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On the morning after this rejection, the friends of Severoli requested him to name a fit candidate for the papal throne. He replied, that, if he had sufficient influence over the election, either the cardinal Annibale della Genga, or Gregorio (an illegitimate son of Charles III. of Spain), would be the next pontiff. The former was the determined enemy of Gonsalvi, and his election, which quickly followed the recommendation, demonstrated the prevalence of the bigoted party. He assumed the denomination of Leo XII.,, because one of his ancestors had received some feudal property from the tenth pope of that name. - Gonsalvi was now dismissed from power, and the chief adviser of the new pope was the cardinal della Somiglia, who, like his sovereign, had been a libertine in his youth and in his middle age. : From the high-church principles and arbitrary policy of such men, no just government, no attention to the rights of the people, could be expected; and their subsequent conduct appears to have proved, that those who foreboded ill from their combination with the Jesuits, did not judge too harshly. Indeed, priests in general are not the best administrators of temporal power, and, when we say that they ought to be restricted to their spiritual duties, we mean no disrespect to their sacred order
With all his bigotry, and all his zeal against reform, the present pontiff has treated the protestants in his dominions with a degree of mildness and complacency not expected from his rigid principles. He even allows a chapel at Rome for the exercise of their religion, being probably influenced by a regard for the British and other protestant governments, even while he thinks that the professors of this faith do not pursue that course which would give them a full assurance of salvation. He finds it expedient to make some concessions to the more enlightened spirit of the age, while his own mind is darkened by inveterate prejudices. He would wish to dictate, as his predecessors did, to all the princes of Christendoin ; butas he cannot influence them to the extent of his wishes, he is content to exhort, without commanding. The prince whom hę finds most devoted to him, is the French king (Charles X.),
who, in his late law against sacrilege, has imitated the pontifical rigor of the middle ages ; but it does not appear that even this monarch is inclined to surrender, to the claims of the papacy, any of the prerogatives of the Gallican church.
The reigning pope has had the high honor of celebrating a Jubilee. It commenced on Christmas eve, in 1824, and a whole year from that time is considered as peculiarly sacred. The beginning of the ceremonial was a solemn procession to the sacred gate which leads to St. Peter's church. The magistrates of Rome, the chief citizens, the cross-bearers and other ecclesiastical attendants, the pa. rochial clergy, the bishops and cardinals, and (last in order, though first in dignity) the holy father, with his diará carried before him, advanced to the gate. As it did not open at the first blow which he gave to the wall with a silver hammer, he tried a second, saying, with an air of authority, ' I will enter thy house, O Lord. An opening not being yet made, he struck the wall a third time, and, with the aid of workmen on the other side, a passage was opened for the anxious throng. Fragments of stone, thrown out in this operation, were eagerly picked up by the votaries of superstition, and the medals which had been left within the wall at the jubilee of the year 1800, were also seised by the scrambling devotees. The church was soon filled to an overflow: the pope set the example of singing and praying, and the thanksgiving service was performed amidst the united sounds of choral and martial music, enlivened by peals of bell-ringing. Similar scenes occurred at three other churches ; and all the subjects of the state, as well as pilgrims who flocked from various countries, now hoped for a remission of their sins, a favor which may be purchased at the altars on moderate terms. Poor strangers, it appears, obtain this indulgence gratis ; and the pope sometimes condescends to grant it to them in person. He presides at the celebration of the most sacred service in the metropolitan church, and afterwards entertains the pilgrims at the Vatican palace with humble fare and spiritual conversation, and distributes silver medals among them, commemorative of the jubilee.
But the usual place of resort, for these strangers, is the hospital of the Pelegrini, where they are treated with great respect, and even have their feet washed by soine of the cardinals. In the course of the year which is thus dignified with peculiar sanctity, public amusements and diversións are prohibited : yet the idea of a jubilee ought not, we think, to Simpoverish the public stock of harmless pleasure. Where a general fast is ordered, there may be some reason for a suspension of ordinary amusements; but, in the case of a joyful celebrity, the interdiction seems to be misplaced and inapplicable.
From the religious concerns of France and of Italy, we proceed to the survey of other catholic governments. In Spain, the pope's authority was not suffered to be free from control, as will appear from the following restrictions upon his representative. In 1803, the council of Castile, in admitting the archbishop of Nicea to the office of papal legate in the Spanish dominions, stated three remarkable exceptions to the authority claimed by that officer. One was, -that he was not to have the power of visiting the patriarchal, metropolitan, or other churches, with a view to correction or reform; another was, that he was not to examine any individual, whether of a religious or civil character, who might be estranged from a particular community or institution, or in any way criminal; and the third imported, that he would not be allowed to receive appeals from the ordinary judges.
The pontifical authority was still more restricted after the usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's bro. ther Joseph, who, while he declared that only the Romish religion should be allowed, left to his holiness a mere shadow of power, suppressed a considerable number of mo: nasteries, and abolished the court of inquisition. But, as the continued efficacy of his regulations depended on the permanence of his power (for they were not attended with the general assent of the nation), it remained for the cortes to determine whether his ordinances should be exploded or confirmed. They decreed, in the year 1813, that the inquisition was injurious to religion and to the state; b»to gratify the bigots, they voted the erection of episs the
courts for the trial of hereties. They made various at: tempts for the reformation of abuses and the redress of grievances; but, amidst the prevalence of war and civil dissensions, they could not make great or effective progress in their schemes; and their acts were annulled by the tyranny of that prince whose throne they endeavoured to establish. Being released by Napoleon in 1814, Ferdinand re-entered Spain with those emotions of resentment which prompted him to reject the new constitutions and, by listening to the suggestions of priests, excited discono tent and odium. He was even so attached to the old school of bigotry, that he concurred with the pope in the propriety of re-establishing the order of Jesuits, and com; manded that all the colleges, houses, funds, and rents, which belonged to this fraternity at the time of the suppression; and had not been altogether alienated, should be quickly restored. Yet, in his other concerns with the court of Rome, he displayed a laudable spirit ; for, when the papal nuncio required that the ancient oath of fidelity to the king and regard for his prerogative, exacted from every prelate on his consecration, should no longer be administered, he answered the unwarrantable demand by declaring, that no innovation should be made in that respect. This prince, indeed, though deficient in sense and judgement, is sufficiently disposed to defend his prerogative against papal encroachments and attacks. The king of Portugal is equally attached with Ferdinand to the Romish faith, and, at the same time, equally ready to resist the high claims of the pontiff.
All the Austrian prelates, except the archbishop of Olmutz, are nominated or appointed by the emperor; and, although the papal confirmation is afterwards accepted, it is not considered as absolutely necessary. As king of Hungary, the same prince appoints the prelates of the Latin and Greek churches; and those who are named immediately exercise their full jurisdiction before they receive the pope's confirmation of their appointments; for it is a settled point in these countries, that bishops hold their power directly from God. When the episcopal oath is taken, it is understood to imply only a canonical ober
dience to the pope, pot derogating in the smallest degree from the rights of the emperor, or encroaching on the duties which the prelates, as subjects of the state, are expected to perform to the ruling power. This practice certainly tends to explode the idea of a double allegiance on the part of the Austrian subjects, whose sovereign, while he is an hereditary bigot to the Romish faith, is determined to secure his own authority from the encroachments of a foreign pontiff. By the Placitum Regium, no papal edicts or rescripts are allowed to have any force or operation without the express consent of the government; and no persons are even suffered to apply to his holiness with regard to any new act of devotion, or for any other purpose, without the emperor's permission.
The catholic zeal of the Bavarian government has in this century declined, Bigotry has in a great measure yielded to a sense of liberality, and the protestants are not only tolerated but encouraged. A new constitution, allowing a national assembly, has been conceded to the people, and à meliorated system, both in the church and state, consequently prevails.
In the catholic cantons of Switzerland, there is not an ypiformity of religious regulation. The rulers of Fribourg, in 1815, renounced the right of appointing their bishop, leaving it to the uninfluenced judgement of the pope. In the Grison territory (now a part of the Swiss republic), the bishop of Coire is elected by the twenty-four canons of the establishment; but it appears that the pope is allowed to fill up the vacancies among these canons, alternately with the chapter itself. The same bishop promulgates the papal ordinances, without waiting for the sanction of the temporal power. In the new canton of Tessin, the bishop of Como is appointed by the government; but the papal confirmation is deemed requisite for the establishment of his pretensions. In the Valais, four priests are proposed by the chapter to the diet for the episcopal dignity: of these, one is selected as the most unobjectionable candidate ; the pontiff at first pretends to reject him, but soon after nominates the same person, as if no previous recommendation had þeen given. In those states which, before the