תמונות בעמוד


"Bonaparte published a decree at Schenbrun, May 17th, 1809, by which the states of the Pope were annexed to the French empire, and the city of Rome declared a free and imperial city. The union did take place.

“When the decree was put in execution, June 11th, the Pope published a bull of excommunication against Bonaparte, his adherents, counsellors and coadjutors. From that moment the venerable captive was more closely imprisoned. On the night of the 5th of July, he was forcibly removed from Rome."-(Koch, p. 509.)

' Bonaparte decreed, May17th, 1809, that the States of the Pope are united to the French empire. The city of Rome, so interesting from its recollections, and the first seat of Christianity, is declared an imperial and free city, and that these changes should take effect on the first of June following.

On the 10th of June, these decrees were announced from the castle of St. Angelo, by the discharge of artillery and the hoisting of the tri-colored flag on its walls, instead of the venerable pontifical standard.

The Pope, after exclaiming,"consumatum est," (he) the dethroned pontiff, issued a bull, June 10th, 1809 (Bower, vol. iii, p. 429) excommunicating Bonaparte and all concerned in that spoliation, which was affixed upon

the churches. On July 5th, 1809, the Pope (Pius VII,) was taken captive by Gen. Radet, under Bonaparte, and carried to France, in company with Cardinal Pacca.

“Being solicited for a donation, they (the Pope and Cardinal) found that they had but ten-pence between them. Said the Pope, Behold, General, all that we

[ocr errors]

possess of our principality.'” (Allison, vol. iii. pp. 282, 3, 6.)

Pope Pius VII. had given countenance to the enemies of France, and threatened Napoleon with the thunders of the Vatican. The French entered Rome, the Pope realized his menace by a bull, (June 10, 1809) he was dethroned from his temporal sovereignty, and consigned to captivity, while Rome was made the capital of a French department.” (Frost's Hist. of the World, 3d part, p. 338.)

On the 17th May, 1809, Napoleon issued his famous decree, whic's declared the states of the Church reunited to the French Empire." (DeCormenin's His. of the Popes, vol. ii. p. 421.)

“1809, May 17th, Bonaparte declared the Papal States part of the French Empire.” (American Text Book of Popery, p. 124.)

“But after fortune had done everything for her ungrateful bosom-child, after the Corsican master of war had arrived to such a degree of glory and power as no mortal had attained before him, he wantonly overthrew, by his insatiable ambition, the colossal edifice of his grandeur.

“In the course of the Austrian war he had annihi. lated, in the most violent manner, the temporal Empire of the Pope. The French troops under Miollis occupied Rome (Feb. 2d, 1808), and conducted there in the most improper and arbitrary manner. Soon after the imperial decree appeared (April 2d), that Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, and Camerino, were incorporated with the kingdom of Italy, because the interest of the great Empire required an imrnediate connection be

[ocr errors]

the Daily and not

[ocr errors]

- مره


[ocr errors]


tween Naples and Upper Italy, and because the dona tion of Charles the Great, Napoleon's predecessor, was made only for the advantage of Christendom, not for that of its enemies.' And finally, four days before the battle of Aspern, the imperial decree was issued from Sehenbrunn (May 17th, 1809) which incorporated all the rest of the States of the Church with tie French Empire. Rome was to be called the second city of the Empire. For the rest, a considerable salary, and the choice of residence, as head of the Church, in Paris or in Rome, were offered the Pope. But he, firm and intrepid, rejected every accommodation.

"The holy father had already issued the most solemn protestations against the occupation of Rome, and the usurpation of Ancona, declaring loudly that no war existed with France, and that he was the victim of mere violence. But now, when things had come to the extremity, he pronounced the anathema against all who had committed this violence, then against Napoleon himself, and finally against all who should oppose the publication of this curse (June 10th, 11th, 12th). These bulls were made known by zealous friends of the Pope, notwithstanding precautionary measures and violence employed by the French authorities to suppress them. The Emperor cared little for the maledictions of the high priest; but he made him feel his vengeance. The old man was taken violently, and in the most barbarous manner, from his Quirinal palace, conveyed through Italy, and over the Alps to Grenoble (July 6-8). From here gensd'arms conducted him and his small retinue to Valence, then by Aix to Nice and Savona (Aug. 9th), in which last

but can bewed m temporal authwnly conce Roman & unhere, who has

place he spent three sad years." (Rotteck's His, of the World, vol. iv. p. 216.)

“But the issue was deplorable. The Austrian armies had passed the Inn and Isar, and occupied Munich,(Apr. 26,)whilst Bellegarde and Kollowrath broke ont of Bohemia through the Upper Palatinate, in order to reach hand to the main army on the Danube. At the same time, General Chateller had marched into Tyrol, and by the most zealous assistance of the inhabitants, became speedily master of the greatest part of the country. The Tyrolese overpowered in general insurrection the Bavarians, who had stimulated the old national hatred by unsparing treatment of their recently acquired country, and as many of the French as were to be reached, and proclaimed in triumph the return of the Austrian dominion. The equally honest and courageous Andrew Hofer, innkeeper at Passeyer, put himself at the head of this popular movement. All Tyrol, with the exception of Kufstein, as well as Vorarlberg, fell into the power of the valiant country people. The Bavarians and French lost about ten thousand men in opposing them.

But all this courage and love was lost through the reverses of the main army. Napoleon fell with the impetuosity of a tempest upon the army, which was progressing auspiciously. In a five days' battle, called with greater truth, a five days' campaign, Napoleon, that thunderbolt of war, shivered the Austrian power. Pfaffenhofen, Tann and Rohr, Abensberg, Landshut, and the most decisively, Eckmuehl and Ratisbon, (April 19th-23d) were the theatres of complete deseats of the Austrian army. The genius and fortune of Napoleon frustrated all the efforts of his enemy, and forced the noble Archduke to a sad retreat towards Bohemia, whereby the southern Danube country, as far as Vienna, was abandoned to the discretion of the French.

The French marched precipitately towards the dismayed capital. One month after the beginning of the war, Napoleon made his entry into Vienna (May 13th), 1809.” (Rotteck's History of the World, vol. iv. p. 208-9.)

“ Several succeeding defeats convinced the Spaniards of the superiority of the French arms in war upon a large scale. The French experienced partial losses only by skirmishes and ambuscades, by the agile bands of guerillas, which appeared and disappeared with equal rapidity.

Meantime, the British army, 35,000 men strong, had marched from Portugal to Spain, to support the exertions of its allies. But when it arrived at Salamanca (Nov. 13th), the Spaniards had already experienced decisive defeats. Then Napoleon, full of joy, set out from Madrid against this army (Dec. 22d); but Moore retreated rapidly towards Corunna. Yet Bessieres and Soult overtook him, and, after a bloody contest with the latter, the British embarked (Jan. 16th, 1809). Moore died of his wounds. The French had, a few days before, attacked anew the noble Saragossa (Dee. 1808). After the most desperate, forever memorable resistance, this city, filled with ruins and corpses, fell into the power of an enemy too superior in number (Feb. 21st, 1809). In the meantime, Napoleon, meditating his projects

« הקודםהמשך »