תמונות בעמוד

unmixed good."

"* Again, he says, “ You must say that the Creator either was a law-giver, or not.

If he was a law. giver, he was just; but if just, he was not good; and if so, Christ preached another god, when he said, “ There is none good but one, that is God.'”+

Though Simon avowed himself an enemy to Christianity, he nevertheless undertook to prove the truth of his system with respect to the maker of the world from the Scriptures, as argumentum ad hominem to Peter and the Jews; alleging, as a proof that there was another god besides the Supreme, the imperfections of Adam, who was made after the image of this god; his being punished by being cast out of paradise ; God's saying, “ Let us descend to see what is doing in Sodom; let us cast out Adam, lest he should eat of the tree of life, and live for ever;" his saying that he repented of his making man, that he smelled a sweet savour, and that he tempted Abraham. I

All these circumstances he thought to be proofs either of imperfection, ignorance, envy, vice, or severity, in the being who is styled God, and who is supposed to be the maker and governor of the world; who, therefore could not be the Supreme Being, because he is omniscient, and also absolutely perfect and good.

. As a proof that mention is made in the Scriptures of there being more gods than one, and that the great God was not offended at it, Simon alleges God's saying, Adam is become one of us. The serpent's saying, Ye shall be as gods ; its being said, (Exod. xxii. 28,) « Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.” The gods who have not made the heavens and the earth shall perish, &c. Which he says implied that there were other gods who had made


Οι μεν προσεςιν ανθρωποις, το κακoις ειναι και αγαθοις· τω δε Θεω, το ασυΓκριλω αγαθω ειναι. Hom. xix. Sect. xi. p. 746. (P.)

+ Αυλικα γουν τον Δημιεργον αυθον και νομοθείην φης ειναι, η εχ' ει μεν εν νομοθελης εςιν δικαιος τυγχανει δικαιο» δε ων, αγαθό» εκ εςιν ει δε εκ εςιν, έτερον εκηρυσσεν ο Ιησες το λεγειν· Μη με λεγε αγαθον, ο γαρ αγαθος εις εςιν, ο Πατηρ ο εν τοις έρανοις. Hom. xviii. Sect. i. p. 797. (P.)

1 Aυτικα γεν ο καθ' ομοίωσιν αυτο γεγονος Αδαμ και τυφλό» κτιζεται, και γνωσιν αγαθα και κακο εχων παραδεδoται, και παραβατης ευρισκεται, και το παραδεισο εκβαλλεται και θανατω τιμωρειται. “Ομοιως τε και ο πλασας αυτον, επει μη πανταχοθεν έλεσει, επι τη Σοδομων καταρροφη, λεγει δευτε, και καταβαντες ιδωμεν ει κατα την κραυγην αυτων την ερχόμενης προς με συντελενται· ει δι μη, ινα γνω" και αγνοεντα αυτον δεικνυσιν. Το δε ειπειν περι τε Αδαμ' εκβαλωμεν αυτον, μηπως εκτεινας την χειρα αυτο αψηται τα ξυλο της ζωης, και φαγη, και ζησεται εις τον αιωνα, το ειπεν μηπως αγνοει' το δε επαγαγειν, μηπων φαγων ζησεται εις τον αιώνα, και φθονει. Και το γεγραφθαι ότι ενεθυμηθη ο Θεος ότι εποιησεν τον ανθρωπον. Και μετανοει, και αγνοεί

-και το γεγραφθαι, και οσφρανθη Κυροις οσμην ευωδιαν, ενδεες εςι, και το επι κνιση σαρκων ησθηναι εκ αγαθο» το δε πειραζειν, ως χεγραπται, και επειρασεν Κυρια» τον Αβρααμ, κακό, και το τελος της υπομονης αγγουντο». Ηom. iii. Sect. Xxxix. p. 642. (Ρ.)

the heavens and the earth. Deut. x. 17: “ The Lord thy God, he is God of gods. Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the Gods. The Lord standeth in the congregation of the Gods. *

He likewise pretended to bring proofs of his doctrine from the New Testament. Thus, in order to prove that there is another God besides him that is supremely good, Simon alleges Christ's saying “ No man knoweth the Father but the Son, and him to whom the Son shall reveal him ;" as it, before this time, the Father had been unknown to all. . He also asserted, that Christ represents one God as a just and severe being, and not a good one.t

It cannot be worth while at this day to give a serious answer to such arguments as these ; but it may not be amiss to shew in what manner, and on what principles, they were answered in the age in which they were urged. With respect to the general system of these philosophers, viz. that the Supreme Being, or the God of gods, can produce other beings who may be properly called gods by generation, the latter being, as it were, the sons of the former, Peter says, " It is the property of the Father to be unbegotten, and of the Son to be begotten ; but that which is begotten cannot be compared with that which is unbegotten, or self-begotten.” Simon says, “ Are they not the same on account of generation ?” meaning, probably, their being produced from the very substance of the Father. Peter answered, “ He who is not in all respects the same with any other, cannot be entitled to the same appellation.”I He also says, according to the philosophy of the age, that “ the souls of men are immortal, being from the breath of

p. 725.

Εγω δε φημι τας πεπιςευμενας γραφας παρα Ιωδαιοις πολλες λεγειν θεες, και μη χαλεπαινειν επι τετω τον Θεον, τω αυτον δια των γραφων αυτε πολλές θεος ειρηκεναι.Ο μεν εν οφις ειπων, Εσεσθε ως θεοι, ως οντων ειρηκως φαινεται. Ταυτη μαλλον η και Θεος εμαρτυρησεν, ειπων, Ιδε γεγονεν Αδαμ ως εις ημων ετως ο τες πολλες ειπων οφες ειναι θεες εψεύσατο. Παλιν τω γεγραφθαι θεες και κακολογησεις.-Πολλες σημαινει θεος και αλλοτε, θεοι οι τον ερανον και την γην εκ εποιησαν απολεσθωσαν.--Και παλιν γεγραπται, Κυριος ο Θεος σε ατος Θεος των θεων. Και παλιν, Τις ομοιος σοι, Κυριε, εν θεοις ; Και παλιν, Θεος θεων Κυριος. Και παλιν, ο Θεος εςη εν συναγωγη θεων. Ηom. xvi. Sect. vi.

(Ρ.) t Και ουτως τους προ αυτου σασιν αγνωςος ην ο Πατηρ.

-Φοβερον και δικαιον συνιςησι θεον, λεγων, Μη φοβήθητε απο του αποκτεινοντας το σωμα τη δε ψυχη μη δυναμενου τι τοιησαι: Φοβηθητε τον δυναμενον και σωμα και ψυχην εις την γενναν του συρος βαλειν. Ναι, λεγω υμιν, τουτον φοβηθητε.- -Ο δε εκδικουντα και αμειβομενον λεγον θεον, δικαιον αυτον τη φυσει συνιςησιν, και ουκ αγαθον. Ηom. xvii. Sect. xlv. p. 731. (Ρ.)

1 Προς τουτοις δε, του Πατρος το μη γεγενησθαι εςιν, υιου δε το γεγενησθαι' γεννητον δε

αγεννητη η και αυτογεννητώ ου συκρινεται. Και ο Σιμων εφη·ει και τη γενεσει ου ταυτην εςιν ; Και ο Πετρος εφη" ο μη κατα παντα το αυτο ων τινι, τας αυτας αυτό τασας εχειν προσωνυμιας ου δυναται. Ηom. xvi, Sect. xvi. p. 798. (Ρ.)

God, and therefore of the same substance with him, but that they are not therefore gods.”

This is by no means such an answer as one of the orthodox Fathers would have made. On the contrary, they always pleaded the propriety of the logos being called God, and for the same reason that Simon here alleges, viz, his being generated from God, and therefore, of his being God of God, as it is expressed in the Nicene Creed. In this work Peter is represented as being more scrupulous how he applied the term God. “ Wherefore,” says he, “ above all things consider that none reigns with bim, nor is any one entitled to the appellation of God besides himself." +

Equally unlike the reasoning of the Catholics is Peter's reply to the arguments of Simon from the Old Testament. In answer to what he alleged from the phrase, “Let us make man,” viz. that “ two or more were implied, and not one only,” Peter says, “ It is one who said to his own wisdom, Let us make man. For this wisdom is his own Spirit, always rejoicing with him, and it is united as a soul to God, and is extended from him as a hand that maketh all things." According to the reasoning of this Unitarian, God was only represented by Moses as holding a soliloquy with himself, and not as speaking to another intelligent person, which the orthodox fathers supposed. His comparing the wisdom of God to a hand extended from him, was agreeable to the ideas of all the philosophical Unitarians of the early ages, as will be seen in its proper place.

With respect to the term God, Peter is represented as replying, that it is sometimes used in the Scriptures in an inferior sense, so that angels, and even men, may

be called gods; but that this was far from amounting to the acknowledgment of such gods as Simon contended for. Peter alleges, that angels are sometimes called gods, and instances in him who spake in the bush, and him who wrestled with Jacob. He also observes that Moses is called a God to Pharoah, though he was no more than a man.

Αλλα και τουτο μαθε τα ανθρωπων σωματα ψυχας εχει αθανατους, την του Θεου ανοην ημφιεσμενας και εκ το Θεο προελθασαι, της μεν αυτης ασιας εςιν, θεοι δε 8%

Hom. xvi. Sect. xvi. p. 728. (P.) * Διο προ παντων εννοε, οτι εδεις αυτό συναρχει, εδεις της αυτο κοινωγει ονομασιας, TATO Ó' on heyeca. 806. Hom. iii. Sect. xxxvii. p. 642. (P.)

1 Και είπεν ο Θεος: Ποιησωμεν ανθρωπον κατ' εικονα και καθ' ομοίωσιν ημετεραν το, ποιησαμεν, δυο σημαινει, η πλειοναις, πλην εχ ενα εις εσιν, και τη αυτα σοφια ειπων Ποιησωμεν ανθρωπον. Η δε σοφια ωσπερ ιδιο πνευματι, αυτος αει συνεχειρεν ηνωται μεν ως ψυχη τω Θεώ εκτείνεται δε απ' αυτο, ως χειρ δημιεργοσα το σαν. Hom. xvi. Sect. xii. p. 727. (P.)

" To us,


he says,

" there is one God, who made all things, and governs all things, whose Son Christ is.”*

And whereas Simon had insinuated that, according to the rule laid down by Moses, to distinguish the prophets of the true God from those who should speak in the name of false gods, even though they should work miracles, Christ ought to have been rejected as a false prophet, or another god, Peter says, “Our Lord never said that there was any other God besides him that made all things, nor did he ever call himself God; but he pronounced him blessed who called him the Son of God.”+

Had not this curious piece of antiquity been imperfect, and even been broken off in the very midst of the principal disputation between Peter and Simon, we might have known more concerning the state of the reasoning between the Unitarian Christians, and the oriental philosophers. I In what manner, and on what principles, the orthodox Christians reasoned upon these subjects, we have abundant information.

As this work is the only one that is universally allowed to be written by an Unitarian, in so early a period, g I shall conclude this article with citing from it a few more passages expressive of the Unitarian principles. • The whole

Ημιν δε εις Θεος, εις και τας κτισεις πεποιηκως, διακοσμησας τα παντα • 8 και ο Xpaços 'ulos. Hom. xvi. Sect. xiv. p. 727. (P.)

+ Ο Κυριος ημων, οτε θεες ειναι εφθεγξατο, παρα των κτισαντα τα παντα, έτε αυτον θεον ειναι ανηγορευσεν· υιον δε Θεό, τα τα παντα διακοσμησαντο», τον ειποντα αυτον Evoyas ersnapcev. Hom. xvi. Sect. xv. p. 728. (P.)

I 'It is probable, however, that we do not lose much by this mutilation, as the Recognitions are entire, and this work Dr. Lardner supposes to have been only another, and a later edition of the Homilies. He thinks so because it is more faished and artificial. Both the works, he thinks, were originally Ebionite, and therefore, that if there be any Arianism in them, it has been interpolated. Credib. Pt. ii. II. p. 812. (P.) Works, II. pp. 360, 361.

Beausobre supposes that the author of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs was an Ebionite, and this appears to have been written in a very early period. Others think it to have been the work of a Jew, and that it has been altered by a Christian. (P.) See Lardner, 11. pp. 324–354. VII. p. 91, where he says, “ it is a very curious work. When it came in my way, I enlarged in my extracts of it; nor do I now repent of that labour.”

Besides Whiston's English translation of the Testaments, to which Lardner refers, there was one published in 1710, and reprinted in 1731, with a wood-cut, rudely executed, at the head of each Testament, a preface by Richard Day, and the following title: “ The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Sons of Jacob. Translated out of Greek into Latin, by Robert Grosthead, sometime Bishop of Lincoln ; and out of his Copy, into French and Dutch by others; and now Englished. To the Credit whereof, an ancient Greek Copy, written in Parchment, is kept in the University Library of Cambridge." At the end is some account of the discovery, and translation from the Hebrew, of these Testaments, stating that Grosthead “ did in the year 1242 translate them painfully and faithfully, word for word, out of Greek into Latin, by the help of Mr. Nicholas Greek, Parson of the church of Datchot, and Chaplain to the Abbot of St. Albans".

church,” he says, may be compared to a large ship, which carries a great number of men, who are desirous of going to inhabit a city of some good state, through a violent tempest. Let the proprietor of this ship be God, and the governor” (or master) Christ, the steersman the bishop, the sailors the presbyters, &c.”* And Christ is represented as joining with the rest in praying to God for a prosperous voyage. +

The demiurgus of the Gnostics was not the Supreme Being, but an inferior one, and according to the Catholics, it was the logos, or Christ; but in this work the Supreme Being himself is represented as the demiurgus, or the immediate creator of all things. I

The term generation was applied both by the Gnostics and by the orthodox to the Supreme Being; but this writer says, “ To beget is the property of men, not of God.”

All the Unitarians of antiquity resolutely held what they called the monarchy of the Supreme God, the Father of all. This was urged against the Trinitarians who made a second God of Christ; and it is urged by Peter against Simon, saying, “ He ought to be rejected, who even listens to any thing against the monarchy of God.”||

Cotelerius says, that there are interpolations of Arians in this work. But if there be any such, they have escaped my notice. There is, however, a pretty evident interpolation of some Trinitarian in it, viz. in the doxology.

6 Thine is the eternal praise, and glory [to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit] for ever, Amen."I That the words inclosed in brackets are an interpolation, is evident, not only from their holding a language entirely different from that of the whole work, but from the awkwardness and incoherence with which they are introduced, after a pronoun in the singular number, viz. thine. The interpolator would

Εοικεν γαρ

δλον το πραγμα της εκκλησιας νην μεγαλη, δια σφοδρ χειμωνος ανδρας φερωση εκ πολλων τοπων οντας, και μιαν τινα αγαθης βασιλειας πολιν οικειν θελοντας: εγω μεν εν υμιν και ταυτης δεσποτης Θεος, και παρεικασθω, ο μεν κυβερνητης Χριση, ο πρωρευς επισκοπων, δι ναυται πρεσβυτεροις, δι τοιχαρχοι διακονοις, οι ναυτολογοι τους κατηχεσιν, τους επιβαταις το των αδελφων πληθω», το βυθω ο κοσμος, αι αντιπνοιαι τοις πειρασμοις, οι διωγμοι και οι κινδυνοι και παντοδαπαι θλιψεις ταις τρικυμιαις. Εpist. Sect. xiv. p. 609. (P.)

* Οι δε παντες τω Θεώ σερι το ορια αλεειν προσευχεσθωσαν. Sect. Χν. ibid. (Ρ.)

Η Ομως αυτος μονο- δημoς αγγελων και πνευματων, βελης νευματι δημιουργησας, ETANO E Tes epaves. Hom. jii. Sect. xxxiii. p. 641. (P.)

και “Οτι το γενναν ανθρωπων εςιν, ο Θεο. Ηom. xix. Sect. x. p. 746. (Ρ.)

Π Αξιος εν της αποβολης σας κατα της το Θεε μοναρχιας αυτο μονον καν ακεσαι τι TOLETOV JEANCAG Hom. iii. Sect. ix. p. 636. (P.)

Η Σε γαρ εςιν δοξα αιωνιος, ύμνος [πατρι, και υιω, και άγιο πνευματι] εις της OPM Tartas abraç. anny. Hom. iji. Sect. lxxii. p. 650. (P.)

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