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PREFACE BY THE AMERICAN EDITOR.
The numerous and extensive editions of Buck's Theological Dictionary published both in England and in this country since its first appearance, together with the continued and increasing demand, sufficiently attest the estimate in which the work is held by the Christian public. The judgment, industry, candour, and impartiality evinced by the Author in the selection and compilation of the articles, embracing, as they do, the wide field of Theology, didactic and polemic, Ecclesiastical Polity, Church History, Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy, and Biblical Literature, together with a copious list of references to the most valuable authorities in each department, are universally acknowledged. So far as the merit of sterling utility can entitle any book to favourable acceptance, the Dictionary of Mr. Buck presents claims which will not be contested. As a theological and ecclesiastical manual, embodying a vast amount of useful information in a moderate compass, and clearly and judiciously arranged, it would not be easy to designate its superior.
Yet while this tribute of deserved commendation is readily bestowed, it must still be admitted, that the work hitherto has not been altogether adapted to the circumstances of our own country, or the wants of the present day. Considered in this view the Theological Dictionary labours under manifold defects, which it would be as easy to specify as it is obvious to perceive. As might have been expected, its local bearings and allusions are to the state of things in England, and not in this country. But a work of this nature is needed, which shall be suited to the state of religious opinion in the Christian community of the United States. Moreover, since the first publication of Mr. Buck's work, great changes have occurred in the religious world; great advances have been made in theological as well as in natural science; a fresh impulse has been given to the investigation of revealed truth; new sects, especially in our own country, have risen up, and with them new controversies, or new forms of old ones; the ever varying field of religious discussion, while it has been contracted in some of its limits, has been widened in others; besides which, nearly every department treated in the Theological Dictionary has been enriched with new treasures from the writings of modern divines, to which the reader will look in vain for any references in the previous editions. While therefore the active spirit of progress and improvement is urging its way in the province of Theological inquiry as well as every other, while modern researches are shedding light upon numberless points of Christian and Jewish antiquities, upon Ecclesiastical institutions, and Biblical criticism, it is doubtless desirable that a Theological Dictionary should be prepared, fitted to meet, in some good degree, the exigences of the present period.
With this view the present edition of Buck has been undertaken. In the prosecution of the plan, the steady aim has been to increase the amount of new and valuable matter, at the same time that the accession should not swell the size, nor enhance the price of the volume. The whole work therefore has undergone a careful revisionSome few articles of trivial moment have been expunged to make way for others of more consequence-Several have been abridged-Several in whole or in part re-written: But the principal feature of the present edition is the addition of a large mass of new matter under the following heads: Abyss, ACCOMMODATION OF SCRIPTURE, ANNIHILATION, AntiCHRIST, ANTICHRISTIANISM, ATONEMENT, CHURCH, COMMENTARY, CONGREGATIONALISTS, EPISCOPALIAN, GLASSITES, NEW INDEPENDENTS, NEOLOGY, PRESBYTERIANS, Unitarians, besides many others, which will be pointed out to the reader, wherever they occur, by the letter B. being annexed to them. Notices of all or nearly all the existing religious denominations in the United States are given, accompanied with historical sketches and ecclesiastical statistics. In this department of the work the Editor acknowledges his obligations to the very valuable Quarterly Register and Journal of the American Education Society, for Feb. 1830, by means of which, and from other sources, he has been enabled to bring down the records of the various denominations to the commencement of the present year.
In the earnest hope that the attempted improvements of the present edition may be found to be a benefit, and not a bar, to its general reception, it is submitted to the candour of the public.
ABBOT ABBA, a Syriac word of Hebrew origin, sig- state became poor, for the lands which these retafsing Father. It is more particularly used in gulars possessed could never revert to the lords the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, as a who gave them. These places were wholly title given to the bishops. The bishops them- abolished by Henry VIII. He first appointed sives bestowed the title Abba more eminently on visitors to inspect into the lives of the monks and the beshop of Alexandria, which occasioned the nuns, which were found in some places very dispeople to give him the title of Baba, or Papa; orderly; upon which the abbots, perceiving their izt isGrandfather: a title which he bore before dissolution unavoidable, were induced to resign the bishop of Rome. It is a Jewish title of honour their houses to the king, who by that means begiven to certain Rabbins called Tanaites: it is came invested with the abbey lands: these were also used by some writers of the middle age for the afterwards granted to difierent persons, whose Esperior of a monastery. Saint Mark and Saint descendants enjoy them at this day: they were Pilal use this word in their Greek, Mark xiv. 36. then valued at 2,853,0001. per annum; an imRom. vii. 15. Gal. vi. 6. because it was then mense sum in those days. Though the suppresammonly known in the synagogues and the sion of these houses, considered in a religious and primitive assemblies of the Christians. It is political light, was a great benefit to the nation, ilmught by Selden, Witsius, Doddridge, and yet it must be owned, that at the time they floubers that Saint Paul alluded to a law among rished, they were not entirely useless. Abbeys the Jews which forbade servants or slaves to call were then the repositories as well as the seminatheir master Abba, or Father; and that the ries of learning : many valuable books and naapostle meant to convey the idea that those who tional records have been preserved in their librabelieved in Christ were no longer slaves to sin; ries; the only places wherein they could liave tan, being brought into a state of holy freedom, been safely lodged in those turbulent times. Inmurat consequently address God as their Father. deed the historians of this country are chietly
ABBE, the same with Absor, which see. beholden to the monks for the knowledge they Aks the name of curious popular characters in have of former national events, Thus a kind France; who are persons who have not yet ob- Providence overruled even the institutions of sutainat any precise or fixed settlement in church or perstition for good. See MONASTERY, state, hut most heartily wish for and would accept ABBOT, the chief ruler of a monastery or of ether, just as it may happen. In the mean- abbey. At first they were laymen, and subject to while their privileges are many. In college, they the bishop and ordinary pastors. Their monasare the instructors of youth, and in private fami- teries being remote from cities, and built in the he the tutors of young gentlemen.
farthest solitudes, they had no share in ecclesiasABBESS, the superior of an abbey or convent tical affairs; but, there being among them several of nuns. The abbess has the same rights and persons of learning, they were called out of their anthority over her nuns that the abbots regular deserts by the bishops, and fixed in the suburbs bave over their monks. The sex, indeed, does of the cities; and at length in the cities themDait allow her to perform the spiritual functions selves. From that time they degenerated, and, anne ved to the priesthood, wherewith the abbot is learning to be ambitious, aspired to be independkualis invested; but there are instances of some ent of the bishops, which occasioned some severe abbrsas who have a right, or rather a privilege, laws to be made against them. At length, how, to commission a priest to act for them. They ever, the abbots carried their point, and obtained have even a kind of episcopal jurisdiction, as well the title of lord, with other badges of the episcoas some abbots who are exempted from the visi- pate, particularly the mitre. Hence arose new tation of their diocesan.
distinctions among them. Those were termed ABBEY, a monastery, governed by a superior | mitred abbots who were privileged to wear the under the title of Abbot or Abbess. Monasteries mitre, and exercise episcopal authority within Here at first nothing more than religious houses, their respective precincts, being exempted from Enther persons retired from the bustle of the the jurisdiction of the bishop. Others were called World to spend their time in solitude and devotion; crosiered abbots, from their bearing the crosier, but they soon degenerated from their original in- or pastoral staff. Others were styled ecumenical stitutun, and procured larve privileges, exemp- or universal abbots, in imitation of the patriarch twins and riches. They prevailed greatly in of Constantinople; while others were terned Bruin before the Reformation, particularly in cardinal abbots from their superiority over all England: and as they increased in riches, so the other abbots. At present, in the Roman Catho
ABYSS lic countries, the chief distinctions are those of re- | are forgiven through the merits of Jesus Christ; gular and commendatory. The former take the and that those who remain in unbelief are in a vow and wear the habit of their order; whereas state of condemnation. Any idea of authority the latter are seculars, though they are obliged given to fallible, uninspired men, to absolve sinby their bulls to take orders when of proper age. ners
, different from this, is unscriptural; nor can ABELIANS, or ABELONIANS, a sect which I see much utility in the terms ministerial or dearose in the diocese of Hippo in Africa, and is claratire absolution, as adopted by some divines, supposed to have begun in the reign of Arcadius, since absolution is wholly the prerogative of God; and ended in that of Theodosius. Indeed, it was and the terms abovementioned may, to say the not calculated for being of any long continuance. least, have no good influence on the minds of the They regulated marriage after the example of ignorant and superstitious. Abel, who, they pretended, was married, but ABSTEMII, a name given to such persons as lived in a state of continence: they therefore al- could not partake of the cup of the eucharist, on lowed each man to marry one woman, but en account of their natural aversion to wine. joined them to live in the same state.
ABSTINENCE, in a general sense, is the up the sect, when a man and woman entered into act of refraining from something which we have this society, they adopted a boy and a girl, who a propension to or find pleasure in. It is more were to inherit their goods, and to marry upon particularly used for fasting or forbearing from the same terms of not having children, but of necessary food. Among the Jews, various kinds adopting two of different sexes.
of abstinence were ordained by their law. Among ABESTA, the name of one of the sacred the primitive Christians, some denied themselves books of the Persian Magi, which they ascribe to the use of such meats as were prohibited by that their great founder, Zoroaster. The Abesta is a law; others looked upon this abstinence with commentary on two others of their religious books contempt; as to which Paul gives his opinion, called Zend and Pazend; the three together in Romans xiv. 1, 3. The council of Jerusalem, cluding the whole system of the Ignicolæ, or wor- which was held by the apostles, enjoined the shippers of fire.
Christian converts to abstain from meats strangled, ABILITY. See INABILITY.
from blood, from fornication, and from idolatry. ABLUTION, a ceremony in use among the Acts xv. Upon this passage Dr. Doddridge ob ancients, and still practised in several parts of the serves, "that though neither things sacriticed to world. It consisted in washing the body, which idols, nor the flesh of strangled animals, nor was always done before sacriticing, or even en blood, have or can have any moral evil in them, tering their houses. Ablutions appear to be as which should make the eating of them absolutely old as any ceremonies, and external worship and universally unlawful; yet they were forbid. itself. Moses enjoined them, the heathens adopt- den to the Gentile converts, because the Jews had ed them, and Mahomet and his followers have such an aversion to them, that they could not continued them. The Egyptians, the Greeks, converse freely with any who used them. This the Romans, the Jews, all had them. The is plainly the reason which James assigns in the aneient Christians had their ablutions before very next words, the 21st verse, and it is abundcommunion, which the Romish church still retain antly sufficient. This reason is now ceased, and before their mass, and sometimes after. The the obligation to abstain from cating these things Syrians, Copts, &c. have their solemn washings ceases with it. But were we in like circumstanon Good Friday: the Turks also have their ablu- ces again, Christian charity would surely require tions, their Ghast, their Wolou, Aman, &c. us to lay ourselves under the same restraint."
ABSOLUTIÓN signifies acquittal. It is The spiritual monarchy of the western world taken also for that act whereby the priest declares introduced another sort of abstinence, which the sins of such as are penitent remitted. The may be called ritual, and consists in abstaining Romanists hold absolution a part of the sacra- from particular meats at certain times and seament of penance; and the council of Trent and sons, the rules of which are called rogations. If that of Florence declare the form or essence of I mistake not, the impropriety of this kind of abthe sacrament to lie in the words of absolution, stinence is clearly pointed out in 1 Tim. iv. 3."I absolve thee of thy sins.” According to this In England, abstinence from flesh has been en. no one can receive absolution without the privity, joined by statute, even since the Reformation ; consent, and declaration of the priest; except, particularly on Fridays and Saturdays, on vigils, therefore, the priest be willing, God himself can and on all days commonly called fish days. The not pardon any man. This is a doctrine as blas-like injunctions were renewed under queen Elizapheinous as it is ridiculous. The chief passage beth; but at the same time it was declared, that on which they ground their power of absolution this was done not out of motives of religion, as is that in John xx. 23: "Whosesoever sins ye re- if there were any diflerence in meats, but in famit, they are remitted unto them, and whosesoever vour of the consumption of fish, and to multiply sins ye retain, they are retained.” But this is the number of fishermen and mariners, as well as not to the purpose; since this was a special com- to spare the stock of sheep. See FASTING, mission to the apostles themselves, and the first ABYSS, from the Greek Evoros, composed preachers of the Gospel, and most probably re- of a priv, and Buooos, Ion. for @u505, signifies proferred to the power he gave them of discerning perly without a bottom. In the English version spirits. By virtue of this power, Peter struck of the Scriptures it is rendered by the deep, the Ananias and Sapphira dead, and Paul struck great deep, and the bottomless pit. Though Elymas blind. But, supposing the passage in primarily used in reference to a vast and untaquestion to apply to the successors of the apostles, thomed mass of waters, it is also applied to proand to ministers in general, it can only import found depths, cavities, and recesses in general, that their office is to preach pardon to the peni- whether in the earth or in the sea.
As the tent, assuring those who believe that their sins tombs and cemeteries in the East consisted of
ACCOMMODATION specious subterranean vaults or gloomy caverns, feared, however, that there is little beside the pand the sides of which were cells to receive the name of Christianity among them. Should the dead bodies, the term was employed to denote the reader be desirous to know more of this sect, he grare, or the common receptacle of the dead, may consult Father Lobo's Voyage to Abyssinia; Ram 1. 7. In the symbolical language of the Bruce's Travels ; Ludolph's History of Ethiobook of Revelation, its import is somewhat dif- pia ; and Dict. of Arts and Sciences, vol. i. p. 15. ferent. In ch. ix. 1-3, at the sounding of the ACADEMIČS, a denoinination given to the fiib trumpet,, " a star fell from heaven unto the cultivators of a species of philosophy originally arth; and to him was given the key of the bot- derived from Socrates, and afterwards illusunless pit, (literally, of the well of the abyss,) trated and enforced by Plato. The contradictory and be opened the bottomless pit; and there systems which had been successively urged upon arus a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a the world, were become so numerous, that, from great furnace, -and there came out of the smoke a view of the variety and uncertainty of human busts upon the earth.”. On this passage an opinions, many were led to believe that truth lay eminent expositor of prophecy observes, "The beyond the reach of our comprehension. The portic machinery of this vision is taken from the consequence of this conclusion was absolute scepsacred oracular caves of the ancient Pagans, ticism : hence the existence of God, the immorwhich were often thought to communicate with tality of the soul, the preferableness of virtue to the sea or the great abyss, and which were es- vice, were all held as uncertain. This sect, with pecially valued when (like that at Delphi) they that of the Epicureans, were the two chief that emitted an intoxicating vapour; it is used, there were in vogue at the time of Christ's appearance, fore, with singular propriety in foretelling the rise and were embraced and supported by persons of of a religious imposture." This symbol, accord- high rank and wealth. A consideration of the ingly is interpreted by the best expositors, of the principles of these two sects (see EPICUREANS] ne of the Mahometan delusion in the com- will lead us to form an idea of the deplorable state procement of the 7th century, and as having a of the world at the time of Christ's birth; and the Gecial allusion to Mahomet's retiring to the cave necessity there was of some divine teacher to conof Hera for the purpose of fabricating his im- vey to the mind true and certain principles of reposture. Although the phrase bottomless pit is ligion and wisdom. Jesus Christ
, therefore, is in popular usage employed as of the same import with great propriety called the Day Spring from with hell yet there is no place in the Scriptures on high, the Sun of Righteousness, that arose upwhere it can be clearly shown to be synonymous on a benighted world to dispel the clouds of ignowith the places of future torment of the wicked. rance and crror, and discover to lost man the Fate's Sacred Calendar of Prophecy; Daubuz on path of happiness and heaven. But, as we do ise Rerelation; Schleusner's Gr. Lexicon.-B. not meant to enlarge much upon these and soine
ABYSSINIAN CHURCH, that which is other sects, which belong rather to philosoestablished in the empire of Abyssinia. They phy than theology, we shall refer the reader to sze a branch of the Copts, with whom they agree Budæus's Introduction to the History of Philosoin admitting only one nature in Jesus Christ, and phy; Stanley's Lires; Prucker's History of Ejacung the council of Chalcedon; whence they Philosophy; or (which is more modern) Enare also called Monophysites and Eutychians, field's Abridgment. which see. The Abyssinian church is governed by ACCLAMATIONS, ecclesiastical, were a tashop styled Abuna. They have canons also, shouts of joy which the people expressed by way and monks. The emperor has a kind of supre- of approbation of their preachers. It hardly mxy in ecclesiastical matters. The Abyssinians seems credible to us that practices of this kind bare at divers times expressed an inclination to should ever have found their way into the church be reconciled to the see of Rome; but rather where all ought to be reverence and solemnity. frien interested views than any other motive. Yet so it was in the fourth century. The people They practice circumcision on females as well as were not only permitted, but sometimes even exmaks. They eat no meats prohibited by the law horted, by the preacher himself, to approve his taof Moses. They observe both Saturday and lents by clapping of hands, and loud acclamations Sunday sabbaths. Women are obliged to the of praise. The usual words they made use of legal purifications. Brothers marry their brother's were, “Orthodox," "Third apostle," &c. These wives &c. On the other hand, they celebrate acclamations being carried to excess, and often the Epiphany with peculiar festivity; have four misplaced, were frequently prohibited by the anLents; pray for the dead; and invoke angels. cient doctors, and at length abrogated. Even as Images in painting they venerate; but abhor all late, however, as the seventeenth and eighteenth those in relievo, except the cross. They admit centuries, we find practices that were not very De apocryphal books and the canons of the apos- decorous; such as loud humming, frequent groantir, a3 well as the apostolical constitutions, for ing, strange gestures of the body, &c. See arRaune. They allow of divorce, which is easily ticles Dancers, Shakers. ante annong them, and by the civil judge; nor ACCOMMODATION of SCRIPTURE, do their civil laws prohibit polygamy.--They is the application of it not to its literal meaning, bare, at least, as many miracles and legends of but to something analogous to it. Thus a propunts as the Romish church. They hold that phecy is said to be fulfilled properly when a thing Le soul of man is not created ; because, say they, foretold comes to pass; and by way of accommo
God finished all his works on the sixth day. dation, when an event happens to any place or 1 Thus we see that the doctrines and ritual of this people similar to what fell out some time before id for a strange compound of Judaism and to another. Thus the words of Isaiah, spoken to
Ctoristianity, ignorance and superstition. Some, those of his own time, are said to be fulfilled in modeed, have been at a loss to know whether those who lived in our Saviour's, "Ye hypothey are most Christians or Jews : it is to be crites, well did Esaias propliesy,," &c. which same
ACT OF FAITH words St. Paul afterwards accommodates to the ance; but their fanctions were different from Jews of his time. Isa. xxix. 14. Matt. xv. 8. those of their first institution. Their business Acts xiii. 41. Great care, however, should be was to light the tapers, carry the candlesticks and taken by preachers who are fond of accommo- the incense pot, and prepare the wine and water. dating texts, that they first clearly state the literal At Rome there were three kinds: 1. those who sense of the passage.
waited on the pope; 2. those who served in the ACCOMMODATION SYSTEM, a name churches; 3. and others, who together with the given to a peculiar mode of scriptural interpreta- deacons, officiated in other parts of the city. tion, adopted during the last century by Semler ACT OF FAITH (Auto da Fé,) in the Ro and other German divines, which teaches, that mish church, is a solemn day held by the Inquisimany things, uttered by our Saviour and his tion for the punishment of heretics, and the abso Apostles, in the course of their instructions, are lution of the innocent accused. They usually not to be understood as expressing the actual contrive the Auto to fall on some great festival, reality and verity of things, or conveying true that the execution may pass with the more awe; doctrines, but as merely adopted in accommoda- and it is always on a Sunday. The Auto da Fé tion to the popular belief
, and the deep-rooted may be called the last act of the inquisitorial traprejudice of the Jews. For instance, when our gedy: it is a kind of gaol delivery, appointed as Saviour speaks of persons being possessed with often as a competent number of prisoners in evil spirits, we are not according to this theory, the Inquisition are convicted of heresy, either by to imagine there was really any such things as their own voluntary or extorted confession, or on demoniacal possession, or that Christ intended the evidence of certain witnesses. The process to teach that doctrine; but as the notion had been is this :- In the morning they are brought into a long prevalent among the Jews that men under the great hall
, where they have certain hahits put on, influence of certain bodily diseases were possessed which they are to wear in the procession, and by by the devil, he accommodated himself in his which they know their doom. The procession language to their weakness and simplicity, "that is led up by Dominican friars, after which come the he might win the more." And so ihe Apostles. penitents, being all in black coats without sleeves
, See this dangerous doctrine ably canvassed and and barefooted, with a wax candle in their hands. refuted in Storr's Essay on the Historical Sense, These are followed by the penitents who have translated by Gibbs, or the original treatise in his narrowly escaped being burnt, who over their Opuscula.--B.
black coats have flames painted, with their points ACCURSED, something that lies under a turned downwards. Next come the negative and curse or sentence of excommunication. In the relapsed, who are to be burnt, having flames on Jewish idiom, accursed and crucified were their habits pointing upwards. After these come synonymous: among them, every one was ac- such as process doctrines contrary to the faith of counted accursed who died on a tree. This Rome, who besides flames pointing upwards serves perhaps to explain the difficult passage in have their picture painted on their breasts, with Rom. ix. 2, where the apostle wishes himself ac- dogs, serpents, and devils, all open-mouthed, cursed after the manner of Christ; i. e. crucified, about it. Each prisoner is attended by a famiif happily he might by such a death save his liar of the Inquisition; and those to be burnt countrymen. The preposition To here made have also a Jesuit on each hand, who are continuuse of, is used in the same sense, 2 Tim. i. 3, ally preaching to them to abjure. After the when it obviously signifies after the manner of. prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on horseback;
ACEPHALI, i. e. headicss; from the priva- and after them the Inquisitors, and other officcis tive a, and xspeha head ; such bishops were ex- of the court, on mules: last of all the inquisitorempt from the discipline and jurisdiction of their general on a white horse, led by two men with ordinary bishop or patriarch. It was also the black hats and green hatbands. A scaffold is denomination of certain sects; 1. of those who, erected big enough for two or three thousand in the affair of the council of Ephesus, refused to people; at one end of which are the prisoners, at follow either St. Cyril or John of Antioch; 2. of the other the Inquisitors. After a sermon inade certain heretics in the filth century, who, at first, up of encomiums on the Inquisition, and invecfollowed Peter Mongus, but afterwards abandoned tives against heretics, a priest ascends a desk near him upon his subscribing to the council of Chalce- the scaffold, and having taken the abjuration of don, they themselves adhering to the Eutychian the penitents, recites the final sentence of those heresy: and, 3. of the followers of Severus of An- who are to be put to death, and delivers theta tioch, and of all, in general, who held out against to the secular arm, carnestly beseeching at the the council of Chalcedon.
same time the secular power not to touch their ACOEMETE, or ACOEMETI, an order of blood, or put their lires in danger!!! The monks at Constantinople in the fifth century, prisoners, being thus in the hands of the civet whom the writers of that and the following ages magistrate, are presently loaded with chains, and called Axorpotas, that is, Watchers, because they carried first to the secular gaol, and from thence, performed divine service day and night without in an hour or two, brought before the civil judge; intermission. They divided themselves into who, after asking in what religion they itend io three classes, who alternately succeeded one an- die, pronounces sentence, on sach as declare they other, so that they kept up a perpetual course of die in the communion of the church of Rome, worship. This practice they founded upon that that they shall be first strangled, and then bumi passage-"Pray without ceasing," 1 Thess. v. 17. to ashes: or such as die in any other faith, that
ACOLYTHI, or Acoluthi, from axonousos, a they be burnt alive. Both are immediately carfollower, young people who, in the primitive ried to the Ribera, the place of execution, where times, aspired to the ministry, and for that pur- there are as many stakes set up as there are pose continually attended the bishop. In the prisoners to be burnt, with a quantity of dry furze komish church, Acolythi were of longer continu-l about them. The stakes of the professed that is