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In all the parish, wif ne was there non
That to the offring bifore hire shulde gon;
And if ther did, certain so wroth was she,
That she was out of alle charite.
Hire coverchiefs weren ful fine of ground,
I dorste swere they weyeden a pound,
That on the sonday were upon hire hede:
Her hosen weren of fine scarlet rede,
Full streite iteyed, and shoon ful moist and newe:
Bold was hire face, and fayre and rede of hew.
She was a worthy woman all hire live:
Housbondes at the chirche doren had she had five.

The FRANKELEIN is a country gentleman, whose estate consisted in free land, and was not subject to feudal services or payments. He is ambitious of shewing his riches by the plenty of his table: but his hospitality, a virtue much more practicable among our ancestors than at present, often degenerates into luxurious excess. His impatience if his sauces were not sufficiently poignant, and every article of his dinner in due form and readiness, is touched with the hand of Pope or Boileau. He had been a president at the sessions, knight of the shire, a sheriff, and a coroner P.

An housholder, and that a grete, was he:
Seint Julian he was in his contree?

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Marten. Rit. Eccl. Anecdot. ii. p. 630. * At the southern entrance of Nor- And Hearne's Antiquit. Glastonb. Apwich cathedral, a representation of the pend. p. 310. ESPOUSALS, or sacrament of marriage, is V, 449. carved in stone ; for here the hands of P An office antiently executed by genthe couple were joined by the priest, tlemen of the greatest respect and proand great part of the service performed. perty. Here also the bride was endowed with ''Simon the leper, at whose house our what was called Dos ad ostium ecclesiæ. Saviour lodged in Bethany, is called, in This ceremony is exhibited in a curious the Legends, Julian the good herborow, old picture engraved by Mr. Walpole, and bishop of Beth page. In the Tale where king Henry the Seventh is mar OF BERYN, St. Julian is invoked to reried to his queen, standing at the façade venge a traveller who had been traitoror western portal of a magnificent Gothic , ously used in his lodgings. See Urr. church. Anecd. Paint. i. 31. Compare Ch. p. 599. v. 625.

VOL. II.

T

His brede, his ale, was alway after on;
A better envyned' man was no wher non.
Withouten bake mete never was his hous
Of fish and flesh, and that so plenteous,
It snewed in his hous of mete and drinke,
Of alle deintees that men coud of thinke.
After the sondry sesons of the yere,
So changed he his mete', and his soupere.
Ful many a fat partrich hadde he in mewe,
And

many a breme, and many a luce", in stewe.
Wo was his coke, but if his sauce were
Poinant and sharpe, and ready all his gere!
His table dormant " in his halle alway,

Stode redy covered, all the longè day." The character of the Doctor of PhisicKE preserves to us the state of medical knowledge, and the course of medical erudition then in fashion. He treats his patients according to rules of astronomy: a science which the Arabians engrafted on medicine.

For he was grounded in astronomie :
He kept his patient a ful gret dele

In houres by his magike naturel.' Petrarch leaves a legacy to his physician John de Dondi, of Padua, who was likewise a great astronomer, in the year 13702. It was a long time before the medical profession was purged from these superstitions. Hugo de Evesham, born in Worcestershire, one of the most famous physicians in Europe about the year 1280, educated in both the universities of England, and at others in France and Italy, was eminently skilled in mathematics and astronomya. Pierre d'Apono, a celebrated professor of medicine and astronomy at Padua, wrote commentaries on the problems of Aristotle, in the year 1310. Roger

.

(stored with wine. T.] snowed,

i dinner. pike.

never removed.

v. 356.

Y v. 416. 7. See Acad. Inscript. XX. 443. * Pits. p. 370. Bale, iv. 50. xiii. 86.

Bacon says, “ astronomiæ pars melior medicina b.” In the statutes of New-College at Oxford, given in the year 1387, medicine and astronomy are mentioned as one and the same science. Charles the Fifth king of France, who was governed entirely by astrologers, and who commanded all the Latin treatises which could be found relating to the stars, to be translated into French, established a college in the university of Paris for the study of medicine and astrology. There is a scarce and very curious book, entitled, “ Nova medicinæ methodus curandi morbos ex mathematica scientia deprompta, nunc denuo revisa, &c. Joanne Hasfurto Virdungo, medico et astrologo doctissimo, auctore, Haganoæ excus. 1518d.” Hence magic made a part of medicine. In the MARCHAUNTS second tale, or HISTORY OF BERYN, falsely ascribed to Chaucer, a chirurgical operation of changing eyes is partly performed by the assistance of the occult sciences.

-The whole science of all surgery,
Was unyd, or the chaunge was made of both eye,
With many sotill enchantours, and eke nygrymauncers,

That sent wer for the nonis, maistris, and scoleris. Leland mentions one William Glatisaunt, an astrologer and physician, a fellow of Merton college in Oxford, who wrote a medical tract, which, says he, “nescio quid magiÆ spirabata.” I could add many other proofs.

The books which our physician studied are then enumerated.

Well knew he the old Esculapius,
And Dioscorides, and eke Rufus,
Old Hippocras, Hali, and Gallien,
Serapion, Rasis, and Avicen,
Averrois, Damascene, and Constantin,
Bernard, and Gattisden, and Gilbertin.

e

e

Bacon, Op. Maj. edit. Jebb, p. 158. v. 2989. Urr. Ch. See also p. 240. 247.

f Lel. apud Tann. Bibl. p. 262. And © Montfaucon, Bibl. Manuscript. tom. Lel. Script. Brit. p. 400. ii. p. 791. b.

In quarto. 8 See Ames's Hist. Print. p. 147.

Rufus, a physician of Ephesus, wrote in Greek, about the time of Trajan. Some fragments of his works still remain “. Haly was a famous Arabic astronomer, and a commentator on Galen, in the eleventh century, which produced so many famous Arabian physiciansi. John Serapion, of the same age and country, wrote on the practice of, physick. Avicen, the most eminent physician of the Arabian school, flourished in the same century'. Rhasis, an Asiatic physician, practised at Cordoua in Spain, where he died in the tenth century". Averroes, as the Asiatic schools decayed by the indolence of the Caliphs, was one of those philosophers who adorned the Moorish schools erected in Africa and Spain. He was a professor in the university of Morocco. He wrote a commentary on all Aristotle's works, and died about the year 1160. He was styled the most Peripatetic of all the Arabian writers. He was born at Cordoua of an antient Arabic family". John Damascene, secretary to one of the Caliphs, wrote in various sciences, before the Arabians had entered Europe, and had seen the Grecian philosophers'. Constantinus Afer, a monk of Cassino in Italy, was one of the Saracen physicians who brought medicine into Europe, and formed the Salernitan school, chiefly by translating various Arabian and Grecian medical books into Latin”. He was born at Carthage: and learned grammar,

n

p. 118.

* Conring. Script.Com. Sæc. i. cap. 4. Conring. ut supr. Sæc. xii, cap. 2. p. 66. 67. The Arabians have transJations of him. Herbel. Bibl. Orient. • Voss. Hist. Gr. L. ii. c. 24. p. 972. b. 977. b.

P Petr. Diacon, de Vir. illustr. Moi Id. ibid. Sæc. xi. cap. 5. p. 114. nast. Cassin. cap. xxiii. See the DissERHaly, called Abbas, was likewise an TATIONS. He is again mentioned by our eminent physician of this period. He author in the MARCHAUNT's Tale, v. was called “Simia Galeni" Id. ibid. 1926. p. 71. Urr.

* Id. ibid. p. 113, 114.
| Id. ibid. See Pard. T. v. 2407. Urr.

And lectuaries had he there full fine,

Soche as the cursid monk Dan Constanm Conring. ut supr. Sæc. X. cap. 4.

tine He wrote a large and famous Hath written in his boke de Coitu. work, called Continens. Rhasis and Al

The title of this book is “DE COITU, masor, (f. Albumasar, a great Arabian astrologer,) occur in the library of Pe quibus prosit ant obsit, quibus medica

minibus et alimentis acuatur impediaterborough Abby, Matric. Libr. Monast. Burgi S. Petri. Gunton, Peterb. p. 187.

turve." Inter Op. Basil. 1536. fol. See Ilearne, Ben. Abb. Præf, lix.

p. 136.

p. 110,

logic, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and natural philosophy, of the Chaldees, Arabians, Persians, Saracens, Egyptians, and Indians, in the schools of Bagdat. Being thus completely accomplished in these sciences, after thirty-nine years study, he returned into Africa, where an attempt was formed against his life. Constantine, having fortunately discovered this diesign, privately took ship and came to Salerno in Italy, where he lurked some time in disguise. But he was recognised by the Caliph's brother then at Salerno, who recommended him as a scholar universally skilled in the learning of all nations, to the notice of Robert duke of Norinandy. Robert entertained him with the highest marks of respect : and Constantine, by the advice of his patron, retired to the monastery of Cassino, where being kindly received by the abbot Desiderius, lie translated in that learned society the books above mentioned, most of which he first imported into Europe. These versions are said to be still extant. He flourished about the year 10869 Bernard, or Bernardus Gordonius, appears to have been Chaucer's cotemporary. He was a professor of medicine at Montpelier, and wrote many treatises in that faculty". John Gatisden was a fellow of Merton college, where Chaucer was educated, about the year 1320 s. Pits

says,

that he was

" See Leo Ostiensis, or P. Diac. and a competent chamber in the monasAuctar, ad Leon. Chron. Mon. Cassin. tery, for the term ot' his life. In consi. lib, iji. c. 35. p. 445. Scriptor. Italic. deration of all which concessions, the tom. iv, Murator. In his book ve IN- said Thomas paid them fifty marcs : CANTATIONIBUS, one of his inquiries is, and moreover is obliged, "deservire noAn invenerim in libris GrÆCORUM hoc bis in Arte medicina. Dat. in dom. Caqualiter in IxDORUM libris est invenire, pitul. Feb. 15. A. D. 1319.” Registr. &c. Op. tom. i. ut supr.

Priorat. S. Swithin. Winton. MS, sup * Petr. Lambec. Prodrom. Sæc. xiv. citat. The most learned and accurve p. 274. edit. ut supr.

Fabricius has a separate article on Tulo" It has been betore observed, that at LOGI MEDICI, Bibi. Gr. xii. 739. 14. the introduction of philosophy into Eu. See also Gianon. Istor. Ncapol. I. x. ch. rope by the Saracens, the ciergy only xi. § 491. In the romance of Sun Guy, studied and practised the inedical ari. a monk heals the knight's wounds. SigThis fashion prevailed a long while at nat. G. imi. terwards. The Prior and Convent of

There was a nunke bchold him well S. Swithin's at Winchester granted to

That could of leach crafie some dell. Thomas of Shaftesbury, cierk, a corrody, consisting of two dishes daily from In G. of Monmouth, who wrote in the Prior's kitchen, brcad, drink, robes, 11:28, Eopa ililencing to poison Ambru.

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