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communion a part of the Nestorians who inhabit cent.xviii. the coasts of India. -oXIV. The Lutheran church, which dates its The external foundation from the year 1517, and the confession?..." of Augsburg from 1530, celebrated in peace and church. prosperity the secular return of those memorable periods in the years 1717 and 1730. It received, some years ago, a considerable accession to the number of its members by the emigration of those protestants, who abandoned the territory of Saltzburg, and the town of Berchtolsgaden, in order to breathe a free air, and to enjoy unmolested the exercise of their religion. One body of these emigrants settled in Prussia, another in Holland; and many of them transplanted themselves and their families to - America, and other distant regions. This circumstance contributed greatly to propagate the doctrine, and extend the reputation of the Lutheran church, which thus formed several congregations of no small note in Asia and America. The state of Lutheranism at home has not been so prosperous, since we learn both from public transactions, and also from the complaints of its professors and patrons, that, in several parts of Germany, this church has been injuriously oppressed, and unjustly deprived of some of its privileges and advantages, by the votaries of Rome. - XV. It has been scarcely possible to introduce its internal any change into the doctrine and discipline of that * church, because the ancient confessions and rules that were drawn up to point out the tenets that were to be believed, and the rites and ceremonies that were to be performed, still remain in their full authority, and are considered as the sacred guardians of the Lutheran faith and worship. The method, however, of illustrating, enforcing, and defending the doctrines of Christianity, has undergone several changes. About the commencement of this century, an artless simplicity was generally observed by the Lutheran ministers, and all philosophical terms and VOL. VI. C

cenr.svin, abstract reasonings were relinquished, as more “o

Intestine enemies.

adapted to obscure than to illustrate the truths of
the Gospel. But, in process of time, a very different
way of thinking began to take place; and several
learned men entertained a motion that the doctrines
of Christianity could not maintain their ground,
if they were not supported by the aids of philo-
sophy, and exhibited and proved in geometrical
The adepts in jurisprudence, who undertook, in
the last century, the revision and correction of the
ecclesiastical code that is in force among the Lu-
therans, carried on their undertaking with great
assiduity and spirit; and our church-government
would at this day bear another aspect, if the ruling
powers had judged it expedient to listen to their
counsels and representations. We see, indeed, evi-
dent proofs that the directions of these great men,
relating to the external form of ecclesiastical go-
vernment, discipline, and worship, are highly re-
spected; and that their ideas, even of doctrine, have
been more or less adopted by many. Hence it is
not surprising, that warm disputes have arisen be-
tween them and the rulers of the church concerning
several points. The Lutheran doctors are appre-
hensive that, if the sentiments of some of these re-

formers should take place, religion would become

entirely subservient to the purposes of civil policy,
and be converted into a mere state-machine; and
this apprehension is not peculiar to the clergy, but is
also entertained by some persons of piety and can-
dor, even among the civilians.
XVI. The liberty of thinking, speaking, and
writing, concerning religious matters, which began
to prevail in the last century, was, in this, confirmed
and augmented; and it extended so far as to encou-
rage both infidels and fanatics to pour forth among
the multitude, without restraint, all the crudities of
their enthusiasm and extravagance. Accordingly
we have seen, and still see, numbers of fanatics and

innovators start up, and, under the influence ofcent. xviii. enthusiasm or of a disordered brain, divulge their crude fancies and dreams among the people, by which they either delude many from the communion of the established church, or at least occasion contests and divisions of the most disagreeable kind. We mentioned formerly several of these disturbers of the tranquillity of the church, to whom we may now add the notorious names of Tennhart, Gichtel, Uberfeld, Rosenbach, Bredel, Seiz, Roemeling, and many others, who either imagined that they were divinely inspired, or, from a persuasion of their superior capacity and knowlege, set up for reformers of the doctrine and discipline of the church. Many writers drew their pens against this presumptuous and fanatical tribe, though the greatest part of those who composed it were really below the notice of men of character, and were rather worthy of contempt than of opposition. And, indeed, it was not so much the force of reason and argument, as the experience of their ill success, that convinced these fanatics of their folly, and induced them to desist

from their chimerical projects. Their attempts could not stand the trial of time and common sense; and therefore, after having made a transitory noise, they fell into oblivion. Such is the common and deserved fate of almost all the fanatic ringleaders of the deluded populace; they suddenly start up, and make a figure for a while; but, in general, they ruin their own cause by their imprudence or obstinacy, by their austerity or perversenezo, by their licentious conduct or their intestine diviziorz,

XVII. Many place in this fanatí, as 'aas the for Brethren of Herrenhut, who were first for too" into a religious community in the village or onto, in Lusatia, by the famous count Zotz, too?, no afterwards grew so numerous that to emo/* were spread abroad in almost as the out,” “A Europe, formed settlements in the suouse, and “” penetrated to the removes part of the £144, 1/-,

cent, rviii.call themselves the descendants of the Bohemian

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and Moravian Brethren, who, in the fifteenth
century, threw off the despotic yoke of Rome, ani-
mated by the zealous exhortations and heroic
example of John Huss. They may, however, be
said, with more propriety, to imitate the example
of that famous community, than to descend from
those who composed it; for it is well known, that
there are very few Bohemians and Moravians in the
fraternity of the Herrenhutters; and it is extremely
doubtful, whether even this small number are to be
considered as the posterity of the ancient Bohemian
Brethren, that distinguished themselves so early by
their zeal for the Reformation.
If we are to give credit to the declarations of the
Herrenhutters, they agree with the Lutherans in
their doctrine and opinions, and only differ from
them in their ecclesiastical discipline, and in those
religious institutions and rules of life which form
the resemblance between the Bohemian Brethren and
the disciples of Zinzendorff. There are, indeed,
many who doubt much of the truth of this decla-
ration, and suspect that the society now under con-
sideration, and more especially their rulers and
ringleaders, speak the language of Lutheranism
when they are among the Lutherans, in order to
obtain their favor and indulgence; and those who
have examined this matter with the greatest atten-
tion, represent this fraternity as composed of per-
sons of different religions, as well as of various ranks
and orders. Be that as it may, it is at least very
difficult to guess the reason that induces them to
live in such an entire state of separation from the
Lutheran communion, and to be so ambitiously
zealous in augmenting their sect, if there be no
other difference between them and the Lutherans
than that of discipline and of ceremony; for the
true and genuine followers of Jesus Christ are little
concerned about the outward forms of ecclesiastical
government and discipline, knowing that real reli-

gion consists in faith and charity, and not in external cent. zviii. rites and institutions".

or." It is somewhat surprising to hear Dr. Mosheim speak in such vague and general terms of this sect, without taking the least notice of their pernicious doctrines and their flagitious practices, that not only disfigure the sacred truths of the Gospel, but also sap all the foundations of morality. To be persuaded of this, the reader, beside the accounts which Rimius has given of this enormous sect, will do well to consult a curious Preface, prefixed to the French translation of a Pastoral Letter against Famaticism, addressed by Mr. Stinstra, an Anabaptist minister in Friseland, to his congregation, and published at Leyden in 1752. It may not be amiss to add here a passage relating to this odious community, from the bishop of Glocester's treatise, entitled, the Doctrine of Grace. The words of that great and eminent prelate are as follow : “As purity “respects practice, the Moravians give us little trouble. If “we may credit the yet unconfuted relations, both in print and “in MS., composed by their own members, the participants in “their most sacred mysterious rites, their practices in the con“summation of marriage are so horribly, so unspeakably fla“gitious, that this people seem to have no more pretence to “be put into the number of Christian sects, than the Turlu“pins of the thirteenth century, a vagabond crew of miscreants, “who rambled over Italy, France, and Germany, calling “themselves the Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit, who, “in speculation, professed that species of atheism called Pan“ theism, and, in practice, pretended to be exempted from all “ the obligations of morality and religion.” See The Doctrine of Grace, vol. ii. As to the doctrines of this sect, they open a door to the most licentious effects of fanaticism. Such among many others are the following, drawn from the express declarations of count Zinzendorff, the head and founder of the community: that the law is not a rule of life to a believer;-that the moral law belongs only to the Jews;–that a converted person cannot sin against light. But of all the singularities for which this sect is famous, the notions they entertain of the organs of generation in both sexes are the most enormously wild and extravagant. I consider (says Zinzendorff, in one of his sermons) the parts for distinguishing both sexes in Christians, as the most honorable of the whole body, my Lord and God having partly inhabited them, and partly worn them himself.” This raving secretary looks upon the conjugal act as a piece of scenery, in which the male represents Christ the husband of souls, and the female the church. “The married brother (says “he) knows matrimony, respects it, but does not think upon it “of his own accord; and thus the precious member of the cove‘nant (i.e. the penis) is so much forgotten, becomes so useless, ‘and consequently is reduced to such a natural numbness, by

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