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CENT. xvur, native country. The issue of this famous contest
was favorable to the bull, which was at length
without being extinguished.
truly useful to them; the latter gave them only a
The person whose remains
oh This was the denomination assumed by those who appealed from the bull and the court of Rome to a general council
were principally honored with this efficacy, was the GENT. XVNT.
XIII. We can say very little of the Greek and The state of
the Eastern church.
The eans Cheir ured aliar For God ons,
The imposture, that reigned in these pretended miracles, has been detected and exposed by various authors, but by none with more acuteness, perspicuity, and penetration, than by the ingenious Dr. Douglas, in his excellent treatise on miracles, entitled the Criterion, published in 1754.
& Things are greatly changed since the learned author wrote this paragraph. The storm of just resentment that has arises against the Jesuits, and has been attended with the extinction of their order in Portugal, France, and in all the Spanish dominions, has disarmed the most formidable adversáries of Jansenism, and must consequently be considered as an event highly favorable to the Jansenists*,
In consequence of the French revolution, more important changes have taken place since the translator wrote the last note. EDIT.
CENT. SVIII. which they live, and the despotic yoke under which
they groan, prevent their forming any plans to ex-
The Greek Christians are said to be treated at
" See the Continuation.
communion a part of the Nestorians who inhabit CENT. XVIII. the coasts of India.
XIV. The Lutheran church, which dates its The external foundation from the year 1517, and the confession State of the of Augsburg from 1530, celebrated in peace and church. prosperity the secular return of those memorable periods in the years 1717 and 1730. It received, some years ago, a considerable accession to the number of its members by the emigration of those protestants, who abandoned the territory of Saltzburg, and the town of Berchtolsgaden, in order to breathe a free air, and to enjoy unmolested the ex. ercise of their religion. One body of these emigrants settled in Prussia, another in Holland; and many of them transplanted themselves and their families to · America, and other distant regions. This circumstance contributed greatly to propagate the doctrine, and extend the reputation of the Lutheran church, which thus formed several congregations of no small note in Asia and America. The state of Lutheranism at home has not been so prosperous, since we learn both from public transactions, and also from the complaints of its professors and patrons, that, in several parts of Germany, this church has been injuriously oppressed, and unjustly deprived of some of its privileges and advantages, by the votaries of Rome.
XV. " It has been scarcely possible to introduce Its internal any change into the doctrine and discipline of that state. church, because the ancient confessions and rules that were drawn up to point out the tenets that were to be believed, and the rites and ceremonies that were to be performed, still remain in their full authority, and are considered as the sacred guardians of the Lutheran faith and worship. The method, however, of illustrating, enforcing, and defending the doctrines of Christianity, has undergone several changes. About the commencement of this century, an artless simplicity was generally observed by the Lutheran ministers, and all philosophical terms and
CENT. XVII. abstract reasonings were relinquished, as
as more adapted to obscure than to illustrate the truths of the Gospel. But, in process of time, a very different way of thinking began to take place; and several learned men entertained a notion that the doctrines of Christianity could not maintain their ground, if they were not supported by the aids of philosophy, and exhibited and proved in geometrical order.
The adepts in jurisprudence, who undertook, in the last century, the revision and correction of the ecclesiastical code that is in force among the Lutherans, carried on their undertaking with great assiduity and spirit; and our church-government would at this day bear another aspect, if the ruling powers had judged it expedient to listen to their counsels and representations. We see, indeed, evident proofs that the directions of these great men, relating to the external form of ecclesiastical government, discipline, and worship, are highly respected; and that their ideas, even of doctrine, have been more or less adopted by many. Hence it is not surprising, that warm disputes have arisen -between them and the rulers of the church concerning several points. The Lutheran doctors are apprehensive that, if the sentiments of some of these reformers should take place, religion would become entirely subservient to the purposes of civil.policy, and be converted into a mere state-machine; and this apprehension is not peculiar to the clergy, but is also entertained by some persons of piety and candor, even among the civilians.
XVI. The liberty of thinking, speaking, and writing, concerning religious matters, which began to prevail in the last century, was, in this, confirmed and augmented ; and it extended so far as to encourage both infidels and fanatics to pour forth among the multitude, without restraint, all the crudities of their enthusiasm and extravagance. Accordingly we have seen, and still see, numbers of fanatics and