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this accession then under the protectorate of German princes. In A.D. 1442, the king of Arragon drives out the sovereign of Naples, and receives the investiture of his new kingdom from the Pope*. About this time Naples and Sicily were united, but were soon after separated again. Koch, in speaking of the accession of Charles to the throne of Naples, says :
“The Popes Urban IV., and Clement IV., dreading the genius and talents of this prince (Mainfroi,) made an offer of that kingdom to Charles of Anjou, Count of Provence, and brother of St. Louis. Clement IV. granted the investiture of it (1265) to him and his descendants, male and female, on condition of his doing fealty and homage to the Holy See, and presenting him annually with a white riding horse, and a tribute of eight million ounces of gold. Charles, after being crowned at Rome, marched against Mainfroi, with an army chiefly composed of Crusaders. He defeated that prince, who was slain at the battle of Benevento (1266,) which was soon after followed by the reduction of the two kingdoms. One rival to Charles still survived, the young Conradin, the lawful heir to the throne of his ancestors. Charles vanquished him also, two years afterwards, in the plains of Tagliacozzo ; and having made him prisoner, together with his young friend Fredric of Austria, he caused both of these prisoners to be beheaded at Naples (29th October 1268.”)
“The kings of France, Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I., led away by a mania for conquest, undertook several expeditions into Italy, for enforcing their claims either on the kingdom of Naples, or the duchy of Milan. They were thwarted in their schemes by the kings of Spain, who, being already masters of Sicily and Sardinia, thought it behooved them also to extend their views to the Continent of Italy. Ferdinand, the Catholic, deprived the French of the kingdom of Naples (1500). His successor, Charles V., expelled them from the Milanois, and obliged Francis I., by the treaties of Madrid (1526,) Cambray (1529,) and Crepy, (1544,) to give up his pretensions on the kingdom of Naples, and the duchy of Milan. From THIS TIME the SPANIARDS were the PREDOMINATING POWER IN ITALY FOR MORE THAN A HUNDRED YEARS.”* Or, as others say, one hundred and fifty years.
*White's Hist. p. 330.
Here then commences the fifth head or government, as the ascendant power in Italy, and one that supported the apostate Church, about a hundred and fifty years, or, until the beginning of the seventeeth century when the treaty of Utrecht adjudged Naples, the ports of Tuscany, the duchy of Milan, etc., to Austria.t
“The war of the Spanish succession had occasioned great changes in Italy. Spain, after having been long the leading power in that country, GAVE PLACE TO AUSTRIA, to whom the treaties of Utrecht and Baden had adjudged the duchy of Milan, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, and the ports of Tuscany. To these she added the duchy of Mantera, of which the Emperor Joseph I., had dispossessed Duke Charles IV., of the House of Gonzago, for having espoused the cause of France in the War of the Succession.*
*Koch, pp. 233. 239
+ Koch, p. 296.
Here, then, we pass to the sixth government in succession. Commencing with the Eastern Enıpire, that nationalized the Catholic Church, we pass to the Franks, who succeeded the Greeks in the eighth century, thence to the Germans, who in their turn were succeeded by the Neapolitans, thence to the Spaniards, who were succeeded by the Austrians, at the beginning of the seventeenth century. THIS POWER, THEN, IS THE SIXTH HEAD.It was when this head ruled, or when the Woman was seated upon it, that John saw her in the wilderness; and we may conclude it was near the close of its dominion, when the Angel says, “the other is not yet come.” This idea corresponds with the history of that power. The expressions also, “cup full," “ drunken with the blood of the saints," as remarked above, are indicative of the nearness of her judgment.
The dynasty under Napoleon Bonaparte succeeded Austria, as the seventh head of the beast. Bonaparte was proclaimed king of Italy in 1805, and in 1809 he deprived the Pope of his temporalities, 9 since which time, his holiness has been but a cypher in the political world. This ascendency of the Napoleon dynasty continued until 1814-1815. Since that time, the Austrian head has held the preponderance in Italy. This brings us to the declaration of John, chapter xiii: 3, “And I saw one of his heads, as it were, wounded to death, and his deadly wound was healed.” The same sentiment is conveyed in chapter xvii: 11, “And the beast which was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven,” “one of the seven, or as one of the seven," (Newcomb's translation) “and goeth into perdition." How emphatically true is this delineation ! This seventh head was to continue a short space. It was overthrown, A.D. 1815. One head was healed. This was true of Austria, and this power has maintained her ascendency in Italy from A.D. 1815 to the present time. THIS, THEN, IS THE BEAST " THAT GOETH INTO PERDITION.”
* Koch, p. 301, 302.
+ Our former arrangement of some of these governments was somewhat different from that given above, but the conclusion is the same.
# Koch. p. 486. & See exposition Dan, vii ; section 2.
v 12. “ The ten horns are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast;" or as Clark renders it, "the same hour with the beast." The ten horns therefore were to receive power at one and the same time with the beast. But when was the beast to receive his power? When that wounded head was healed. When was that head healed? At the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Hence, the fulfilment of this prophecy is complete. The following divisions of Italy were settled by the treaty of 1815 at Vienna; 1, Sardinia ; 2, Lombardo Venetian Kingdom ; 3, Parma; 4, Modenà ; 5, States of the Church ; 6, Lucca; 7, Tuscany; 8, the Kingdom of Naples ; 9, San Marino; 10, Milan. These divisions correspond to the ten kingdoms symbolized by the ten toes of the metallic image, Dan. vii. The kingdoms represented by the image of Daniel, are presented in the following order: 1, Babylon ; 2, Medo Persia; 3, Grecia; 4, Rome (legs of iron ;) 5, Papal Rome. (feet) extending from A, D. 519 to 1815; 6, Divisions of 1815 (toes of the image). And should these divisions lose their identity for a time, and be crushed by the power of Austria, yet they shall arise and hate the harlot; and in their days "shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed,” (Dan. ii : 44). Such is the order of their presentation, and such we understand has been the order of their fulfilment. (v. 14) – “ These shall make war with the Lamb,” etc. This item is yet in the future, and corresponds with the declaration of John, xix : 19,
" And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together to make war against Him (the Lamb) that sat on the horse, and his army.” But let them arrray themselves against the son of God; they shall not prevail. For it is His prerogative to "rule all nations with a rod of iron. He shall break them in pieces like a potter's vessel.” v. 15 —' And he saith unto me, the waters which thou sawest, where the harlot sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues." Here the Woman is said to sit upon the waters; but in the third verse we are told she sits upon the beast. How is this apparent discrepancy to be reconciled ? Ans. The Woman is said to sit on the heads, or governments.
This she did until 1809. From that time her position was transferred from the beast (governments) to the waters, (peoples, and multitudes, and nations,) and in this position she is found at the judgment. This representation is parallel with that of Dan. vii: 26, “But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and destroy it unto the end.” As we learn from different historians, that the extinc