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ADAMITES such as persist in the heresy, are about four sion of Paul, the admission of the Gentiles into yards high, having a small board towards the top the church, the council of Jerusalem, and the for the prisoner to be seated on. The negative planting of Christian Churches in the principal and relapsed being first strangled and burnt, the provinces of the Roman empire. The history is prulessal mount their stakes by a ladder, and the written with a tolerably strict attention to chroJesuits, after several repeated exhortations to be nological order, though the author has not affixed Tæunciled to the church, part with them; telling a date to any one of the facts recorded by him. then that they leave them to the devil, who is But as political events, the dates of which are standing at their elbow, to receive their souls

, and known, are frequently introduced or alluded to carry them with him to the faines of hell. On this in connexion with the ecclesiastical narrative, a great shout is raised; and the cry is, "Let the the chronology of the whole book is for the most daca beards be made! which is done bythrusting part capable of being pretty definitely settled. Haming furzes fastened to long poles against their The style of the Acts, which was written in faces, till their faces are burnt to a coal, which is Greek, is perspicuous and noble. Though tincarronpanied with the loudest acclamations of joy. tured with Hebraisms, it is in general much purer At last, fire is set to the furze at the bottom of the than that of most other books of the New Testastake, over which the professed are chained so ment, particularly in the speeches delivered by high, that the top of the fame seldom reaches Paul. The book forms one of the most importhgher than the seat they sit on; so that they ra- ant parts of sacred bistory; for without it neither thre sem roasted than burnt. There cannot be a the Gospels nor Epistles could have been so more lamentable spectacle : the sufferers continu- clearly understood; and by the correspondence of ally cry out while they are able, “Pity for the incidental circumstances mentioned in this history kose of God!" Yet it is beheld by all sexes anu and in the Epistles, of such a nature as to show 2** with transports of joy and satisfaction.- that neither the one nor the other could have been O merciful God! is this the benign, humane re-forged, an irrefragable evidence of the truth of huinn thou hast given to men? Surely not. If Christianity is afforded. Among the most imsub were the genius of Christianity, then it portant works expository or illustrative of the would be no honour to be a Christian. Let us, Acts of the Apostles are Cradock's Apostolical hozever, rejoice that the time is coming when History; Benson's First Planting of Christianthe demon ot Persecution shall be banished out ity; Paley's Horæ Paulina; Heinrich's Acta this our work, and the true spirit of benevolence Apostolorum; Buddeus' Ecclesia Apostolica.-B. and candour pervade the universe; when none There have been several acts of the apostles, stall hurt or destroy, but the earth be filled with such as the acts of Abdias, of Peter, of Paul, St. the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover John the Evangelist, St. Andrew, St. Thomas, the pa! See INQUISITION.

St. Philip, and St. Matthias; but they have been ACTION FOR THE PULPIT. See De- all proved to be spurious. CLAMATION.

ACTS OF PİLATE, a relation sent by Pi. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, the fifth and late to the Emperor Tiberius, concerning Jesus las of the historical books of the New Testament, Christ, his death, resurrection, ascension, and antaining a great part of the lives and transactions the crimes of which he was convicted before him. af Peter and Paul, and of the history of the infant It was a custom among the Romans, that the ctunh fur the space of twenty-nine or thirty proconsuls and governors of provinces should fears from the ascension of our Lord to the time draw up acts or memoirs of what happened in of Paul's arrival at Rome after his appeal to Cæ- the course of their government, and send them to #r. A. D. 65. That Luke was the author of the the emperor and senate. The genuine acts of Acts of the Apostles is evident both from the in-Pilate were sent by him to Tiberius, who retrwtection, and from the unanimous testimonies ported them to the senate; but they were rejected of the early Christians. This book, as well as by that assembly, because not immediately odthe Gospel bearing his name, is inscribed to dressed to them; as is testified by Tertullian, in Tbrophilus, and in the very first verse of the his Apol. cap. 5, and 20, 21. The heretics Acts there is a reference made to his Gospel, forged acts in imitation of them; but both the *** he calls the former treatise. From the genuine and the spurious are now lost. fryant use of the first person plural it is clear ADAMITES, a sect that sprang up in the tai he was present at most of the transactions second centuryEpiphanius tells us that they be relates. The design of the author does not were called Adamites from their pretending to praw have been to give a complete ecclesias- be re-established in the state of innocence, such bal history of the Christian church during the as Adam was at the moment of his creation, f«n«xi embraced in the work; for he has almost whence they ought to imitate him in going naked. als omtted what passed among the Jews af- | They detested marriage; muntaining that the ter the conversion of Paul, and is totally silent conjugal union would never have taken place woorming the spread of Christianity in the East upon earth, had sin been unknown. This obnu in Egypt, as well as the foundation of the scure and ridiculous sect did not last long. It church of Christ at Rome, as also concerning the was, however, revived with additional absurdities labours and sufferings of most of the other Apos- in the twelfth century. About the beginning of Urs besides Peter and Paul; but to relate the the fifteenth century, these errors spread in Ger1 st prominent events connected with the esta- many and Bohemia: it found also some partisans

ent of Christianity, and such as may be in Poland, Holland, and England. They astested to have had the most important bear- sembled in the night; and, it is saill, one of the

* upon its subsequent prosperity; among fundamental maximns of their society will con*** may be reckoned the effusion of the Holy tained in the following verse: et on the day of Pentecost, the persecutions

Jura, perjura, recretum prodere noli. ad erauns of the carly disciples, the conver- Swear, futsu car, and reveal not the secte!


ADOPTION ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in the six- | adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby teenth century to the moderate Lutherans who we are received into the number, and have a adhered to the sentiments of Melancthon; and right to all the privileges of the sons of God. 3. afterwards to those who subscribed the Interim Glorious, is that in which the saints, being raise of Charles V. (See INTERIM.] The word is of from the dead, are at the last day solemnly owned Greek origin (xsuse popos,) and signifies indiffer- to be the children of God, and enter into the full ence or lukewarmness.

possession of that inheritance provided for them. ADMIRATION is that passion of the mind Rom. viii. 19, 23. Adoption is a word taken which is excited by the discovery of any great from the civil law, and was much in use among excellence in an object. It has by some writers the Romans in the Apostles' time; when it was a been used as synonymous with surprise and custom for persons who had no children of their wonder; but it is evident they are not the same. own, and were possessed of an estate, to prevent Surprise refers to something unexpected; wonder, its being divided or descending to strangers, to to something great or strange; but admiration in- make choice of such as were agreeable to them, cludes the idea of high esteem or respect. Thus, and beloved by them, whom they took into this wc say we admire a man's excellencies; but we political relation of children; obliying them to do not say that we are surprised at them. We take their name upon them, and to pay respect wonder at an extraordinary object or event, but to them as though they were their natural pawe do not always admire it.

rents, and engaging to deal with them as though ADMONITION denotes a hint or advice they had been so; and accordingly to give them a given to another, whereby we reprove him for his right to their estates, as an inheritance. This fault, or remind him of his duty. Admonition new relation, founded in a mutual consent, is a was a part of the discipline much used in the an- bond of affection; and the privilege arising from cient church; it was the first act or step towards thence is, that he, who is in this sense a father, the punishment or expulsion of delinquents. In takes care of and provides for the person whom case of private offences, it was performed accord- he adopts, as though he were his son by nature; ing to evangelical rule, prirately; in case of pub- and therefore civilians call it an act of legilimalic offence, openly before the church. If either tion, imitating nature, or supplying the place of it. of these sufficed for the recovery of the fallen It is easy, then, to conceive the propriety of the person, all further proceedings, in a way of cen- term as used by the apostle, in reference to this sure, ceased; if they did not, recourse was had to act, though it must be confessed there is sonie excoinmunication.- Tit. ii. 10. 1 Thess. v. 14. difference between civil and spiritual adoption. Eph. vi. 4.

Civil adoption was allowed of and provided for 'ADONAI, IIebrew "317%, a title of the Su- the relief and comfort of those who had no chilpreme Being in the Scriptures, rendered in En- dren; but in spiritual adoption this reason does glish by the word Lord. The original comes not appear. The Almighty was under no oblifrom Aden, a base, pillar, or supporter; and it is gation to do this; for he had innumerable spirits not a little remarkable that the etymology of our whom he had created, besides his own Son, who vernacular Lord is precisely similar, it being a had all the perfections of the divine nature, who contraction of the old Saxon laford, or hlafford, was the object of his delight, and who is styled from laef, to support or sustain, the same root the heir of all things, Heb. i. 3. When nen from which also comes the English word loaf. adopt, it is on account of some excellency in the The Hebrew Jeuovau is likewise translated persons who are adopted : thus Pharaoh's daughLord in our Bibles, and this is known by its ter adopted Moses because he was exceeding fair, being printed in capital letters, whereas in the Acts vii. 20, 21; and Mordecai adopted Esther other case the common small character is employ- because she was his uncle's daughter, and exed. The Jews, from excessive reverence, never ceeding fair, Est. ii. 7; but man has nothing in pronounce the name JENOvAn when they meet him that merits this divine act, Ezek. xvi. 5. In with it in reading the Hebrew Scriptures, but civil adoption, though the name of a son be given, invariably substitute Adonai, which has the same the nature of a son may not: this relation may vowel points. But there is no law forbidding the not necessarily be attended with any change of enunciation of the name JEHOVAH; nor does it disposition or temper. But in the spiritual adopappear to have been scrupled by the ancient tion we are made partakers of the divine nature, Jews.-B.

and a temper or disposition given us becoming ADONISTS, a party among divines and the relationship we bear. Jer. ii. 19. critics, who maintain that the Hebrew points or- Much has been said as to the time of adoption. dinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Some place it before regeneration, because it is Jehovah are not the natural points belonging to supposed we must be in the family before we can that word, nor express the true pronounciation be partakers of the blessings of it. But it is diffiof it; but are the vowel points belonging to the cult to conceive of one before the other; for alwords Adonai and Elohim, applied to the con- though adoption may seem to precede regenerasonants of the ineffable name Jehovah, to warn tion in order of nature, yet not of time; they may the readers, that instead of the word Jehovah, be distinguished, but cannot be separated. which the Jews were forbid to pronounce, and many as received him, to them gave he power to the true pronunciation of which had been long become the sons of God, even to them that beunknown to them, they are always to read Ado- lieve on his name.” John i. 12. There is no nai. They are opposed to Jehörists, of whom adoption, says the great Charnock, without rethe principal are Drusius, Capellus, Buxtorf, generation. “Adoption,” says the same author, Alting, and Reland.

“is not a mere relation: the privilege and the ADOPTION, an act whereby any person re- image of the sons of God go together. A state ceives another into his family, owns him for his of adoption is never without a separation from son, and appoints him his heir. 2. Spiritual | defilement." 2 Cor. vi. 17. 18. The new name

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AFFLICTION AETIANS, those who maintained that the very zealous in cxternals; to be always conversing Son and Holy Ghost were in all things dissimi- about ourselves, &c. These things are often lar to the Father. They received their name from found in those who are only mere professors of Aetius, one of the most zealous defenders of religion, Matt. vii. 21, 22. Arianisin, who was born in Syria, and flourished Now, in order to ascertain whether our affecabout the year 336. Besides ihe opinions which tions are excited in a spiritual manner, we must the Actians held in common with the Arians, inquire whether that which moves our affections they maintained that faith without works was be truly spiritual; whether our consciences be sufficient to salvation; and that no sin, how- alarmed, and our hearts impressed; whether the ever grievous, would be imputed to the faithful. judgment be enlightened, and we have a percep Actius, moreover, affirmed, that what God had tion of the moral excellency of divine things; and, concealed from the apostles, he had revealed to lastly, whether our affections have a holy tenhiin.

deney, and produce the happy effects of obedience AFFECTION, in a philosophical sense, re- to God, humility in ourselves, and justice to our fers to the manner in which we are affected by fellow-creatures. As this is a subject worthy of any thing for a continuance, whether painful or close attention, the reader may consult Lord pleasant; but in the most common sense, it may kaimes's Elements of Criticism, vol. 1. p. 517; be detined to be a settled bent of mind towards a Eduards m the Affections; Pike and Hainrard's particular being or thing. It holds a middle place Cases of Conscience ; Watts's Use and Abuse of between disposition on the one hand, and passion the Passions ; M'Laurin's Essays, sect. 5 and 6, on the other. It is distinguishable from disposi- where this subject is handled in a masterly mantion, which, being a branch of one's nature ori- ner. ginally, must exist before there can be any op- AFFLICTION, that which causes a sensaportunity to exert it upon any particular object ; tion of pain. Calamity or distress of any kind. whereas affection can never be original, because, The afflictions of the saints are represented, in having a special relation to a particular object, it the Scripture, as appointed, 1 Thess. ii. 3. Job cannot exist till the object have once, at least, v. 6, 7; numerous, Ps. xxxiv. 19; transient, ? been presented. It is also distinguishable from Cor. iv. 17. Heb. x. 37; and, when sanctified, passion, which, depending on the real or ideal beneficial, 1 Pet. i. 6. Ps. cxix. 67, 71. They presence of its object, vanishes with its object; wean from the world ; work submission; produce whereas affection is a lasting connexion, and, humility; excite to diligence; stir up to prayer; like other connexions, subsists even when we do and conform us to the divine image. To bear not think of the object. (See Disposition and them with patience, we should consider our own PASSION.] The ailections, as they respect_reli- unworthiness; the design of God in sending gion, deserve in this place a little attention. They them; the promises of support under them; and may be defined to be the "vigorous and sensible the real good they are productive of. The afilicexercises of the inclination and will of the soul tions of a good man, says an elegant writer, never towards religious objects." Whatever extremes befal without a cause, nor are sent but upon a prostoics or enthusiasts have run into, it is evident per errand. These storms are never allowed to rise that the exercise of the affections is essential to but in order to dispel some noxious vapours, and the existence of true religion. It is true, indeed, restore salubrity to the moral atmosphere. Who " that all affectionate devotion is not wise and that for the first time beheld the earth in the midst rational; but it is no less true, that all wise and of winter, bound up with frost, or drenched in flouds rational devotion must be affectionate." The of rain, or covered with snow, would have imaaflections are the springs of action : they belong gined that nature, in this dreary and torpid state, to our nature, so that with the highest percep was working towarıs its own renovation in the tions of truth and religion, we should be inactive spring? Yet we by experience know that those without them. They have considerable influence vicissitudes of winter are necessary for fertilising on men, in the common concerns of life; how the earth ; and that under wintry rains and snows much more, then, should they operate in those lie concealed the seeds of those roses that are to important objects that relate to the Divine Being, blossom in the spring; of those fruits that are to the inmortality of the soul, and the happiness or ripen in the summer; and of the corn and wine misery of a future state! The religion of the which are, in harvest, to make glad the heart of most eminent saints has always consisted in the man. It would be more agreeable to us to be exercise of holy affections. Jesus Christ himself always entertained with a fair and clear atmoaffords us an example of the most lively and sphere, with cloudless skies, and perpetual sunvigorous affections; and we have every reason to shine; yet in such climates as we have most believe that the employment of heaven consists in knowledge of the earth, were it always to remain the exercise of them. In addition to all which, in such a state, would refuse to yield its fruits ; the Scriptures of truth teach us, that religion is and, in the midst of our imagined scenes of beauty, nothing, if it occupy not the affections, Deut. vi. the starved inhabitants would perish for want of 4 and 5. Deut. xxx. 6. Rom. xii. 11. 1 Cor. xii. food. Let us, therefore, quietly submit to Provi. 13. PA. xxvii. 14.

dence. Let us conceive this life to be the winter A distinction, however, must be made between of our cxistence. Now the rains must fall

, and what may be merely natural, and what is truly the winds must roar around us; but, sheltering spiritual. The affections may be excited in a ourselves under Him who is the “covert from the natural way under ordinances by a natural im- tempest,” let us wait with patience till the storms pression, Ezek. xxxiii. 3:2; by a nctural sympa- of lite shall terminato in an everlasting calm. thy, or by the natural temperament of our con- Blair's Ser. vol. v. ser. 5; l'incent, Case, an! stitution. It is no sign that our affections are Addington, on Affliction; Willison's apllicled spiritual because they are raised very ligh; pro-Man's Companion. duce great effects on the body; excite us to be AGAPA, or Love-Feasts, (from wyzna,


KNOWLEDGE, in a great measure, forms the true dignity and happiness of man: it is that by which he holds an honourable rank in the scale of being, and by which he is rendered capable of adding to the felicity of his fellow-creatures. Every attempt, therefore, to enlarge its boundaries, and facilitate its acquisition, must be considered as worthy of our attention and regard. The present work is designed to promote these valuable and important ends.

The plan of conveying knowledge by dictionaries has been long established, and well received in the republic of letters. A dictionary, however, of a religious and ecclesiastical nature was still a desideratum in the religious world; for although we have had dictionaries which explained Scripture terms, yet it is evident these could not embrace the history of the church since the sacred canon was concluded, nor explain the numerous terms which have been used; nor, indeed, point out the various sects and denominations which have subsisted since that time. I do not mean, by these remarks, to depreciate the valuable works above referred to: I am sensible of their excellences, and I have no wish to undervalue them in order to exalt my own. This work, however, is of a different nature, as the reader will easily see, if he takes the trouble to compare and examine.

There may, doubtless, be defects in this publication which may have escaped my attention; but whoever considers the various books that must have been consulted; the diserminations that were necessary to be made; the patient investigation required; and the toil of selecting, transcribing, and composing, must be convinced that it has been attended with no small difficulty. The advantages, however, which my own mind derived from the work, and the probability of its being useful to others, greatly encouraged me in its prosecution. Besides, to be active, to be useful, to do something for the good of mankind, I have always considered as the honour of an intelligent being: It is not the student wrapt up in metaphysical subtilties; it is not the recluse living in perpetual solitude; it is not the miser who is continually amassing wealth, that can be considered as the greatest ornaments or the greatest blessings to human society :—it is rather the useful than the shining talent that is to be coveted.

Perhaps it may be said, the work is tinctured too much with my own sentiments, and that the theology is too antiquated to please a liberal, philosophising, and refined age. In answer to this, I observe, that I could do no other, as an honest man, than communicate what I believe to be the truth. It is a false liberality to acquiesce with every man's opinion, to fall in with every man's scheme, to trifle with error, or imagine there is no difference between one sentiment and another: yet, notwithstanding this declaration, I trust the features of bigotry are not easily discernible in this work; and that, while I have endeavoured to carry the torch of Truth in my hand, I have not forgotten to walk in the path of Candour.

It is almost needless here to say, that I have availed myself of all the writings of the best and most eminent authors I could obtain.: Whatever has struck me as important in ecclesiastical history; whatever good and accurate in definition; whatever just views of the passions of the human mind; whatever terms used in the religious world; and whatever instructive and impressive in the systems of divinity and moral philosophy, I have endeavoured to incorporate in this work. And in order to prevent its being a dry detail of terms and of dates, I have given the substance of what has been generally advanced on each subject, and occasionally selected some of the most interesting practial passages from our best and celebrated sermons. I trust, therefore, it will not only be of use to inform the mind, but impress the heart; and thus promote the real good of the rearter. The critic, however, may be disposed to be severe; and it will, perhaps, be easy for him to observe imperfections. But be this as it may: I can assure him I feel myself bappy in the idea that the work is not intended to serve a party, to encourage bigotry, nor strengthen prejudice, but " for the service of Truth, by one who would be glad to attend and grace her triumphs; as her soldier, if he has had the honour to serve successfully under her banner; or as a captive tied to her chariot wheels, if he has, though undesignedly, committed any offence against her.” After all, however, what a learned author ad of another work I say of this:-“ If it have merit, it will go down to posterity; if it have none, the sooner it dies and is forgot the better.”

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