the combination of the forces under General Arnold, General Philips, and Lord Cornwallis-fo fatal to all the southern states would have been the conquest of Virginiathat the Marquis de la Fayette had before him a labour of the lutt consequence, and was pressed on all sides by innumerable difficulties.
In the first moments of the rising tempeft, and until he could provide against its utmost rage, he began to retire with his little army, which consisted of about a thousand regulars, two thousand militia, and fixty dragoons. Lord Cornwallis, exulting in the prospect of success, which he thought to be heightened by the youth of his opponent, incautiously wrote to Great-Britain, that the boy could not escape him.' The engagement, however, which was to confirm his promise, was sedulously avoided. Finding it impossible to force an action, he next endeavoured to cut off the communication of the Marquis de la Fayette with General Wayne, who, with eight hundred Pennfylvanians, was advancing from the northward. The junction, however, was effected at Rackoon Ford, without lofs. The next object of Lord Cornwallis, was to get possession of the American stores, which, for their greater security, had been removed from Richmond to Albemarle old court-house, above the Point of Fork. While the troops commanded by the Marquis de la Fayette and General Wayne were forming a junction, Lord Cornwallis had gotten between them and their public itores. The possession of these was a principal object with both armies. The Marquis de la Fayette, by forced marches, got within a few miles of the British army, when they were yet distant two days march from Albemarle old court-house. Once more the British general considered himself sure of his adversary. To save the stores he knew was his design, but to accomplish that object, his lordship faw no practical way but by a road, in paling which, the American army might be attacked to great advantage. It was a critical moment, but the Mar. quis de la Fayette had the good fortune to extricate himself. He opened in the night, by part of his army, a nearer road to Albemarle, which, having been many years disused, was much embarrafled, and, to the astonishment of Lord Cornwallis, posted himself in a strong position the next day betwcen the British army and the American stores.
His lordship, finding all his schemes frustrated, fell back to Richmond, whither he was followed by the Marquis de la Fayette. The main American army in Virginia was now reinforced by the troops under MajorGeneral Baron Steuben, and by volunteer corps of Virginia and Maryland gentlemen. And the Marquis de la Fayette had the address to imprefs Lord Cornwallis with an idea, that his force was much greater than he actually cominanded. His lordihip, therefore, retreated to Williamfburg.
After a feries of manæuvres, which it is not necessary to relate, and in which the British general displayed the boldness of enterprize, and the young marquis the found judgment of age, blended with the ardour of
youth, the former fixed himself and his army at York-town. The latter, under various pretences, fent the Pennfylvania troops to the south side of James River; collected a force in Gloucester county, and made fundry arrangements subfervient to the grand design of the whole campaign, which was the capture of Lord Cornwallis, and the British army under his command.
Sometime after the capture of Cornwallis, the Marquis de la Fayette went to France, where he successfully used his endeavours to promote the commercial and political interest of these states.
Pennsylvania, in order to show her esteem for this gallant nobleman, has lately erected part of her western territory into a separate county, and named it FAYETTE.
NEW ENGL A N D. THI
HE ftates east of New-York, were formerly called the New-Engo
land Colonies : They are still known by the general name of NewEngland. Several things are common to them all. Their religion, manners, cuftoms, and character; their climate, foil, productions, natural history, &c. are in many respects similar. Many of the historical events which took place in their settlement, and in their progress until the year 1692, are intimately connected. These confiderations have led to the following general description of New-England.
As the territory of Vermont was included in some of the original patents granted by the Plymouth Company, and was settled wholly from New-England, it is considered as a part of it, and included in the following account.
Ε Χ Τ Ε Ν Τ.
miles. Length 350 Breadth 140
s 41° and 46° North Latitude.
1° 30' and 8° East Longitude.
Boundaries.] New-England is bounded, north by Canada; east by Nova-Scotia and the Atlantic ocean ; south by the Atlantic and Long Illand Sound, and weft by New-York. It lies in the form of a quarter of a circle. Its west line, beginning at the mouth of Byram river, which empties into Long Island Sound, at the south-west corner of Connecticut, latitude 41°, runs a little east of north, until it strikes the 45th degree of latitude, and then curves to the eastward almost to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Civil divisions.] New-England is divided into five states, viz. NewHampshire, Matsachusetts, Rhode Inland, Connecticut, and Vermont, Theie states are subdivided into counties, and the counties into townships.
Face of the country', mountains, &c.] New-England is a high, hilly, and in some parts a mountainous country, formed by nature to be inhabited by a hardy race of free, independent republicans.—The mountains are comparatively small, running nearly north and south in ridges parallel to each other. 'Between these ridges, flow the great rivers in majestic meanders, receiving the innumerable rivulets and larger streams which proceed from the mountains on each side. To a spectator on the top of a neighbouring mountain, the vales between the ridges, while in a ffate of nature, exhibit a romantic appearance. They seem an ocean of woods, fwelled and depressed in its surface like that of the great ocean itself. A richer, though less romantic view, is presented, when the vallies, by indurtrious husbandmen, have been cleared of their natural growth; and the fruit of their labour appears in loaded orchards, extensive meadows, covered