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tary atchivements, is not less edifying in example, or worthy the attention of his countrymen. The conspicuous character he has acted on the theatre of human affairs, the uniform dignity with which he sustained his part amidst difficulties of the most discouraging nature, and the glory of kaving arrived through them at the hour of triumph, have made many official and literary persons, on both sides of the ocean, ambitious of a correspondence with him. These correspondencies unavoidably engrofs a great portion of his time; and the communications contained in them, combined with the numerous periodical publications and newspapers which he peruses, render him, as it were, the focus of political intelligence for the new world. Nor are his conversations with well-informed men leľs conducive to bring him acquainted with the various events which happen in different countries of the globe. Every foreigner of distinction, who travels in America, makes it a point to visit him. Members of Congress, and other dignified persons, do not pafs his house, without calling to pay their respects. As another source of information it may be mentioned, that many literary productions are sent to him annually by their authors in Europe ; and that there is scarcely one work written in America on any art, science, or subject, which does not seek his protection, or which is not offered to him as a token of gratitude. Mechanical inventions are frequently submitted to him for his approbation, and natural curiosities presented for his investigation. But the multiplicity of epiftolary applications, often on the remains of some business which happened when he was commander in chief, sometimes on subjects foreign to his situation, frivolous in their nature, and intended merely to gratify the vanity of the writers by drawing answers from him, is truly distressing, and almost incredible. His benignity in answering, perhaps, increases the number. Did he not husband every moment to the best advantage, it would not be in his power to notice the vast variety of subjects that claim his attention. Here a minuter description of his domestic life may be expected.
To apply a life, at best but short, to the most useful purposes, he lives, as he ever has done, in the unvarying habits of regularity, temperance and industry. He rises, in winter as well as summer, at the dawn of day; and generally reads or writes some time before breakfast. He breakfasts about seven o'clock, on three small Indian hoe-cakes and as many dishes of tea. He rides immediately to his different farms, and remains with his labourers until a little past two o'clock, when he returns and dresses. At three he dines, commonly on a single dish, and drinks from half a pint to a pint of Madeira wine. This, with one small glass of punch, a draught of beer, and two dishes of tea (which he takes half an hour before sun-setting) constitutes his whole fuftenance until the next day. Whether there be company or not, the table is always prepared by its elegance and exuberance for their reception; and the general remains at it for an hour after dinner, in familiar conversation and convivial hilarity. It is then that every one present is called upon to give fome absent friend as a toaft; the name not unfrequently awakens a pleasing remembrance of past events, and gives a new turn to the animated colloquy. General Washington is more chearful than he was in the army. Although his temper is rather of a serious caft, and his countenance commonly carries the impression of thoughtfulnels, yet
he perfectly relishes a pleasant story, an unaffected fally of wit, or a burlesque description which surprises by its suddenness and incongruity with the ordinary appearance of the object described. After this fociable and innocent relaxation, he applies himself to business, and about nine o'clock retires to reft. This is the roiine, and this the hour he observes, when no one but his family is present; at other times he attends politely upon his company until they wish to withdraw. Notwithstanding he has no offspring, his actual family consists of eight persons *. It is seldom alone. He keeps a pack of hounds, and in the season indulges himself with hunting once a week; at which diversion the gentlemen of Alexandria often allift.
AGRICULTURE is the favourite employment of General Washington, in which he wishes to pass the remainder of his days. To acquire and communicate practical knowledge, he corresponds with Mr. Arthur Young, who has written so sensibly on the subject, and also with many agricultural gentlemen in America. As improvement is known to be his passion, he receives envoys with rare seeds and results of new projects from every quarter. He likewise makes copious notes, relative to his own experiments, the state of the seasons, the nature of soils, the effects of different kinds of manure, and such other topics as may throw light on the farming bufiness.
On Saturday in the afternoon, erery week, reports are made by all his overseers, and registered in books kept for the purpose : so that at the end of the year, the quantity of labour and produce may be accurately known. Order and æconomy are established in all the departments within and without doors. His lands are inclosed in lots of equal dimensions, and crops are assigned to each for many years. Every thing is undertaken on a great scale; but with a view to introduce or augment the culture of such articles as he conceives will become most beneficial in their consequence to the country.
He has, the lait year, raised two hundred lambs, sowed twenty-seven bushels of flax-feed, and planted more than seven hundred buhels of potatoes. In the mean time, the public may reft persuaded that there is manufactured, under his roof, linen and woollen cloth, nearly or quite sufficient for the use of his numerous houshold.
Note (B) for Page 105.
north of Ireland, and was born in the year 1737. His attachment to liberty was innate, and matured by a fine education and an excellent understanding. Having married a wife, and purchased an estate in New-York, he was from these circumitances, as well as from his natural
* The family of General Washington, in addition to the General, and his Lady, confifts of Major George Waihington, (Nephew to the General and late did de Camp to the Marquis de la Fayette) with his wife, who is a niece to the Gencral's Lady-Col. Humphreys, formerly Aid de Camp to the General-Mr. Lear, a gentleman of liberal education, private secretary to the General--and i wo Grandchildren of Mrs. Washington,
love of freedom, and from a conviction of the justness of her cause, induced to consider himself as an American. From principle, he early embarked in her cause, and quitted the sweets of ealy fortune, the enjoyment of a loved and philosophical rural life, with the highest domestic felicity, to take an active share in all the hardships and dangers that attend the foldier's life.
Before he came over to America, he had been an officer in the service of England, and had successfully fought her battles with the immortal Wolfe at Quebec, in the war of 1756, on the very spot, where, when fighting under the standard of freedom, he was doomed to fall in arms againit her. No one who fell a martyr to freedom in this unnatural conteft, was more sincerely, or more universally lamented. And what is extraordinary, the most eminent speakers in the British parliament, forgetting for the moment, that he had died in opposing their cruel and opprelive measures, displayed all their eloquence in praising his virtues, and lamenting his fate. A great orator, and a veteran fellow-foldier of his in the French war of 1756, shed abundance of tears, while he expatiated on their fast friendship and mutual exchange of tender services in that season of enterprize and glory.
All enmity to this veteran soldier expired with his life; and respect to his private character prevailed over all other confiderations. By the orders of General Carleton, his dead body received every posible mark of diftinction from the victors, and was interred in Quebec, on the first day of January 1776, with all the honors due to a brave soldier.
Congress were not unmindful of the merit of this amiable and brave officer, nor remiss in manifesting the esteem and respect they entertained for his memory. Considering it not only as a tribute of gratitude juftly due to the memory of those who have peculiarly distinguished themfelves in the glorious cause of liberty, to perpetuate their names by the most durable monuments erected to their honor, but greatly conducive to inspire pofterity with emulation of their illuítrious actions, that honourable body
“ Resolved, That to express the veneration of the United Colonies for their late General, RICHARD MONTGOMERY, and the deep sense they entertain of the many fignal and important services of that gallant officer, who, after a series of successes, amidst the most discouraging difficulties, fell at length in a gallant attack upon Quebec, the capital of Canada; and to transmit to future ages, as examples truly worthy of imitation, his patriotism, conduct, boldness of enterprize, insuperable perseverance, and contempt of danger and death ; a monument be procured from Paris, or other part of France, with an inscription sacred to his memory, and expressive of his amiable character, and heroic atchievements, and that the continental treasurers be directed to advance a sum not exceeding 300l. sterling, to Dr. Benjamin Franklin, who is desired to see this resolution properly executed, for defraying the expence thereof."
This resolve was carried into execution at Paris, by that ingenious artist, Mr. Caffiers, sculptor to the king of France, under the direction of Dr. Franklin. The monument is of white marble, of the most beautiful fimplicity, and inexpressible elegance, with emblematical devices, and the following truly classical inscription, worthy of the modeft, but great mind of a Franklin.
TO THE GLORY OF
Slain at the fiege of Quebec,
the 31st of December, 1775, aged 38 years. This elegant monument has lately been erected in front of St. Paul's church in New York.
There is a remarkable circumstance connected with the fall of this brave officer, that merits to be recorded, because the fact is of a very interesting nature, and will serve to perpetuate the memory of a very arniable and deserving character, who was also a martyr in the cause of his country. The circumstance is this:
One of General Montgomery's Aides de Camp, was Mr. Macpherson, a most promising young man, whose father resided at Philadelphia, and was greatly diftinguithed in privateering in the war of 1756. This gentleinan had a brother in the 16th regiment, in the British service, at the time of Montgomery's expedition into Canada, and who was as violent in favour of the English government, as this General's Aid de Camp was enthusiastic in the cause of America ; the latter had accompanied his General a day or two previous to the attack in which they both lost their lives, to view and meditate on the spot where Wolfe had fallen; on his return he found a letter from his brother, the English officer, full of the bitterest reproaches against him, for having entered into the American fervice, and containing a pretty direct with, that if he would not abandon it, he might meet with the deserved fate of a rebel. The Aid de Camp immediately returned him an answer, full of strong reasoning in defence of his conduct, but by no means attempting to shake the opposite principles of his brother, and not only free from acrimony, but full of expreslions of tenderness and affection; this letter he dated, “ from the spot where Wolfe loft his life, in fighting the cause of England, in friendship with America.” This letter had scarcely reached the officer at New-York, before it was followed by the news of his brother's death. The effect was instantaneous, nature, and perhaps reason prevailed ; a thousand, not unworthy sentiments, rushed upon his distressed mind; he quitted the Englith service, entered into that of America, and sought every occasion of distinguishing himself in her service!
Note (C) for Page 111.
Illand, about the year 1741, of reputable parents, belonging to the Society of Friends. He was endowed with an uncommon degree of judgment and penetration, his disposition was benevolent; and his manners affable. At an early period of life, he was chosen a member of the affembly, and he discharged his trust to the entire satisfaction of his conítituents.
After the battle of Lexington, three regiments of troops were raised in Rhode Island, and the command of them given to Mr. Greene, who was
nominated a Brigadier General, His merit and abilities both in council and in the field, were soon noticed by General Washington, and in August 1776, he was appointed Major-General. In the furprise at Trenton, and the battle of Princeton, General Greene distinguished himself; and in the action of Germantown, in 1777, he commanded the left wing of the American army, where he exerted himself to retrieve the fortune of
At the battle of Brandywine, General Greene distinguished himself by fupporting the right wing of the American army, when it gave way, and judiciously covering the whole, when routed and retreating in confusion; and their fatety from utier ruin, was generally ascribed to his skill and exertions, which were seconded by the troops under his command.
In March, 1778, he was appointed Quarter-master General, an office he accepted on condition of not losing his rank in the line, and his right to command in action according to his feniority. In the execution of this office, he fully answered the expectations formed of his abilities, and enabled the army to move with additional celerity and vigour.
At the battle of Monmouth, the commander in chief, disgusted with the behaviour of General Lee, deposed him in the field of battle, and appointed General Greene to command the right wing, where he greatly contributed to retrieve the errors of his predecessor, and to the subsequent event of the day.
He served under General Sullivan in the attack on the British Garrison at Rhode-Island, where his prudence and abilities were displayed in fecuring the retreating army,
In 1980 he was appointed to the command of the southern army, which was much reduced by a series of ill fortune. By his amazing diligence, address and fortitude, he foon collected a respectable force, and revived the hopes of our southern brethren,
Under his management, General Morgan gained a complete victory over Colonel Tarleton. He attacked Lord Cornwallis at Guilford, in North-Carolina, and although defeated, he checked the progress, and disabled the army of the British General. A similar fate attended Lord Rawdon, who gained an advantage over him at Cumden.
His action with the British troops at Eutaw Springs was one of the best conducted, and most successful engagements that took place during the war. For this General Greene was honored by Congress with a British standard and a gold medal. As a reward for his particular services in the southern department, the state of Georgia presented him with a large and valuable tract of land on an island near Savannah.
After the war, he returned to his native state; the contentions and bad policy of that state, induced him to leave it, and retire to his estate in Georgia.
He removed his family in October 1785; but in June the next fummer, the extreme heat, and the fatigue of a walk, brought on a disorder that put a period to his life, on the 19th of the fame month. He lived universally loved and respected, and his death was universally lamented.
His body was interred in Savannah, and the funeral procession attended by the Cincinnati.