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But we are often told the Scholarships and Fellowships of Trinity College are really superior in value to those in the English Colleges. This is an example of the fallacy of averages. By a similar fallacy it might be inferred that if one hundred new scholarships of ten pounds a-year, and ten of fifty pounds, were formed the College would, on the whole, be worse provided than it is. It is true that the average salary of each scholarship in Oxford is about £15, and in Cambridge about £17, but in the Colleges of the former University there are altogether about four hundred scholarships, and in the latter nearly eight hundred. The low
average value is caused by the vast number of foundations of small value. But it does not follow that the average income of each scholar is as above stated. On looking at the Cambridge University Calendar, we find that in one College alone (Pembroke) chosen at random, one student holds three scholarships worth, together £90, another four worth £103, and so on. Thus, even places of small value being held simul. taneously, may make up an important prize. But there are also scholarships of large value. There are some of £60, £70, £100, and upwards. The College (Brasenose; Oxen) has 15 exhibitions of £120 each, with £35 worth of books. But without multiplying particular examples, we may observe that in Oxford there are at least fifty scholarships worth on an average £78 per annum,* and at Cambridge, there are 116, worth on an average nearly £50. These sums are exclusive of free commons. As to the fellowships, a similar observation may be made. If the average salary is low (about 220) it is partly because their number is great, 557 in Oxford, and 431 in Cambridge. They are given without examination (except in two Colleges) generally as the reward of merit, which when the total number of vacancies is fifty or sixty yearly, is not, except in the great Colleges, required to be very high; the reward being, in fact, proportioned to the merit. They entail no duties, not even residence; they may be held with remote benefices, schools, or other preferments, and they entitle the holder in his turn to the valuable College livings. A fellowship in
Not including the Eldon Law Scholarship, which is £200 a-year for three years, or the Snell foundation at Balliol.
† Here again to anticipate the fallacy of averages, it is necessary to mention that each University has between 70 and 80 livings, whose nett value (given in the Calendar) is over £600, and a proportionate nuinber above £400.
Dublin, in similar circumstances, is worth exactly £40 Irish. The fellowship in Dublin is made valuable only when combined with a Tutorship. And as most of the fellows are Tutors, it is common to compare the income of a Tutor in Dublin, with that of a non-resident fellow without duties elsewhere. The fact is, that the Tutors in Cambridge have very large incomes, in some of the Colleges, we believe, £800 or £1000.
Now see what a prospect is open before a man of ability in one of these Universities; from the very year of his matriculation, he may obtain as the reward of his diligence and attention, prizes amounting to over £100 a-year; this enables him to apply without interruption to his University studies ; he obtains, perhaps in addition to his College prizes, a University Scholarship worth £75 a year; he distinguishes bimself at his degree examinations, and obtains a further increase of income besides the certainty of election without further examination to a Fellowship worth from £200 a-year upwards. If he chooses to devote himself to any professional occupation be is unfettered by any Collegiate restrictions; if on the contrary he should prefer remaining within his College, he has no duties to interfere with his pursuit of literary studies, or if he choose, he may in various ways increase his income, a Tutorship, for ex. ainple, if he should be appointed to it giving him a very large income indeed. And lastly there is a large number of more on less valuable livings,* of which he has, in his rotation, the refusal. He may be elected Head of his College, there are nearly as many heads in Oxford as Junior Fellows in Dublin, or University Professor; in short a man of ability has himself to blame if he is not in a position to choose the occupation most congenial to him.
Contrast with this the circumstance of the Fellowship’s can. didate in Dublin, the most distinguished man of his year, who nevertheless has never been provided by his alma mater with a sufficient maintenance, pursuing his studies under difficulties, obliged perhaps to take pupils by day, and read for Fellowship by night, ultimately, perhaps, after years of toil, disappointed in his aim, not for want of merit, but because no vacancy has
• Besides the livings in the patronage of the College, those in the neighbourhood of Oxford and Cambridge, are usually as a matter of courtesy supplied from men of distinction in the respective Univer. sities.
occurred for him, failing, when it is too late to commence studying for a different profession, and then perhaps settling down as assistant in a school. Or if he does succeed finding himself fixed for several years in a position in which he feels his energies cramped, and his efforts for self-improvement checked; a position which precludes him from taking professional employment out of College, and yet does not provide him with regular occupation within, at least not on terms which would render it prudent for him to accept it. If the value of a fellowship is diminishing and the opportunities of obtaining it becoming rarer, while the path to success in all other professions is being made more open to men of ability, we may, without Beranger's magic glass, see the future Fellows gradually becoming Les Infiniment Petits.
ART. VII.-STEPHEN COPPINGER.
Within the last five months have passed away three veteran soldiers in the ranks of the old Catholic Association which, organised by the great leader, O'Connell, fought and won the glorious battle of civil and religious liberty. Withont aiming to emulate the diamond wit and slowy flowers of Sheil, or the vehement eloquence of “Honest Jack Lawless,” the names of Nicholas Purcell O'Gorman, Eneas M‘Donell, and Stephen Coppinger, formed at one time an important engine of concentrated oratorical strength which accomplished some very remarkable cases of political conversion, and no doubt bad considerable effect in breaking down the hostile policy of our rulers.
In the midst of life, and of health, and of happiness, we are in death. On Friday, May 28th, we met Mr. Coppinger, and while the sensations of heart and hand, produced by the hearty “shake” with which he usually greeted his friends, were still vibrating, we heard of his sadly sudden death. Mr. Coppinger departed this life on Saturday morning, May 29th.
As Coppinger may be regarded as the last of an important national band, we may, perhaps, be permitted to indulge in a few words of tribute to his memory.
Born in 1795, of an old and respectable family in the County Cork, of which the patriot prelate, Dr. Coppinger of Cloyne, was a member, Mr. Coppinger received the advantages of a sound early education, and a subsequently successful course through Trinity College, Dublin. His father, Thomas Stephen Coppinger, of Leemount, in the County Cork, observed some indications of talent in the boy, and spared neither pains nor expense in developing it.
Mr. Coppinger was an alumnus of Alma Mater during the struggle between John Wilson Croker and William Conyngham Plunket for the representation of the University; and Mr. Coppinger was stored with interesting anecdotes illustrative of that exciting contest. Amongst the number, we have heard bim tell the following. Croker, although a high Tory, advocated the question of Emancipation as warmly as Plunket himself; and Dr. Sands, the Provost, (afterwards successively Bishop of Killaloe and Cashel), a man of liberal and enlarged
ideas, wavered as to whether he should support Plunket or his conservative rival. A recollection of the very virulent tone of Plunket's speech on the trial of Robert Emmet, gave Dr. Sands a personal distaste towards Plunket, and the Provost finally decided upon giving his vote and interest to Croker. Plunket heard some rumours of the operating cause of Dr. Sand's dislike towards him, and relying upon his great powers of logic and persuasion, he sought and obtained an interview with the Provost in order to explain his conduct on the mernorable state prosecution in question. “Here," said Plunket, dra sing a document from his pocket, “ here is the report of my speech, verbatim : read it, and test by ocular demonstration, whether the language expressed by me upon that occasion has not been grossly exaggerated.” “Sir,” replied Sands, “I HEARD it, and that is enough !"*
Early in 1823 the plan of the Catholic Association was struck out by O'Connell and Sheil at Glancullen, the residence of the late Christopher Fitzsimon, Esq., Clerk of the Hanaper. This powerful confederation soon assumed a decided
a shape, attitude, and tone; and amongst its first adherents we find the name of Stephen Coppirger. He had only a short time previously been called to the bar-namely, in Hillary Term, 1819—and he well knew that in openly joining what the government of the day regarded as a treasonable convention he bade adieu to all hope of professional advancement. Mr., afterwards the Right Hon. Anthony Richard Blake, a Catholic barrister, had just been appointed to the high office of Chief Remembrancer of the Exchequer, an event which had no small effect in fanning the flame of ambition in the Catholic bar, especially among the young and ardent members of that body.
It was not, however, until the year 1824, that Mr. Coppinger became a frequent and a fluent speaker at the meetings of the Catholic Association; and from that date until the achievement of Emancipation his name is continually met with in the
It is right to add that Mr. Charles Phillips, in his interesting anecdotal work, “Curran and his Contemporaries," mentions that Plunket remonstrated with Dr. Sands in language of such force and eloquence that the Provost at length relented, and eventually became one of his most devoted partisans. No version of Mr. Coppinger's anecdote on the subject has ever been published before the present occasion.