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customs, and some Fragments on Legislative Administration, published in 1819. He was not destined to enjoy bis success long; attacked by an inflammation of the lungs, broughton, he already suffering from a severe cold, by his assisting at the anniversary funeral service of 21st January,* in the church of St. Denis, he died on 2nd of February, 1826, notwithstanding the most constant and enlightened medical treatment. For the last few years of his life, although enjoying robust health, and being of a strong constitution, which his tall stature rendered still more remarkable, Brillat-Savarin had a presentiment of his approacing dissolution; and this thought, which in no way affected his usual cheerfulness, constantly manifests itself, and seems to pervade his last work. Resembling in this respect those productions of antiquity in which we see the recollection of death everywhere associated with the most lively descriptions, and thereby lending them additional charms. Seized by painful illness which soon assumed the most dangerous form, he departed this life as a well satisfied guest leaves the banquet hall, tanquam conviva satur, without regret, betraying no symptoms of weakness in his intellect, lamented by his numerous friends, and bequeathing a name to posterity which will be long held in respect by all good men.
The art of cookery is the most ancient of all sciences; for Adam was hungry at his birth, and the new-born infant has scarcely entered the world when it sends forth cries which nothing can still but the breast of the nurse.
It is thus, that of all other arts it has done more to promote our happiness, and benefit society; for it has taught us the use and application of fire, and it is by fire that man has subdued nature.
Properly speaking, there are three kinds of cookery.
The first, which is that of preparing food, has retained its primitive name.
The second, which consists in analyzing and examining the elements of food, is called chemistry.
And the third, which may be called cookery of reparation, is better known by the name of pharmacy,
It is worthy of remark, that on this same day three Magistrates of the Supreme Court died, all three members of the duputation, charged to assist at the Funeral Service in the church of St. Denis, Counsellors Brillat-Savarin and Robert de St. Vincent, and Avocate Général Marchangy.
Though they differ in their object, they adhere to each other by the application of fire when put into one vessel in a furnace.
Thus the piece of beef which the cook bas converted into bouillon and soup, the chemist takes up in order to ascertain into how many different substances it may be reduced, and the druggist can by force discharge it from our stomachs should it happen to cause indigestion.
Man is an omuiverous animal ; he has incisive teeth to cut fruit, double teeth for grinding corn, and canine teeth to tear flesh ; which has caused it to be remarked that the nearer man approaches the savage state, the stronger and more easily distinguished are his canine teeth.
It is extremely probable, that for a considerable time, man was obliged to live on fruit, for man is the most unwieldy of all the animals of the old world, and his means of defence are very limited, when not provided with arms. But the instinct of superiority inherent in his nature, soon developed itself; the consciousness even of his weakness forced him to provide himself with arms ; he was also driven to it by his carniverous nature evident from his canine teeth ; and as soon as he was arined, he made his prey and his food of every animal that came within his reach,
This destructive instinct still manifests itself, children are known to kill whatever little insects come in their way, and they would even eat them if they were hungry.
It is not surprising that man should wish to live on flesh; his stomach is too small, and fruit is not substantial enough to satisfy his wants ; he might better feed on vegetables, but this system of diet implies a knowledge of the arts which could not be acquired for ages.
The first arms must have been the branches of trees, then bows and arrows.
It is most remarkable, that wherever man was found, in every climate, in every latitude, he was always armed with the bow and arrow, This coincidence is very difficult to be accounted for. We cannot understand how individuals, so differently circumstanced, should have the same ideas ; it must be the result of a cause which lay concealed behind the veil of ages.
The only inconvenience attending raw flesh is, that by its viscocity or glutinous nature, it adheres to the teeth ; in other
respects it is not disagreeable to the taste. Seasoned with a little salt, it is easily digested, and must be more nourishing than any other.
“ Mein Got," said a captain of Croates, to me one day in 1815, “ we should not put ourselves to such trouble to procure good cheer. When we are in campaign, if we are hungry, we take down the first game we meet; we cut it up into small fleshy pieces, season it with pepper and salt, of which we always have a supply in our sabre-tasche ;* we place the meat under the saddle, on the horse's back, whilst we take a smart canter, and (imitating a man eating with a ravenous appetite) gnaw, guaw, gnaw, we regale ourselves like princes.
When the sportsman of Dauphiné sets out for the chase, if he meets with a fig-pecker in good condition, he at once plucks it, seasons it, and carries it for some time in his hat, and then eats it. They say that this bird prepared in this way is much more palatable than if it were roasted.
Besides, if our ancestors lived principally on uncooked food, raw flesh is still much in use amongst ourselves.
Italian and Arles sausages, smoked beef from Hamburg, Anchovies, red-herrings, &c., which have not been subjected to the fre, are well adapted to some stomachs, and they are no less palatable because uncooked.
When people had lived a long time after the manner of the Croatians, fire was discovered; this was, however, the result of chance, for fire does not exist spontaneously on the earth ; the inhabitants of the Ladrone Islands, for instance, knew nothing of fire.
Fire, once discovered, man's progressive instinct soon prompted him to bring meat under its influence, first to dry it, then broiling it on embers.
The meat thus prepared was found to be much better, more firm, and easily masticated, and the sweet smell it exhales while roasting, is always most grateful.
However, it was soon perceived that meat broiled on coals could pot be kept free from dirt, for some of the ashes always adhered to it, of which it was very difficult to rid it.
• The sabre-tasche, or sabre-pouch, is a kind of bag suspended from the shoulder-belt, which supports the sword of the light-armed troops, and is often alluded to in the anecdote of the soldier.
To remedy this inconvenience, it was put on a spit, which was then placed over the burning coals, supported by stones of suitable height.
This was the origin of steaks, a preparation as simple as it is savoury, for broiled meat of every description has always been a favourite.
Things were much in the same state in Homer's time. We trust our readers will be amused by the manner in which Achilles received in his tent three of the most distinguished amongst the Greeks, one of whom was a king.
Thus we see a king, the son of a king, and three Greek generals, dining very heartily on bread, wine and roasted meat.
We must believe that if Achilles and Patroclus thus occupied themselves in preparing the feast, it was because the occasion was an extraordinary one, and to do the more honour to the distinguished guests they were about to entertain, for on ordinary occasion the cooking was entrusted to the slaves and the women, which we further learn from Homer, in the Odyssey, when describing the banquets of thesuitors of Penelope.
In former days the entrails of animals stuffed with blood and fat (the pudding) were considered an exquisite dish.
At that time, and no doubt long before, poetry and music were associated with the pleasures of the table.
Venerable minstrels sang the praises of nature, the loves of the gods and the exploits of heroes; they exercised a sort of priesthood, and it is probable that the divine Homer himself was descended from some of those inspired men; he would have never gained such fame, had not his poetical studies commenced with his childhood.
Madame Dacier remarks that in no part of his works does Homer make any mention of boiled beef.
The Hebrews were more advanced in consequence of their having dwelt in Egypt; they had vessels which were capable of resisting the fire, and it was in one of those vessels that the pottage was made, which Jacob sold at such a price to bis brother Esau.
It is impossible to learn how man first arrived at the know. ledge of working metals ; it is said that Tubal-Cain was the first who made the attempt.
Our knowledge of science at the present day enables us to make use of one metal in working another ; we hold it with the
pincers, we weld it with the hammer, we cut it with the file, but we have never met one who could tell us how the first pin'cers and the first hammer were made.
As soon as vessels, either of brass or earthenware, were rendered capable of resisting fire, cookery made rapid progress; meats could then be seasoned, and made more palatable, vegetables boiled, and bouillon, gravies and jellies followed without intermission.
The oldest books in our possession speak in glowing terms of the banquets of the kings of the east. It is easy to understand that those monarchs who ruled over such fertile countries, capable of producing so many things, particularly spices and perfumes, kept sumptuous tables, but we are ignorant of their details. We only know that Cadmus, who introduced letters into Greece, was cook to the king of Sidon. He was a kind of oriental Soyer.
It was those voluptuous and effeminate people who introduced the custom of surrounding the banquet table with couches, and eating in a reclined position.
This refinement, which was evidence of weakness in the people, was not everywhere equally well received. Those who valued strength and courage, those with whom frugality was a virtue, were for a long time opposed to it; at last, it was adopted in Athens, and became universal over the civilised world.
The art of cooking was brought to great perfection by the Athenians, who were a refined people and fond of novelties; kings, wealthy private individuals, poets and learned men set the example, and even philosophers did not think it beneath them to enjoy those luxuries which were drawn from the bosom of nature.
According to what we read in the ancient authors, their banquets must have been regular festival entertainments.
The chase, angling, and commerce supplied them with a great portion of these objects, which, to this day, are considered luxuries, and which then competition raised to a fabulous price.
Even the arts contributed to ornament their tables, around which the guests ranged themselves on couches covered with rich purple tapestry.
It was their constant study to add to the pleasures of their good cheer that of agreeable conversation, and table-talk became a regular science.