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of the Greeks, describes them as atheistical, some of them introducing several contrary principles, and others ascribing the government of the universe to wicked persons.* He also says, that Simon Magus was the leader of all heresy.t
Cyril of Jerusalem, whose neighbourhood seems to have abounded with Gnostics, and especially with Manichæans, advises to “ hate all heretics, but especially those who had their name from madness," # meaning Manes ; and through his whole work he generally speaks of the Gnostics as if he had thought them to be the only proper heretics, though he does not scruple occasionally to give the same appellation to others who thought differently from him. Thus he joins others in calling Simon Magus the inventor of all heresy. § “ The heretics," he says, “ do not acknowledge one God Almighty. For almighty is he who rules over all, and has power over all; for they who say he is Lord of the soul, but not of the body, do not make him perfect. For how can he be perfect who wants either of these? If he has power over the soul, and not over the body, how is he almighty; and if he has power over the body, and not over the soul, how is he almighty ?"||
The term heretic seems also to be appropriated to the Gnostics in the following passage: - Nor has the devil made these attempts with respect to the Gentiles only; but many who are falsely called Christians, improperly called by the fragrant name of Christ, have impiously dared to alienate God from his own works. I mean the heretics, who are abominable and atheistical, pretending to be lovers of Christ, but who are in reality haters of Christ; for he who blasphemes the Father of Christ is the enemy of the Son. Ye have dared to say, that there are two deities, one good and the other evil.” “Let the mouths of all heretics be stopped who complain of the body, or rather of him that formed it." Lastly, immediately after speaking of Unitarians, who said that Christ was from the earth only, he mentions “the heretics, who say that Jesus is one person, and Christ another.”+ Heretics seem also to be used as synonymous to Gnostics in other parts of his work. I
• In Ps. Ixiv. Montfaucon's Collectio Patrum, I. p. 313. (P.)
+ Πασης μεν εν αρχηγoν αιρεσεως πρωτον γενεσθαι τον Σιμωνα παρειληφαμεν. Ηist. L, ij. C. xiii. p. 62. (P.)
1 Και μισει μεν σανίας αιρεθικες, εξαιρείως δε, τον της μανιας επωνυμον. Cat. vi. p. 91. (P)
9 Και πασης μεν αιρεσεως ευρείης Σιμων ο Μαγος. Ιbid. p. 87. (Ρ.)
| Αίρειικοι δε παλιν, καθως ειρηίαι και προλερον, εκ οίδασιν ένα παντοκρατορα Θεον' ταν. 1οκραίως γαρ εςιν, ο σακίων κραλων, πανίων εξασιαζων· δι δε λεγονίες, τον μεν, ειναι της ψυχης δεσποίην, τον δε, τα σωματος, και τελειον λεγεσι' πως γαρ τελειος, ο λειπων έκαςον εκαλερω; “Ο γαρ ψυχης εξασιαν εχων, σωμαίος δε εξασιαν μη εχων, πως παντοκραία και ο δεσποζαν σωμαίων, μη εξασιαζων δε πνευμαίων, πως πανloκραιωρ; Cat. viii. p. 111. (Ρ.)
O Και ο μονον εν τοις εθνικoις επηγωνισαίο ταυλα και διαβολος αλλα γαρ ηδη και πολλοι των Χριςιανων ψευδως λεγμενων των το ενωδες αλα Χριςο ονοματι κακως προσαγορευομενων, εθολμησαν ασεβας απαλλουριασαι τον Θεον των οικείων ποιηματων" τας των αιρειικων λεγω, , παιδας, της δυσωνυμες και αθεωλαίες προσποιεμενος μεν ειναι φιλοχριςος, μισοχριςες δε τανιελως ο γαρ τον Παθερα το Χριςε δυσφημων, εχθρος εςι τα “Υιε ειολμησαν ειπειν ουλου Ovo S807a7as, may arany, you Max xaxmg.
Cat. vi. p. 85. (P.)
Basil, distinguishing between heretics and schismatics, says, that “ the heretics were entirely broken off from the church, on account of the faith itself;"Š and all the instances that he mentions are of Gnostics. Gregory Nazianzen, who represents the Father as the only person in the Trinity who was spared in his time, says, that he was the first who had been dishonoured by the heretics, being divided into the good and the demiurgus. || This was never laid to the charge of the Unitarians.
“Where,” says Jerome,“ are Marcion, Valentinus and all the heretics who assert that one being was the maker of the world, that is, of things visible, and another of things invisible?” “ All within the church,” he says again,“ are rustic and simple, all heretics Aristotelians or Platonists." ** Of these two descriptions of men, the former, by the confession of all antiquity, much better applied to the Unitarians than the latter.
Chrysostom represents it as an answer to “all the heresy that would ever arise, that Moses said, 'In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” He adds, “ If the Manichæans come to you, and talk of their pre-existent matter, or Marcion, or Valentinus, or the Gentiles, say to them, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”” tt This was never denied by any Unitarian.
• Φιμείωσαν γαρ οι αιρελικοι πανλες οι κατηγορίες των σωμαίων, μαλλον δε αυλα το πλασανθος. . Cat. xii. p. 162. (P.)
+ Και δια τας πλανας των αιρετικων, των λεγονίων, αλλον μεν ειναι τον Χριςον, αλλο» Ôe tov Inger. Cat. x. Opera, p. 125. (P.)
| See pp. 112, 113, 116, 145. (P.)
9 Ειδοξε τοινυν τοις εξ αρχης, το μεν των αιρετικων παντελώς αθείησαι. Αd Amphilolocbium Ep. Opera, III. p. 20. (P.)
|| Πρωλος τμηθεις εις αγαθον και δημιεργον παρα της αρχαιας καινολομιας. Οrat. Χxiv. Opera, p. 428. (P.)
T “ Ubi sunt Marcion et Valentinus, et omnes hæretici, qui alterum mundi, id est, visibilium, et alterum asserunt invisibilium couditorem?" In Eph. C.v. Opera, VI. p. 173. (P.)
***“ Ecclesiastici enim rustici sunt et simplices: omnes vero hæretici Aristotelici et Platonici sunt." In Ps. Ixxvii. Opera, VII. p. 95. (P.)
++ Απανία εξελιθείο σασας με τας δικην ζιζανιων επιφυομενας αιρεσεις τη εκκλησια καλωθεν ανασπων δια το ειπειν" Εν αρχη εποιησεν ο Θεος τον ερανον και την γην.
yag Μανιχαιος προσελθη λεγων την ύλην αρμπαρχειν, καν Μαρκιων, καν Βαλενθινος, καν “Ελ. ληνων παιδες, λεγε προς αυλον Εν αρχη εποιησεν ο Θεος τον ερανον και την γην. Ιn (Gen. C.i. Opera, II. p. 18. (P.)
Lastly, Ecumenius represents the wisdom of the world as the cause of heresy ;* and this writer always speaks of the Unitarians as a simple people. These are all evident traces of its having been an original opinion, that the Gnostics were the only heretics ; since the language and the sentiment occurred so frequently after the principle itself had been abandoned, which is a thing by no means uncommon.
OF THE APOSTLES' CREED, AS A GUARD AGAINST
Nothing perhaps that has hitherto been advanced can give us so clear an idea of the extreme dread which the Catholic Christians entertained of the principles of the Gnostics, as an attention to the several articles of that creed which is commonly called the apostles', t all of which, in its original state, were evidently intended to exclude the Gnostics, and no other class of persons whatever.
A profession of faith in the divine mission of Christ, and generally of repentance also, which had been the great object of John's baptism, to which that of Christ succeeded, was always required of every person who was a candidate for admission into the Christian church. But while there were no heresies that gave much alarm to the body of Christians, it was thought sufficient to make the catechumens simply profess their faith in Christ, or, if they were Jews, that Jesus was the Messiah ; and such are all the instances of baptism that are mentioned in the book of Acts. But afterwards, whether in the time of the apostles or not, but very probably before the death of John, other articles were added, intended to exclude persons who were not thought to be proper members of christian churches, though they did profess to believe in the divine mission of Christ. At what time each of these articles was inserted in the creed is not known; and indeed the practice of the church appears to have been various in this respect, some articles having been
* Τις σοφος εν υμιν. Φιλαρχοι ονλες οι ανθρωποι, και τη σοφια το κοσμο τοτε αυχενίες, κατ' εφιν και ζηλον των ορθων διδασκαλων εκηρυττον, οχλαγωγενλες απλως και φθονον προς τείοις εχονίες, και παραμιγνυνλες τοις Θειοις τα ανθρωπινα, ινα τη καινοτηλι των λεγομενων επισπωνίαι της ακαονίας οθεν και αιρεσεις εξηλθον. In Jac. Opera, ΙΙ. p. 465. (Ρ.)
† Lord King refutes this notion, in his Critical History of the Apostles' Creed, Ed. I, 1728, pp. 23—29. See also his Inquiry, Pt. ii. Ch. iii. Sect. v.
used in one church, and others in another, and still less was the same form of words strictly adhered to.
We are able, however, in some measure, to trace the progress of this baptismal creed by its being published, with more or less comment, by different christian writers, from Irenæus, who is the first who has given any of the articles of it, to Rufinus, who first published a professed commentary upon it, and since whose time no considerable alterations have been made in it. And it is remarkable that Irenæus introduces this creed into his Treatise on Heresy, as a proof that the persons he wrote against were condemned by it; and in those parts of his work he condemns none but the Gnostics. Accordingly we read in Optatus, that “ heretics deserted the sacred symbol,”* for so this creed was called, and this was not true of any set of persons whatever, besides the Gnostics.
We have accounts of this creed in two different places of the work of Irenæus; and though it is evident that he does not give this creed in the very words in which it was delivered to the catechumens, indeed the two copies of the creed that he does give, differing considerably from each other, is a proof that he did not mean to give the creed itself; but only a commentary upon it,) it is easy to perceive, by his gloss, what was the real object of each article in it, and for this purpose I shall recite both his copies.
“He who holds, without swerving, the rule of truth which he received at baptism, will understand the names, phrases and parables of the Scriptures, and will not receive this blasphemous hypothesis. The churches planted by the apostles, and their disciples, to the end of the earth, received that faith which is in one God, the Father Almighty, who made the heavens and the earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Jesus Christ, the Son of God, incarnate for our salvation ; and in the Holy Spirit, who preached by the prophets the dispensation of the gospel, and the coming, and the birth by a virgin, and his sufferings and resurrection from the dead, and the ascent of our beloved Lord Jesus Christ into heaven in the flesh, and his return from heaven in the glory of the Father, to complete all things, and to raise all the flesh of mankind; that to Christ Jesus, our Lord and God, and Saviour, and king, according to the will of the invisible Father, every knee might bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; that every tongue should confess to him, and that he should judge all in righteousness; that he might send into everlasting fire spiritual wickedness, the angels who transgressed and who apostatized, the ungodly, the wicked, and lawless and blasphemous men; but give life immortal, and eternal glory, to the righteous, the holy and those who keep his commandments, those who remain in his love from the beginning, and also those who repent.
* " Hæretici vero, veritatis exules, sani et verissimi symboli desertores." L. i. p. 13. (P.) Ou the term symbol, see “A playne and godly Exposytion of the Commune Crede-by the fainouse Clarke Mayster Erasmus of Roterdame,” 1589, pp. 10, 11. Also Crit. Hist. pp. 6–19.
The other copy, if it may be so called, of the baptismal creed, is shorter than this, but to the same purpose ; representing all Christians as believing “in one God, the maker of heaven and earth, and of all things that are therein, by Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who, from his great love to his creatures, submitted to be born of a virgin ; he by himself uniting man to God, and suffered under Pontius Pilate; and having risen again, and being received into glory, will come to save those who are saved, and to judge those who are judged, and send into everlasting fire those who change the truth, and despise the Father and his coming.”+
The articles in our present creed to which those in these two glosses correspond, are easily perceived to be the following : “ I believe in God the Father Almighty, maker of
Ούτω δε και και τον κανονα της αληθειας ακλινη εν εαυλη καλεχων, ον δια το βαπτισματος ειληφε, τα μεν εκ των γραφων ονοματα, και τας λεξεις, και τας παραβολας επιγνωσείαι, την δε βλασφημον υποθεσιν ταύτην 8κ επιγνωσειαι.
HMEN γαρ εκκλησια, καιπερ καθ' όλης της οικομενης έως περαίων της γης διεσπαρμενη, παρα δε των απος ολων, και των εκείνων μαθηλων παραλαβεσα την εις ενα Θεον, Παί ερα παντοκρατορα, την πεποιηκοΐα τον ερανον, και την γην, και τας θαλασσας, και παντα τα εν αυλοις, τιςιν και εις ένα Χριςον Ιησεν, τον υιον τε Θερ, τον σαρκωθενία υπερ της ημετερας σωτηριας και εις Πνευμα άγιον, το δια των προφη/ων κεκηρυχος τας οικονομιας, και τας ελευσεις, και την εκ παρθενα γεννεσιν, και το παθος και την εγερσιν εκ νεκρων, και την ενσαρκον εις τας ερανες αναληψιν το ηγαπημένα Χριςο Ιησε τη Κυρι ήμων, και την εκ των ερανων εν τη δοξη τα Παρος παράσιαν αυ7α, επι το ανακεφαλαιωσασθαι τα παντα, και αναςήσαι τασαν σαρκα πασης ανθρωποληλος, ινα Χριςο Ιησε τω Κυρίω ημων, και Θεω, και σωτηρι, και βασιλει, κατα την ευδοκιαν το Πατρος το αορατο, σαν γονυ καμψη επορανιων και επιγειων και καταχθόνιων, και σασα γλωσσα εξομολογησηται αυτω, και κρισιν δικαιαν εν τοις πασι ποιησηται τα μεν πνευματικα της πονηριας, και αλγελος παραξεβηκοτας, και εν αποφασια γεγονοτας, και τες ασεβεις, και αδικες, και ανομες, και βλασ. φημος των ανθρωπων εις το αιωνιον πυρ πεμψη" τοις δε δικαιοις, και οσιοις, και τας εντολας αυτο τετηρηκοσι, και εν τη αγαπη αυτα διαμεμενηκοσι τοις απ’ αρχης, τοις δε εκ μετανοιας, ζωην χαρισαμενος, αφθαρσιαν δωρησηται, και δοξαν αιωνιαν περιποιηση. L. i. C. ii. Pp. 44, 45. (Ρ.)
+ “In unum Deum credentes fabricatorem cæli et terræ, et omnium quæ in eis sunt, per Christum Jesum Dei Filium. Qui propter eminentissimam erga figmentum suum dilectionem, eam quæ esset ex virgine generationem sustinuit, i se per se hominem adunans Deo, et passus sub Pontio Pilato, et resurgeus et in claritate receptus in gloria, venturus salvator eorum qui salvantur, et judex eorum qui judicantur, et mittens in ignem æternum transfiguratores veritatis, et contemptores Patris sui et adventùs ejus." L. iii. C. iv. p. 206. (P.) On Baptismal Creeds, See Lord King's Inquiry, Pt. ii. Ch. iij. Sect. v. vi.