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men, and greatly loving peace; namely, three or four pastors, with two or three other proper persons, professing the reformed religion, might be deputed, who in the aforementioned national Synod, according to the laws constituted by them, (a copy of which they transmitted,) might examine those controversies and take them away, truth being preserved, (or safe, salva veritate.) To the Gallo-Belgic churches also (of French Flanders,) which used to constitute a peculiar Synod among themselves, seeing they had been dispersed through all these provinces, they addressed letters of the same kind. These letters having been received, the Illustrious the States of each of the provinces, called together the provincial or particular Synods of their own churches; in which the grievances might be proposed which were to be carried to the national Synod, the persons to be sent out to the same be deputed, and the commands with which these were to be furnished, framed by the common suffrages of the churches. These things were transacted in each of the provinces, in the manner hitherto in use in these reformed churches; except that in Holland and in the province of Utrecht, because of the very great number of the Remonstrants, the customary method could not in all things be observed. For when in Holland separations had been made in some of the classes, so that the Remonstrants held their own class-meetings apart, and the other pastors their's also; it seemed proper to the most Illustrious the States of that province, that of the classes, in which a separation of this kind had not been made, four should be deputed by the majority of votes, in the manner hitherto customary, who with the ordinary power might be sent forth to the particular Synod; but in the other classes, for the sake of avoiding confusion, the Remonstrants should appoint two, and the other pastors in like manner two, who might be sent with equal power to the particular Synod. In the province of Utrecht, the churches had not been distributed into certain classes; wherefore it pleased the most Illustrious the States of that province, that all the Remonstrants should meet together apart in one Synod; but the rest of the pastors, who did not follow the opinion of the Remonstrants, of whom there still remained no small number, in another (Synod ;) and that from each Synod and party, three should be sent forth to the national Synod with the power of judging. But the church of Utrecht, as it had been torn asunder into parties, of which the one followed the opinion of the Remonstrants, but the other disapproved of it; and this (party) recently set

at liberty from the oppression of the Remonstrants, had not made provision for stated pastors, but used at that time the ministry of John Dipetzius, a pastor of Dort; it so happened that he was lawfully deputed by another Synod, in the name of the churches of Utrecht, which did not follow the opinion of the Remonstrants. But when the Synod of the churches of Gueldria and Zutphan, had been assembled at Arnhem, the Remonstrant deputies from the class of Bommellien refused to sit along with the rest, unless previously certain conditions had been performed to them, which the Synod judged to be opposed to the decree of the Illustrious the States. And when ten articles had before this been offered by the Remonstrants of the class of Neomage, Bommelli, and Tiel, to the Illustrious the States of Gueldria, and to the counsellors of the same, which they intimated to be taught by the rest of the pastors; it had been enjoined on them, that they should publicly name those pastors who taught these things, in order that they might be cited before the Synod, that it might in a legal manner be examined, whether the matter were so indeed. For it was evident (constabat) that those articles had been framed by the Remonstrants in a calumniating manner, in order to excite odium (ad conflandam invidiam) against the rest of the pastors, before the Supreme magistracy. But they were not able to name any one in the whole province, except the pastor of Hattemis, who had abundantly cleared himself to the class; and when the Synod nevertheless was willing to cite him, that he might be heard before them, the Remonstrants no further pressed it. Certainly Henry Arnoldi, a pastor of Delph, who was present in the name of the churches of South Holland, declared that there was no one in South Holland who approved or taught these things.* Therefore the Synod severely reproved them for these atrocious calumnies; and at the same time declared, that the churches of Gueldria did not embrace or approve the doctrine contained in these articles, as it was set forth by them; though there were in them some sentences, which, taken apart, and in an accommodating sense, could not be disap

* In like manner it is at this day confidently asserted by writers, who, on one account or another, are regarded as worthy of credit; and thus it is generally believed, that there are a numerous set of men in Britain, called Calvinists, or Methodists, or evangelical preachers, who preach doctrines, defined and stated by the writers, and justly deemed absurd and pernicious; who, if they were thus authoritatively called on to prove their assertions, would scarcely be able to substantiate the charge on one individual of the whole company.

proved. Then at length, having confessed the crime of a calumny into which they had been driven (impacta calumniæ,) they requested forgiveness of it (eam deprecati sunt.) There was then drawn up in the same Synod, a state of the controversy between the Remonstrants and the rest of the pastors, which afterwards was exhibited to the national Synod. And as, there were many pastors in that province, of whom some had been suspected of various other errors besides the five articles of the Remonstrants, others had illegally intruded into the ministry, and finally others were of profligate life; some of them having been cited before the Synod, for these causes were suspended from the ministry; but by no means because of the opinion contained in the five articles of the Remonstrants, which were reserved to the national Synod. The cause of the rest, having been left in the name of the Synod, was referred to some persons deputed by it, to whom the Illustrious the States likewise joined their own delegates. These causes, having been fully examined their classes, they suspended certain of them from their ministry, and others they entirely removed.

In the mean while the Illustrious the States General, when they had several times commanded those of Utrecht especially, to dismiss the new soldiers, and those who, it appeared, had been levied for this purpose also, that the execution of the decrees of the future national Synod, if perhaps the Remonstrants could not approve of them, might be hindered by an armed force; determined that all these soldiers, of which there were now some thousands, should, as soon as possible, be disbanded and discharged by their authority. And when this measure had been carried into effect by the most Illustrious the Prince of Orange, with incredible fortitude of soul, prudence, dexterity, and promptitude, without any effusion of blood; and their principal officers, who had endeavored by force to resist this disbanding of them, had been committed to custody; John Utenbogardus, James Taurinus, and Adolphus Venator, conscious in themselves of criminality, (male sibi conscii,) having deserted their churches, fled out of federated Belgium; as likewise did a short time after Nicolas Grevinchovius, having been cited by the court of Holland to plead his own cause. And when a particular Synod in South Holland had been called at Delph, most of the Remonstrants, despising the before mentioned decree of the Illustrious the States, refused to depute any person to the Synod; and, haying presented a little suppliant book (libello supplica) to the

Illustrious the States of Holland and West Friezland, they petitioned that, instead of the national Synod now proclaimed, another convention instituted according to the same twelve conditions, which those who were cited afterwards laid before the national Synod, might be called. The Illustrious the States, having heard the judgment of the Synod of Delph concerning this demand, (which also was inserted in these acts,) commanded them to obey the constituted order, and the mandates of the Illustrious the States; and moreover, fully to state their opinion comprised in writing, concerning the articles proposed in the conference at Delph, in the year 1613; and to add all their considerations, which they had respecting the Confession and Catechism of these churches. They exhibited the declaration of their opinion on the before mentioned articles, which afterwards, having been translated into Latin by the delegates of this Synod, was communicated to the national Synod: but, in the place of considerations, they sent some things gathered out of the writings of certain learned men, as if opposite to the Confession and the Catechism.

Before this Synod, John Utenbogardus, and Nicolas Grevinchovius were cited: and when the former, as a fugitive (profugus,) dared not to appear, but the latter contumaciously refused, the accusations produced against them having been examined, each of them was, by the judgment of this Synod, removed from the ecclesiastical ministry. But when in South Holland, besides these two, there were many others, of whom the most, in these dissentions, had been obtruded on unwilling churches, without a lawful vocation; and others, who besides these five articles, had moreover scattered many Socinian errors, others had grievously offended the churches by wicked and turbulent actions, and others finally led a profane life; it was judged necessary, in order that the churches should be purified from these scandals, and the discipline of the clergy as it is called, which had fallen into decay, should at length be restored, that all these disorderly (alaxr85) pastors should be cited, that they might render before the Synod, an account, as well of their vocation, as of their doctrine, and also of their life; which seemed proper to be done, even for this cause also, before the national Synod, that if perhaps any should deem themselves aggrieved by the sentence of the Synod, or its deputies, they might appeal to the judgment (of the national Synod.) Certain of these appeared, whose causes having been duly examined, some of them were suspended from

their office, and other wholly set aside. But as to those, who because of the shortness of the time, having been cited, could not be heard, and those, who, having been cited, had not appeared; five pastors were deputed, to whom the Illustrious the States joined also three deputies, who might take cognizance of their cause, and give sentence upon it in the name of the Synod. But it was expressly enjoined to these deputies, not to fix any censure on any one, because of the opinion expressed in the five articles of the Remonstrants; forasmuch as the judgment concerning the same had been reserved entire to the national Synod. But they, though they every where, on the afore mentioned most weighty causes, even during the national Synod, suspended many, partly from the office of teaching, and partly entirely set them aside; yet marked no one with any censure because of the opinion of the five articles, as it may be evidently shewn from their very acts.* In North Holland, matters were conducted after the same method, in the Synod of Horn, in which the pastors of Horn, John Valesius, John Rodingenus, and Isaac Welsingius, having been suspended from the office of teaching, appealed to the national Synod. And when the deputies of this Synod, along with the delegates of the Illustrious the States, examined, in the Class of Alcmar, the cause of John Geystran, a pastor of Alcmar, and of Peter Geystran, his brother, a pastor of Egmond; it was detected, that they had been evidently addicted to the blasphemous and execrable errors of Socinus, as it appears from their own confession; which, because it was publicly read in the national Synod, with the horror of all men, is likewise inserted in these acts. In the Synod of the Transisulanian churches, some of the Remonstrants were commanded to render an account of their doctrine and actions; and when among them four pastors of the church of Campe, Thomas Goswin, Assuerus Matthisius, John Scotlerus, and above all Everard Vosculius, had been accused of many errors, and of various turbulent actions; the cause having been examined, it seemed good to reserve it for the national Synod; even as it was afterwards brought before the same. In the other provinces, because no manifest Remonstrants were found, the Synods there held, duly prepared all things with less labor, after the accustomed manner, for the national Synod.

*The appeal is thus made to the registered acts of these deputies evidently because they had been, or were likely to be misrepresented by the favorers of the Remonstrants; as, beyond doubt, they generally have been to this very day.

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