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upon his suffering and resurrection, and things belonging to the flesh. And Paul, when he speaks of his being the Son of David according to the flesh, teaches us nothing farther, that what belonged to the humanity might be acknowledged ; but the Son of Thunder discourses concerning his mysterious and eternal existence; so that, omitting what he did, he relates what he was." *

The same writer says, that the apostles concealed the doctrine of the miraculous conception on account of the incredulity of the Jews with respect to it, and that when they began to preach the gospel, they insisted chiefly on the resurrection of Christ. With respect to the former, (and the same, may, no doubt, be applied to the latter,) he says, “ He did not give his own opinion only, but that which came by tradition from the fathers and eminent men. He, therefore, would not have his hearers to be alarmed, or think his account of it extraordinary.” +

Thus, he says, that "it was not to give offence to the Jews, that Peter, in his first speech to them, did not say that Christ did the wonderful works of which he spake, but that God did them by him; that by speaking more modestly he might conciliate them to himself.” I The same caution he attributes to him in “not saying that Christ, but that God spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, that by these means he might bring them gradually to the faith."

» ΚΑΙ After treating pretty largely of the conduct of the apostles, with respect to their insisting on the doctrine of the resurrection of Christ, rather than that of his divinity, immediately after the descent of the Holy Spirit, he says, “ As to the Jews who had daily heard and been taught out of the law, “Hear, Ο Israel, the Lord thy God is one Lord, and besides

Δια τελο και ο Πετρο» εν αρχη τελω κεχρηται το τροπω" και γαρ ταυλην (πρωην) προς Ιεδαιος εδημηγορει δημηγοριαν" και επειδη δεν περι της θεοτητες αυτε τεως σαφες μαθειν ισχυον, δια τελο τους περι της οικονομιας ενδιατριβει λογοις· ένα τελους η ακοη γυμνασθεισα τη λοιπη προοδοποιηση διδασκαλια και ει βελoιλο τις την δημηγοριαν σασαν ανωθεν διελθειν, ευρησει τελο ο λεγω σφοδρα διαλαμπον" και γαρ ανδρα αυτον καλει και αυτος, και τους τα παθες και της αναςάσεως και της κατα σαρκα γεννησεως ενδιατριβει λογοις. Και Παυλος δε, όταν λεγη, το γενομενο εκ σπερμαίος Δαβίδ καλα σαρκα, ουδεν έτερον ήμας παιδευει, αλλ' ότι το εποιησεν επι της οικονομιας παρειληπται· δ και ημεις ομολογεμεν αλλ' και της βρονης διος σερι της αρρητο και προαιωνια ημιν υπαρξεως διαλεγείαι νυν δια τελο το εποιησεν αφεις, το ην εθηκεν. In Johan. Ηom. ii. Opera, VΙΙ. p. 20. (Ρ.)

* Αλλα μη θορυβείσθε προς το παραδοξον τε λεγομενο ουδε γαρ εμος ο λογος αλλα πατερων ημετερων θαυματων και επισημων ανδρων. Ιn Μatt. C. . Ηom. iii. VΙΙ. p. 20. (Ρ.) 1 Ουκελι λεγει ότι αυτον, αλλ' ότι δι' αυτα ο Θεος, ένα μαλλον τω μετριαζειν εφελκυ

In Acta Apostolorum, C. ii. Hom. vi. VIII. p. 491. (P.) και Ου λεγει αν ειπεν ο Χρις», αλλ' ών ελαλησεν ο Θεός, ετι των συσκιαζειν μαλλον αυτες επαγομενον εις πιςιν ηρεμα. Ιn ibid. Ηom. ix. VΙΙΙ. p. 511. (Ρ.)

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him there is no other,' having seen him (Jesus) nailed to a cross, yea, having killed and buried him themselves, and not having seen him risen again ; if they had heard that this person was God equal to the Father, would not they have rejected and spurned at it?" I want words in English to express the force of the Greek in this place. The Latin translator renders it, Nonne maxime omnes ab his verbis abhorruissent, ac resiliissent et oblatrassent.

66 On this account,” he adds," they (the apostles) brought them forwards gently and by slow degrees, and used great art in condescending to their weakness.” *

Chrysostom represents the apostle as beginning his Epistle to the Hebrews with saying, that “ It was God who spake by the prophets, and not that Christ himself had spoken by them, because their minds were weak, and they were not able to bear the doctrine concerning Christ.”+. He even says, that “when he there speaks of Christ as above the angels,” he still spake of his humanity. See,” says he, caution, oρα την συνεσιν την πολλην”the very expression used by Athanasius on a similar occasion.

But we find no trace of either Jews or Gentiles having received these sublime doctrines that Chrysostom alludes to, in the age of the apostles.

of the apostles. Nay we see that he himself represents the apostle Paul as obliged to use the same caution with respect to the Jews, when he wrote the Epistle to the Hebrews, which was so late as A.D. 62, about two years before his death.

Theodoret observes, that“ in the genealogy of Christ given by Matthew, this writer did not add ' according to the flesh,'

* Πως δε αν Ιεδαιοι οι καθ' έκαςην ημεραν, μανθανονίες υπο το νομο, Ακεε, Ισραηλ, κυριος ο Θεο σε κυριο- εις εσιν, και πλην αυλe ουκ εςιν αλλος, επι ξυλο σαυρε ιδονίες προσηλωμενον αυτον, μαλλον δε και σαυρωσανλες και θαψανίες, και ουδε αναςανία θεασαμενοι, ακονίες ότι Θεοεςιν αυτών δυτών, και το πατρι ισο», ουκ αν μαλισα σαντων απεπηδησαν και απερραγησαν. Διαιι τελο ηρεμα, και κατα μικρον, αυτες προσβιβαζεσι, και wonin Mey xexporlar to ons ouykalabATEWG OIKOVOJsq. lu Acta, Hom.i. Opera, VIII. p. 447. (P.)

1 Και θεα τι συνείως αυτο ειρηκε" ου γαρ ειπεν ο Θεός ελαλησεν· καιλουγε αυτG. λαλησας" αλλ' επειδη ασθενεις αυλων ησαν αι ψυχαι, και εδεπω ακέειν ηδυνανίο τα περι τα X2158, qmos é o Gu di' avlou chahmoty. (In Heb. C. i. Opera, X. p. 1756.) That is, “See how prudently he spoke: for he said, God spake though it was himself that spake; but because their minds were weak and they were not able to bear the things concerning Christ, he says, God spake by him.

N.B. The ou in the second clause of this passage must be inserted by mistake for kas, or some other particle, as it contradicts what is said in the close of the sentence, and the obvious sense of the whole. Or, perhaps, the first fou should have been Xpushu. (P.)

Perlhaps an easier emendation would be, υιος: ου γαρ ειπεν ο (υιος) ελαλησαν και/οιγε κ. λ., αλλ' επειδη κ. λ. φησιν ο Θεος δι' αυτο (the text 15 εν υιο) ελάλησεν. (Χ.)

| ln Heb. C. i. Opera, X. p. 1755. (P.)

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because the men of that time would not bear it;" evidently meaning, that they would thereby have been led into a suspicion that, in the idea of the writer, he had some higher origin, and that they would have been offended at it.

" But the apostle Paul,” he says, “ could not avoid that expression in his Epistle to the Romans.” [i. 3.) He adds, that “ before his death, not only to the other Jews, but to the apostles themselves, he did not appear as a God, nor did his miracles lead them to form that opinion of him.”* This writer also says, that the apostles in mentioning the subjection of Christ to the Father, (1 Cor. xv. 28,) spake of him more lowly than was necessary for their advantage.”+

@cumenius also says, that “ Peter, in his first speech, [Acts ii. 30,] though by saying that Clurist rose according to the flesh,' he intimated that he was God, yet refers all to the Father, that they might receive his sayings.”: He makes the same observation on Peter's saying, “ the promise of the Spirit” was from “ the Father.' [Ver. 33.] " He refers things to the Father, that he might draw his hearers."'$ Again, he observes, that he said, The Father, and not Christ, promised that appearance by Joel.”* On another part of his speech, [ver. 13,] in which mention is made of God glorifying “his Son Jesus," he says, “ he spake humbly concerning him.”+

“Η γαρ

του καλα

σαρκα προσθηκη, αινιτίείαι ως το Θεου και παίρος υιος εσιιν αληθως καλα την θεοτηλα ουδε γαρ επι των τελο μονον ονλων όπερ ορωνίαι, εςιν ευρειν το καλα σαρκα προσκειμενον" και μαρτυς ο μακαριος Ματθαιος ο ευαγfέλισης ειρηκως γαρ Αβρααμ εγεννησε τον Ισαακ, Ισαακ δε εγεννησε τον Ιακωβ, Ιακως δε εγεννησε τον Ιεδαν, και πασαν εφεξης την γενεαλογιαν διεξελθων, υδαμε το καλα σαρκα προς εθεικεν ουχ ήρμοτίε γαρ αυτοις ανθρωποις εσιν ή τοιαυλη προσθηκη ενιαυθα δε, επειδη ουκ ανθρωπό» μονον εςιν, αλλα και Θεος προαιωνιος ο ενανθρωπήσας Θεος λογος, του σπερματος του Δαβιδ μνημονευσας ο θειος αποςολος, αναγκαιως το καλα σαρκα προς εθεικε, σαφως ήμας διδαξας, πως μεν υιος εςι του Θεου, πως δε του Δαβιδ εχρηματισε.

Προ μεν του σταυρου και του παθες, ο δεσπολης Χριςος ου μονον τοις αλλοις Ιεδαιοις, αλλα και αυλους τους αποστολοις ουκ εδοκει ειναι Θεος προσεκταιον γαρ τοις ανθρωπινοις, εσθιονία τε και σινoνία, και καθευδονία, και κοπιωνία θεωμενοι, και ουδε τα θαυματα αυτες προς ταυτην επoδηγει την δοξαν αυτικα τοινυν το καλα την θαλατταν θεασαμενοι θαυμα ελεγον σολαπος εστιν έτος και ανθρωπος, ότι και η θαλασσα και οι ανεμοι υπακασιν αυτο και Δια του τελο και ο κυριος ελεγε προς αυτους: Πολλα εχω λεγειν υμιν, αλλ' ου δυνασθε βασταζειν αρτι.

Προ μεν εν τω παθες τοιαυλας ειχαν δοξας σερι αυτομελα δε την αναςασιν, και την εις ερανες αναβασιν, και τα παναγια πνευμαίος επιφοιτησιν, και τας παντοδαπως θαυματουργιας ας επέτελεν, καλενλες αυτο το σεβασμιον ονομα, εγνωσαν άπαντες δι πιςευονίες, ότι και Θεος εςι, και το Θεου μονογενης υιος. Ιn Rom. C. i. Opera, 1ΙΙ. p. 15, ed. Halc. (Ρ.)

* Ο μεν ουν θειος αποςολος την εκ της Ελληνικής μυθολογιας φυομενην υφορωμενος βλαζην, ταυλα προςεθεικε, ταπεινότερους χρησαμενος λογους δια την εκεινων ωφελειαν.

In 1 Cor. Χν. Opera, 1ΙΙ. p. 273. (Ρ.)

* Και ουδε έτως ηλθεν εις τον Χριςον, αλλα παλιν εγκωμιαζεται ο Δαβίδ, δια του προφησης ουν υπαρχων, ίνα δια την προς τιμήν και το γενος το απ' εκεινε, τε Χριςο δεξωνίαι τον περι της αναςασεως λογον και ουκ ειπεν, ότι επηγειλαιο αυτω ο Θεος αλλ' ο μειζον και απαραβαλον έν, το ωμοσε το δε κατα σαρκα κηρυτονος εςιν, ως και Θεος Χριςος, και συνεσιν εν τω πατρι παντα δε τω πατρι ανατιδησιν, ένα τεως παραδεξωνίαι τα λεγομενα. Opera, Ι. p. 21. (Ρ.)

5 Και παλιν τω πατρι ανατιθησι το γεγονος ουδε γαρ έτω τες ακροατας επισπωμενος. acumen. I. p. 21. (P.)

Quoting Theodoret, he “ calls low discourses concerning Christ the first elements. To those who were not capable of a perfect faith, the preachers of the gospel offered what relates to the humanity of Christ. Thus the blessed Peter preaching to the Jews, measures his doctrine by the weakness of his hearers. For he says, [Acts ii. 29,j Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you. And ye have need, he says, from negligence, not being such, (that is, perfect,) of milk, not of strong meat. He calls low discourses concerning Christ, those that relate to the flesh, milk, and strong meat for the perfect, discourses concerning the divinity of Christ. For those, therefore, who were babes in faith, there was need of low discourses, as milk is fit for babes; but for the perfect in faith, there was need of strong meat, the sublime philosophy concerning Christ. Every one, he says, who partakes of milk, that is, every one who wants these low discourses concerning the humanity of Christ, (for they are milk,) is unskilful, and not a partaker of the word of righteousness. By the word of righteousness, he means the doctrine of the divinity of Christ,” &c.

Having called discourses concerning the humanity of Christ, the first principles, and those concerning his divinity perfection, lest they should despond, as not being worthy of the most perfect discourses, he endeavours to give them those that were perfect. And he says so, but not in the same sense in which he had used the word perfect before, for they were not able to bear it. Buthe disposes his disΚατ'

αρχας μεν γαρ τον πρωτα (σατερα) ελεγεν, ου τον Χριςον απαγΓειλασθαι τετο δια Ιωήλ του προφητο. Opera, I. p. 21. (Ρ.)

+ Ετι των ταπεινοθερων εχεθαι- -δια του ειπειν ουκ ιδια δυναμει θαυμαλαργησαι-το προσθειναι τον παιδα, ου γαρ το αυλοδοξαςον ενι προσθηκην δοξης λαβειν. Ιbid. p. 28. (Ρ.)

1 ΑΛΛΟ. Στοιχεια της αρχής των λογιων τε Θεου, της ταπεινοθερες περι Χρις λογους εκαλεσε τους γαρ μηδε τω την πιςιν εσχηκοσι τελειαν, τα περι της ανθρωποτηθος προσεφερον μονα, της αληθειας οι κηρυκες" έτως ο μακαριος Πετρος Ιεδαιοις δημηγορων εμετρησε την διδασκαλιαν τη ασθενεια των ακέοντων. Ιησαν γαρ, εφη, τον Ναζαραιον, ανδρα απο του Θεου αποδεδειγμενον εις υμας. Και γεγονατε χρειαν εχονίες. Αυτοι γεγονατε, φησιν, εκ ραθυμιας, ουκ οντες τοιολοι, γαλακτος και ουτερεας τροφεως" γαλα λεγει τις ταπεινες περι Χριςο λογές, τες σερι της σαρκος Σερεαν δε τροφην, τις τελειες της περι της θεοτηλος αυλές τοις ουν ετι νηπιoις την πιςιν εδει λογων, ταπεινων (καταλληλον γαρ τοις νηπιoις το γαλα) τοις δε τελειοις την πισιν, της σερεας τροφης και της υψηλης σερι Χριςο φιλοσοφιας σας γαρ ο μελεχων γαλακτος, σας γαρ, φησιν, ο μετεχων λογων ταπεινων, των περι της ανθρωποτηθος του κυριε (εται γαρ το γαλά) απειρος εστι και αμελοχος λογα δικαιοσύνης λογον δε δικαιοσύνης λεγει, τον περι της θεοτηθος τε κυριεη στερεα τροφη και υψηλος λογος και τα υψηλα περι Χριστε δογματα. In Heb, Opera, ΙΙ. p. 353. (Ρ.) VOL. VI

3 F

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course in another manner, calling first principles, baptism, the imposition of hands, and the sign ;” perhaps that of the cross, “and perfection, the philosophy of works.

Commenting on Heb. v. 7, he was heard, in that he feared," Ecumenius says,

" this he said on account of the weakness of his hearers.”+ And again, speaking of God having " raised up Christ;” (Rom. viii. 11, 1 Cor. xv. 15,] he says, “the divine Paul often speaks in a low style; saying, That the Father raised up Christ.” I

Theophylact, commenting on Heb. i., says, Why did he not say that Christ spake to us? It was both because they were weak, and not yet able to hear concerning Christ, and to shew, that the Old and the New Testament have the same author.”

I shall now proceed to shew, that, in the opinion of the same fathers, the apostles thought it necessary to observe the same caution in teaching the doctrine of the divinity of Christ to the Gentiles, that had been requisite with respect to the Jews.

CHAPTER VI.

Of the Caution observed by the Apostles in teaching the Doc

trines of the Pre-existence and Divinity of Christ to the Gentile Converts.

The apostles found the Jews fully persuaded concerning the doctrine of the Divine Unity, and on that account they are represented by the fathers as cautious how they taught the doctrine of the divinity of Christ, Jest their hearers should have been staggered at it, as if they had preached two Gods. The Gentiles were in a quite different situation, believing in

* Ανω ειπων αρχην τους περι ανθρωποτηθος τα κυρια λογους, τελειοτηλα δε τους περι 986τηθος, ένα μη αδημονωσιν ετοι, ως μη αξιομενοι των τελειότερων λογων, λεγειν τις τελειες πειραιαι· λεγει δε, ουχ ώς ανω τελειες εκαλεσε, (ου γαρ ισχυον ακουσαι,) αλλ' έτερως μεθοδευει τον λογον, αρχην μεν το βαπτισμα καλων, και την εν αυτω των χειρων επιθεσιν και σφραγιδα, τελειοτηλα δε, την δι' εργων φιλοσοφιαν. Pliotius in Ecumen. in Ηeb., ΙΙ. p. 354. (P.)

+ Και εισακέσθεις. Tοσείον, φησιν, εσηκεσθη, ότι και ανεστη τελο δε ειπε δια την ασθενειαν των ακρονίων, επω μεγαλας εχονίων περι Χριστε δοξας. Των δε ταπεινων τελων ρηματων δυο αιτιαι, ήτε σαρξ, και η ασθενια των ακρονίων. Ιn Heb., Ι. p. 319. (Ρ.)

* Πολλαχε γαρ ταπεινοθερα ο θειος Παυλό» φθεγομενος, τον πατερα φησιν ανασTural Toy Xplotoy. Ibid. p. 310. (P.)

και Δια τι δε ουκ ειπεν, ελάλησεν ημιν ο Χριστος; Αμα μεν, δια το ασθενεις ειναι αυτες, και μηπω δυνασθαι ακεσαι σερι τα Χριστε άμα δε και δεικνύων, ότι η παλαια και η καινη, ενος εστι και το αυτο. 11. p. 876. (Ρ.)

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