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unintelligible than the reading of the pupils. Their ignorance of parsing was such, that a grown pupil in the fourth class stated the nu. meral “six" to be a verb, and no other pupil ventured a different opinion. I am at a loss to understand, and cannot ascertain, upon what principle the inspectors of this school promote the pupils ; because, even in cases of recent promotion, where although the pupil could not be supposed to be familiar as yet with the business of his actual class, he ought to know something of what had qualified him for promotion, the ignorance displayed was so extreme, that in no instance could the pupil have been sufficiently advanced for the class he had left. This I have acertained by examining him in the text book of the class in question-(16th July, 1856.]

Tydavnet ; Ballinode Parochial School.--The pupils read in the worst possible style. Out of a class of fourteen not one could give the meaning of the word “disengaged "-one only offered a guess that “ common was an adjective, but could assign no reason; and not one could name any peninsula of Europe.- (16th July, 1856.]

Ballisukeery; Mullufurry, Erasmus Smith's English School. With reference to this school I have only to observe that it seemed to be in a state of complete decay. The pupils were ignorant of everything upon which I examined them. One girl only seemed to have some slight knowledge of reading and spelling.

As far as I can judge, there is no life or vigour in the inspection or administration of the school, and the season of the year is insufficient to account for the wretched attendance on this, not a market-day.-(20th November, 1855 )

Castlebar School. This school is the one mentioned in the Second Report of the Commissioners of Irish Education Inquiry, 1826, p. 1256, as the school of Aglish, endowed under the Lord Lieutenant's Fund. The master is not a well informed man, but he can hardly be made responsible for the pitiable state in which I found the school, as he has been only a few weeks appointed.

The pupils are in a state of utter ignorance, unless that they can spell their way a little through the tritling books in their hands.-[17th March, 1856.)

Boyle, Purochial School. The answering in everything, except geography, was very poor. The pupils were nearly quite ignorant of parsing, and absolutely ignorant of derivations. In attempting to write froin dictation, only one pupil spelled "operation," correctly, and all made numerous mistakes in a single sentence.-[17th Decem, ber, 1855.)

Ardvally School. There was only one pupil, a mere infant, present at the time of my visit, so that I am not in a position to speak from actual observation of the state of instruction in the school. Seeing, however, that the teacher is an illiterate man, without any knowledge. of grammar, and just able to read and write ; that the school is wanting in books, furniture, and requisites ; that there is no roll, no report book, no inspection, and that it is visited not oftener than once a quarter by a clergyman; I believe I am warranted in concluding that the school must be essentially a bad one ; and that it would be difficult to to fix upon a less profitable application of so considerable a


sum as £20 per annum than to the support of such a school. I confess to having heard, with much surprise, from the Rev. Mr. Stock, that the master is an efficient teacher, and most successful in bringing on his pupils. I, of course, had no opportunity of ascertaining how far he had brought them on; but he must be a more remarkable man than I supposed, if, without knowledge of his own, rules for his guidance, books for his pupils, advice, direction, or control, he can have had any measure of success whatever.-[23rd October, 1856.]

Drumcliffe ; Muninean, Erasmus Smith's English School. It is right to state that the school has hitherto been under the conduct of inefficient teachers. Appended to a somewhat unfavourable notice of the working of the school, from the Church Education Society's inspector, appearing in the report-book, is a comment of the late master, to the effect that the report was malicious and untrue. My experience of these cases leads me to consider this circumstance proof sufficient of the unfitness of the late master for his place; and additional proof is furnished by the ignorance of the pupils in the most elementary branches of instruction. The Scriptures may

be said to be the only reading and general lesson book in use. The style of reading is as bad in this as in any other parish school, and the meaning of words as little known. All were alike ignorant of grammar; and I could not obtain the name of a single European island. The master, in reply to the question, what punishments were resorted to, in the course of examination upon oath, enumerated, amongst punishments to which he resorted, the practice of making offenders read verses of Scripture. I expressed my surprise that he should resort to the Scriptures as a means of punishment, when he at once retracted his statement, and said he had made it through inadvertence. I was not satisfied with this explanation, and, accord. ingly, examined one of his pupils, upon oath, as to the nature of the punishments to which he was habitually subjected, and he swore dis. tinctly that he had been obliged to read the Scriptures by way of punishment. The master, however, having interrupted my examination to ask the witness whether such punishment had proceeded from himself, the witness answered that it had not; but the answer was manifestly suggested by the master's question. [22nd October, 1856.]

We have treated the subject of education in Ireland, not by any means with reference to the subject of endowed schools merely, nor exactly according to the view in which the latter subject was considered by ourselves before the appointment of the late Commission. One feature, at all events, of the inquiry just furnished, is its completeness, and the abundance of the materials which it supplies for the treatment of the question of education generally. There is no class of schools in our country not found to include a sufficient number of endowments, to enable us to

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form an opinion, a strong conjectural opinion, at least, as to the state of education in that portion of the class which lay outside the field of the Commission, as well as in that which lay within it. There was, moreover, one large subdivision of schools admittedly endowed, the vested schools of the National Board, upon which the Commissioners did not consider it necessary to report, but which we have no reason to doubt, altogether resembled the remainder of their class. And further, large as was the number of schools taken in by the definition of the Commissioners, it excluded from the list of endowed schools a class which for many important purposes may be considered as endowed; the schools supported by parliamentary grant from the early estimates; so that dealing with the subject of national education generally, we might still be said to keep within the subject of education in endowed schools, The inquiries of the Commissioners into such of these schools as were included within their own definition furnished us with a large though not complete indication instances upon which to grant our perferment as to the entire class, and therefore as to she entire National system. The same may be said to a still greater extent, as we have always observed of the rival, or Church Education system. Again, the Commissioners differed in opinion upon questions of high principle equally applicable to unendowed, or temporarily endowed Schools, as to Schools endowed in perpetuity. The principle involved was that of mixed education ; and in arriving at a judgment upon the subject, no better materials could be found than those prepared for us by the Commissioners. We learned, not only from their general report, but from their tabulated statistics, and from the special reports of the assistant Commissioners; that the National Schools are substantially separate establishments, under the direction of the Catholic clergy, although governed by rules not altogether in harmony with the feelings of that body. We learned further that those schools being of the character and under the direction we have described are good schools and instrumental in the diffusion of solid and useful educatian. We were further taught, that the essentially Catholic schools of the Christian Brothers were also the most perfect of their class, or rather that they form a class quite apart from, and superior to any schools that might be supposed to rank with them; and we found lastly, that the schools under the immediate care of the clergy of the Established Church were such as have been described in the foregoing extracts. Upon a review of the entire case; while anxious to preserve for ourselves the intellectual superiority communicated to our youth by systems like those of the Christian Brothers, and while anxious to extend the application of those systems to intermediate and upper education ; we are far from anxious to perpetuate the degradation to which the parish schools have been reduced by the neglect of the Protestant clergy, and their contempt of secular instruction. If the clergy of the Established church would loyally agree to concern themselves with their own congregations merely, and to embrace frankly the denominational system, we should gladly meet their views. In three of the provinces there is no such thing as united education, and in the fourth it is adopted with great jealousy and with no little heart-burning. If there must be a Protestant and Catholic National school in each parish ; be it so ; but let them be as emphatically and conspicuously distinct as the Protestant and Catholic churches. If Catholic parents think proper to send their children to the Ministers' school, let it be upon the distinct understanding that the teaching is as Protestant as Calvin could desire. The system of mixed education does not in reality exist; we have only separate education hampered by inconvenient rules. The attempt to extend even the theory of mixed education to intermediate schools would be quite hopeless, and involve the country again in the disastrous controversy that attended the establishment of the Queen's Colleges, and which might have been so easily avoided by allowing open competition to separate and independent universities, with equal advantages and rights. The State has an opportunity of adjusting the long disputed question now, and of reconsidering the entire subject of education. We for our part are not anxious to encroach upon any educational endowments whether of state or private foundation that have been regarded as belonging peculiarly to Protestants. We make no reference at present to the revenues of the Church Establishment. That is an altogether different question. But speaking for ourselves merely, we are quite willing to leave to the Protestants every one of the educational endow

ments they claim as theirs, or that Mr. Stephens claims for them, not by any means, in the case of the schools of State foundation as a matter of right, but as a peace offering merely and upon conditions. We hold what will hardly be disputed, that in the distribution of favours as well as of burthens Catholic and Protestant should stand upon opposite sides of an equation. No one can pretend that they stand in any such relation at present. In respect of primary education the state endowment is nearly all upon the Catholic side for the reasons so abundantly discussed already. In respect of intermediate education it is all the other way, and we for our private part are content to leave it so. In respect of superior education we have upon the Protestant side the University of Dublin, a great Protestant institution, to the secular teaching, and to some of the prizes of which Catholics are admissible, but upon the Catholic side we have absolutely no equivalent; while the Queen's Colleges, being open to Protestant and Catholic alike, are common quantities, and cannot restore the balance. Complete the equation by giving to the Catholic interest a quantity to balance the University of Dublin. The material is ready to our hands in the Catholic University.

It is not many years ago since the Times, when such an institution was first in contemplation, suggested that if Catholics should be so fortunate as to obtain for their projected University the services of some of the disciplined minds of Oxford and Cambridge that have passed over to their communion, it would entitle them to some sort of countenance. They have obtained for their University all that was suggested, but they do not receive more countenance or support on that account, than if the Rector and Professors were so many hedge-school-masters. The Herald bade welcome to the coming University on the somewhat peculiar ground that Luther was the alumnus of a Catholic University. But now that the University has come, neither the Times out of respect for the literary training it supplies to Catholics "Ilium in Italiam portans," nor the Herald in anticipation of its promised crop of Luthers, has given to it the support they seemed to hold out Never was a moment more propitious for the adjustment of the question. The existence of free and recognised universities side by side with the State university, and enjoy

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