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again with large additions, in 1587, by the said John Harrison, and others. We are further informed by Édinund Howes, the continuer of Stowe's Annals, that if Stowe had lived but one year longer, he purposed to have put in print Reyne Woolfes chronicle, which he began and finished at the request of Dr. Whitgift, late archbishop of Canterbury; but being prevented by death, left the same in his study, orderly written, ready for the press ; but it came to nothing."

* He settled his printing office in Paul's Church.yard, and set up the sign of the Brazen Serpent, which device he used to most of his books, though he sometimes used that of the tree of charity ; his rebus you will see in the frontispiece.”

The house, sayš Stowe, as I guess, he built from the ground, out
of the old chapel, which he purchased of the king at the dissolution
of monasteries, where on the same ground he had several other tene-
ments, and afterwards purchased several leases of the dean and chap.
ter of St. Paul's. He followed his business of printing with great
reputation for many years, and printed for archbishop Cranmer
most of his pieces, and for others of great note Henry Binneman
was servant to him, who afterwards proved a good printer, and used
the same device of the Brazen Serpent; as also did John Shepperde,
another of his apprentices.

“ He was the first who had a patent for being a printer to the
king in Latin, Greek and Hebrew; by which he was authorized to
be his bookseller and stationer, and to print and publish all sorts of
books in the said languages, as also Greek and Latin Grammars,
although mixed with English ; and likewise charts, maps, and such
other things, which might be at any time useful and necessary." He
printed,
" James Servingham Yates's, Castell of Courtesie, whereunto is adjoyned
the Holde of Humilitie, with the Chariot of Chastilie, thereunto an.
nered, 1582"

A Copy sold at the Sale of G. Steeven's, 1800, for £2 10s. And another at Saunders's Sale Room, 1818 for £23 10s.

Juhn Day, Daye, or Daie, was born in St. Peter's parish, Dunwich in Suffolk, to which he left a gift; as appears by the papers of the late Thomas Martin, Esq. ; of Paulsgrave, from Mr. Le Neve. He is supposed to have been descended from a good family, buried at Bradley-Parva, in that county. He bore for his arms, ermin, on a

fess indented, two eaglets displayed; his crest, out of a ducal coroDet, a demi eagle with wings expanded ermin. He first began printing a little above Holborn conduit; and about 1549 removed into Aldersgate, where he printed, and, for his greater convenience, according to Stowe, built much on the wall of the city, towards St. Anu's church ; he kept also, at the same time, several shops in different parts of the town, where his books were sold. He had a li. cense in September, 1552, to print the Catechism, which K. Edw. vi had caused to be set forth, both in Latin and in English : but as Raynold Woulfe had a former privilege for all Latin books, he seems to have applied for redress ; accordingly among Cecil's papers, published by the Rev. Mr. Hains in 1740, page 128, is this memorandum: Item, that were one Day, hath à priviledge for the catechisme, and one Reyne Wolfe, who hath à former priviledge for bnew gold

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Latyn Books they may joyne in printing of the sayd catechisme.” However, it appears to have been determined that Wolfe should print it in Latin, and Day in English, for thus we find it printed; and Day in another license, dated 25 March, 1553, had privilege to print it only in English, with a brief of an A B C, thereunto annexed: Also, for the printing and reprinting all such works and books, devised and compiled by John (Ponet) now bishop of Winton, or by Tho. Beacon, professor of divinity; so that no such book, be in any wise repugnant to the holy scriptures, or proceedings in religion, and the laws of the realm.”

He printed The Whole Psulter translated into English Metre, which containeth an hundred aud fifty Psalms."

It is so scarce, that Mr. Strype tells us he could never get sight of it; and Warton, in his " History of English Poetry," points it out as a great rarity, adding It certainly would be deemed a fortunate acquisition to those capricious Students, who labor to collect a library of rarities."

“ Its rarity is conjectured to arise from the circumstance of only a few copies having been given away to the nobility, by the Arch. bishop's wife Margaret, to whom Fuller, in his “ Church History," has given a very high character."

Dir. Ames then continues to give a full account of all the eminent Printers from Julian Notary in 1498, and William Faques in 1500, down to William Aspley, and John Bailie, in 1600, with a general history of Printing from its origin to that period; this elaborate Worli, with Mr. Herbert's additions, form 1875 quarto pages, and Mr. Dibden's edition still enlarges it.

Mr. Herbert, after his labours in correcting and enlarging Ames's Typography, from a single volume, to three extensive ones, concludes his history of Printers, and Printing in England at page 1467, and in the following one, thus commences bis history of

PRINTING IN SCOTLAND. . Since an account has been given of printing in England, I shall now proceed to offer a few hints, relating to the rise and progress of the art in Scotland, which may be of use to such as would pursue this subject further, in that formerly antient kingdom.

The late ingenious James Watson, who with Freebairn obtained a patent from Q. Anne, for printing in Scotland and was afterwards one of his majesty's printers there in the time of K. George the first, did in the year 1713, publish a short history of the art of printing, containing an account of its invention and progress in Europe ; to which he added a preface, wherein he mentions three or four books, and as many printers of Scotland within my assigned time; that is, from the introduction of the art there, to the year 1600, which I shall take notice of in their proper place. He indeed supposes they had the art of printing early from their having a constant trade with the Low Countries; from their cases and presses being all of the Dutch make, till of late years ; from their manner of working, in distributing the letter on hand with the face from us and the nick downwards ; and their ntaking ink, as the printers there do at this day ; but that the books may be lost, being either lives of saints and legendary miracles, or of devotions then in vogue, carried away by the priests, who Aed beyond the sea, or destroyed by the zeal of the reformers. His further account of the Scotch printers are later than my time.”

“ The first book I have found mentioned by any, is, A breviary of the church of Aberdeen, printed at Edinburgh 1509, thirty-five years after the introduction of this art by William Caxton. The account Mr. Ames had of this, is in a letter directed to his good friend, Dr. John Mitchell, from Mr. Charles Mackey, professor of history in the university of Edinburgh. “The art with us is as early as 1509. I imagine, though I am not certain, that I have found Mr. Ames's voucher for it. Mr. John Ker, late humanity professor here, gave into the lawyers library an old breviary in octavo, for the use of Aberdeen, but the title page, and some sheets at the end are wanting."

la 1510, another Breviary, was printed at Edinburgh, and Mr. Herbert remarks that they evince that Mr. Watson's conjectures were well founded.

During the succeeding space of forty years, to the middle of the 15th century, about twelve books only were printed in Scotland.

Mr. Herbert, after devoting upwards of fifty pages in describing Printing in Scotland, from 1509 to the close of 1600; proceeds to the following account of

PRINTING IN IRELAND. Ireland was one of the last European states into which the art of printing was introduced. Mr. Ames used his best endeavours to form thence an account nf its rise and progress in that kingdom be. fore 1600 ; but all the information he received was the following:

Extract of a Letter from Doctor Rotty, of Dublin, dated June 28, 1744, to Dr. WILLIAM CLARK, of London.

Thy commission for furnishing a catalogue of books printed in Ireland before the year 1600, I think I have had pretty good opportunities of executing, and have accordingly inade use of them. First, I had an acquaintance with a learned antiquary, who has made things of this sort his particular study for many years, who is able to furnish me with but one book, which he can assure me to have been printed within that period, which is this:

“The book of common prayer, and administration of the sacraments, and other ceremonies of the church of England. Dublinæ in oficina Humphredi Poweli. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum, anno Domini 1551.” Io black letter, a large quarto.

Next, I had recourse to the large library of Dr. Worth, a late eminent physician here, who was eminently curious in collecting antient pieces, but there I found but one printed here so early as 1633. Lastly, on perusing the catalogue of the college library, I found within the period by thee limited, but that one individual book, as above recited. The truth is, printing is but of a very late date in Ireland. Here were indeed some few authors within that period, but their works were printed abroad as in England, France, Flanders, Italy, &c. Even down to 1700 very few books were printed here, but whatever was written here, was generally printed in London ;

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even now, the printing trade there cunsists chief, in repriwting books printed in London, and they that value their reputation, commonly send their writings to England to be printed.' And this is all the satisfaction in my power to give thy friend, on this account.

" The following books parporting to have been printed at Water. ford, are thought to have been printed in England, having no assur.'' ance of any press being set up so early at Waterford ; besides it must have been as dangerous printing these books openly there during queen Mary's reign asin England ; therefore they more properly belong to our General History, however we have given them a place here; one of them bearing the superscription ; and the other having the same types, on the authority of Maunsell."

« Warranted tidings from Ireland, was the first newspaper printed here, which was in 1641.".

In noticing Printing in England, at the commencement of the 17th century, I alluded to the Elder Bouyer, and referred to the works that passed through, or were connected with his press to the year 1732, which with Mr. Nichols's mass of Literary information, occupies a volume of 700 pages.

In 1712-13, the elder Bowyer, after having for thirteen years pursued business with unremitted industry and unsullied reputation, was, in one fatal night, reduced to absolute want, by a calamitous fire. Every one who knew the respectable sufferer was instant and anxious, either to relieve, or to sympathize in his great affliction ; and Mr. Bowyer on this occasion, received from Dean Stanhope one of the most excellent and affecting letters that so melancholy an event could be supposed to suggest. It was written in haste the very day after ; and speaks indubitably, the language of the heart.

The younger Bowyer never forgot this striking testimony of regard for his parent.

A similar accident occurred in the Office of Mr. Nichols, in 1808, nearly a century afterwards. In both instances Literary property to a vast amount was destroyed.

Of the second Wm. Bowyer, (born 1699, died 1777,) son of the preceding-Mr. Nichols gives a voluminous account, and of the annals of his Press from 1732 to 1777. Mr. N. entered into partnership with him in 1766.

I shall now select the following abridged account of him, which appears in Gurton, from the Gentleinan's Magazine. “ WILLIAM Bowyer an English printer and classical scholar of eminence in the last century," was a native of London, where his father, also a printer, carried on business. The son acquired the radiments of learning under Ambrose Bonwicke, a ponjuring clergyman, and was afterwards admitted a sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, but left the university without a degree in 1722, and became an associate in trade with his father. In 1729 he obtained the office of printer, of the votes of the house of commons, which he held nearly 50 years. He was subsequently appointed printer to the Society of Antiquarians, of which learned body he was admitted a member; and on the death of Samuel Richardson in 1761, the interest of Lord Macclesfield procured him the appointment of printer to the Royal Society. In 1768 he was nominated printer of the journals of the house of Lords

and the rolls of Parliament. He died in 1777, aged 78, and was interred in the church of Low Layton in Essex. By his will be bequeathed a considerable sum of money, in trust to the Stationers' Company, for the relief of decayed printers or compositors. His principal literary production was an edition of the New Testament in Greek, with critical notes and emendations. He also published several philological tracts, and added notes and observations to some of the learned works that issued from his press. About ten years previous to his decease, he entered into partnership with Mr. John Nichols, who shortly after that event published a small volume of biographical anecdotes of Bowyer and his learned cotemporaries, which formed the basis of his « Literary anecdotes of the 18th Century," 9 vols. 8vo., a work containing a vast mass of indigested materials for a history of English literature during the period to which it relates."

It is highly creditable to Bowyer and to Nichols, in having maintained the highest respect from the first rate Literary characters for more than a century, and it is no less remarkable, that they have printed the Votes of Parliament not only during that period, than it must be gratifying, that they are now printed by J. B. Nichols, Esq., Son and successor to as extraordinary a man, as an author and printer, as the last century has produced.

Mr. Nichols does not appear to have been ambitious of printing, what is called fine work, hot pressing, &c. He left that to Bensley, Bulmer, Davison, Whittingham and others, who were particularly laid out for the fine, or superior style of Printing-in fact Mr. Nfrom the very nature and extent of his avocations and occupation, could not attend to the minutiæ of that branch of the trade, so peculiar to itself. I have before observed that from this voluminous Writer, having not only Printed all his own Works, (exceeding upwards of one hundred Volumes,) but also Edited and Printed the most extensive Monthly Periodical the Gentleman's Magazine, and the Votes of the House of Commons, besides general work, for more than half a century, the tedious process of fine Work, pressing, and hot-pressing, &c., could not be contemplated or expected. The Gentleman's Magazine alone may almost be considered a closely printed Monthly Volume.

Mr. John Bowyer Nichols is following similar noble pursuits to those of his late amiable Father, who states, that his son was enjoined by the great antiquarian Gough, to assist his executors in transmitting his Library to Oxford; and Owen Manning acknowledges his great obligations to him, for his indefatigable attention in cor. recting his History of Surrey.-Mr. J. B. Nichols also edited the last edition of the Life and Errors of John Dunton, has displayed considerable literary taste, and been an ornament to his profession as a printer.

TYPE FOUNDING. Of the improvement in Type Founding from the time of our predecessors, down to the commencement of the 18th century, Caslon appears the first, and the family ever since bave continued to maintain its pre-eminence.

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