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so many Ferdousi, a little kingdoms. Persian Matilda, daugh- poet. ter of Boniface, Roscellin. duke of Tus- John the phicany, leaves all losopher. her possessions John Curoto the church of palata, one Rome, in con of the Bysequence of her zantine hiss passionate attorians. tachment to Hildebrand, otherwise known by the papalit name of Gregory VII. with whom she lived in a licentious

commerce. Sicily, Castile,

Poland, and
Hungary, are
erected into
The kingdom of

Burgundy and
Arles is transfer-
red to the em-
peror Conrad II.
by Rodolph
king of Bur-

Οι εταίροις gundy. Several of the popes are looked

andals upon as magicians, as, in these times of darkness, learning, and more especially philosophy and mathematics, were considered as magic.

NG Investitures in

troduced in this century. Papal tyranny

is nobly opposed by the emperors Henry I. II. and III.

ge by William I. king of England, LA and other mon

Kings of

England. Ethelred II.

1016) Edmond Ironside

1017 Canute the

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Emperors of Pascal II. Anselm Gilbert, ab- The Bogo-The Sclavonians Anselm of the East.


1109 botof West- miles and and the inhabi- Laon. A.D. Anti-Popes, Ralph 1122 minster. Catharists tants of the is- Vacarius. Alexis I. Clement, William de Guibert, were a kind land of Rugen Leoninus,

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de vid's.

Compen. Albert, Corhoil Sigebert of of Mani- receive the light the sup1118] Theodore,

1130 Gemblours. cheans. of the Gospel, posed introJohn II, and Ma. Theobald Peter Al The Pasagi- and their ex. ducer of Comnen. ginulph.

1161 phonso. nians were ample is follow. Latin 1143 Gelasius II. Thomas Odo of Or- a kind of ed by the Li-rhymes. Emanuel

1119 Becket leans. Arians, who vonians and Fin- Roger HoveComnen. Calistus II. 1170 Godfrey of also discu-l landers.

1124 Richard Vendôme.


The state of af. Juhn of Saa Alexis II. Honorius II. 1183 Rupert of strange at. fairs in Asiatic lisbury. Connen. 1130 Baldwin Duitz. tachment

Tartary changes William of 1183) Innocent II. 1191 Baldric. to the cere-l in favor of the MalmesAndronicus

1113 Reginald Arnulph, monial law Christians, byl bury. Comnen. Celestine 11. Fitz-Jocelin bishop

of of Moses. the elevation of John Zona. 1185 1144 1191 Lisieux. Eon, a mad. Prester-John.

ras. Isaac II. Lucius II. Hubert Fitz Bernard of man, rather The Crusade is George Ce. Ang. 119)

1145 Walter. Clairval. than a he renewed. drenus, Alexis Ill. Eugenius



The kingdom of John Cinna, 1153

The same

Jerusalem is mus.

Emp-rors of

thing may overturned, and Silvester Gia the West. 1154

archbishop be said of the affairs of rald, bishop Adrian IV.

of Cauter. Tranquil the Christians in of St. Da. Henry IV. 11591




Euthymius As to Arnold cline.
Henry V.

Godfrey of III. 1181 1125

Zigab. of Brescia, A third Crusadel Viterbo.

Lucius III.

of the Petro- undertaken.

William of Lothaire II. 1185

Malmes brussians, The three famous Newburgh, 1138


Ur Conrad III.

hury. Henricians, military orders an English 1187

Jolin of Sa. Waldenses, instituied, viz. historian. 115% Frederic I. Gregory

lisbury. and Apo- The Knights of Pelagius, VIII. 1188


stulics, if al- St. John of Jeru- bishop of surnamed Clement Ill

Becket, lowance bel salem- The Barbarossa

Oviedo. 1191

archbishop made for Knights Tem- John of Mia 1191

of Canter. some few plars—The Teu-l lan, author III. 1199

bury. points, they tonic Knights of of the poem 1198

a rather
de St. Mary.

called SchoPhilip.

monk of serve Kings of

the The original MS. la SalerniSpain, i. e.

Canterbury. title of Re- of the famous tana.

Nicephorus formers and Pandect of Jus- Robert of Leon and

of Brienne. Witnesses tinian is dis- Pullein, an Castile.

Anselm, to the Truth, covered in the English car. Alphon:oVI

bishop of than that of ruins of Amal.) dinal.

Havelberg. Here:ics. phi, or Melfi, Abraham
VII. 1154

(o. Zonaras. Peter Abe when that city Aben-Ez-

lard and was taken hy ra. Alphonso

Glycas. Gilbert de Lothaire Il. in John and VIII. 1157

Hugo Victo. la Porrée 1137, and this Isaac Sancho III.

rinus. differed 1158

eniperor makes Tzetzes.

Eadınerus. from the no. Ferdinand

a present of it Henry of 1175 11.

George tions com- to the city of Hunting-
Cedrenus. monly

re. Pisa, whose fleet dun. Alphonsolx.

Peter, the ceived with had contributed, Nicetas.

Venerable. respect to in a particular Wemer.

Honorius of the Holy manner, to the Moses Kings of

Autun. Trinity success of the Maimoni. France. Foucher. The Albigen- siege.

des. Pbilip I.

Alger, 11081

ses, a branch The contest be-lAnvari, a

Henry VI. Celestine


Kings of

Englund. Henry I.

1135 Stephen

1154 Henry II.

1189 Richard I.

1199 John.

Kings of

Scotland. Edgar 1106 Alexander

1124 David 2153 Malcolm

IV. 1165 William

of the Wal-tween the em- Persian
denses, are perors and popes astronomer.
branded is renewed un- Portius Azo.
with the de- der Frederic Nestor, a
nomination Barbarossa and Russian
of Mani Adrian IV.-historian.
chæans. The insolence of Falcandus.

the popes ex-Benjamin of

Tudela, a
Becket, archbi- Spanish

shop of Canter. Jew, whose
bury, assassina- Travels
ted before the were trans-
altar, while he lated by
was at vespers in Baratiera

bis cathedral, Averroes, or The scandalous Ebn-Zohr,

traffic of indul- Eustathius, gences begun by bishop of the bishops, and Thessasoon after mono- lonica. polized by the Solomon popes.

Jarchi. The Scholastic Al-Hasen,

Theology: an Arabian, whose jargon who did such nis- posed a chief in the large work church, had its on Optics. rise in this cen- George Altury.

The seeds of the author of
Reformation the History
were sown, in of the Sara.
this century, by cens trans-
the Waldenses, lated by
and other emi. Erpenius.
nent men in Geoffrey of
England and Monmouth.

Pope Paschal II.

orders the Lord's
supper to be ad-
ministered only
in one kind, and
retrenches the

The Canon-Law

formed into a
body, by Gra-

Academical de

grees introduced in this century. Learning revives of the 17. b

Kings of

Sweden, Philip 1110 Ingo Iy.

1129 Ragwald

1140 Magnus, de. posed in

1148 Suercher

1160 Eric, the

Holy 1161 Charles

VII. 1168 Canute 11! 2 Suercher II.

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