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C EOGRAPHY is a science describing the surface of the earth U as divided into land and water.
Geography is either universal, as it relates to the earth in general ; or particular, as it relates to any single part.
The globe of the earth is made up of land and water, and is therefore called terraqueous. About one fourth of the surface of the globe is land; the other three-fourths are water.
The common divisions of the land and water are as follow : The divisions of land are, The divisions of water are, I. Into Continents.] A continent 1. Into Oceans.] An ocean is a is a large tract of land, compre- vast collection of water, not entirehending several countries and king-ly feparated by land, and divides one doms. Thefe countries, &c. are continent from the other. There contiguous to each other, and are are three great oceans. The Atnot entirely feparated by water. Lantic, lying between America and There are but two continents, the Europe, three thousand miles wide. eastern and western. The eastern The Pacific, lving between Alia continent is divided into Europe, and America, ten thousand miles Asia and Africa; the western into over. The Indian-Ocean, lying beNorth and South America, tween Africa and the Eatt Indies,
three thousand miles wide. . II. Ipands.] An island is a tract) II. Lakes.] A lake is a large cola of land entirely surrounded by wa-lection of water in the heart of a ter; as Rhode Island, Hispaniola, country surrounded by land. Most Great Britain, Ireland, New Zea-of then, however, have a river issuland, Borneo, Japan, &c. ing from them, which falls into the
ocean; as Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, &c. A small collection of water, surrounded as above, is called
a pond. III. Peninsulas.] A peninsula is III. Seas.] A sea or gulf is a almost an island, or a tract of land part of the ocean, surrounded by furrounded by water, excepting at|land excepting a narrow pass, called one narrow neck; as Boston, the a strait, by which it communicates Morea, Crim Tartary, and Arabia. with the ocean; as the Mediter
ranean, Baltic and Red Seas; and
the gulfs of Mexico, St. Lawrence IV.Jand Venice.
IV. Ihmuffes.] An isthmus is al IV. Straits.] A strait is a narnarrow neck of land joining a pe-row passage out of one fea into ninsula to the main land; as the ifth- another; as the Straits of Gibralmus of Darien, which joins North tar, joining the Mediterranean to the and South America; and the ifth-Atlantic; the Straits of Babelmanmas of Seuz, which unites Asia and del, which unite the Red Sea with Africa.
the Indian Ocean.
DISCOVERY of A MERIC A. IT is believed by many, and not without some reason, that America I was known to the ancients. Of this, however, history affords no certain evidence. Whatever discoveries may have been made in this western world, by Madoc Gwinneth, the Carthaginians and others, are loft to mankind. The eastern continent was the only theatre of history from the creation of the world to the year of our Lord 1492.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, a native of Genoa, has deservedly the ho. nour of having first discovered America. From a long and close application to the study of geography and navigation, for which his genius was naturally inclined, Columnbus had obtained a knowledge of the true figure of the earth, much superior to the general notions of the age in which he lived. In order that the terraqueous globe might be properly balanced, and the lands and seas proportioned to each other, he was led to conceive that another continent was necessary. Other reasons induced him to believe that this continent was connected with the East Indies.
As early as the year 1474, he coinmunicated his ingenious theory to Paul, a phyfician of Florence, eminent for his knowledge of cosmography,