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Caxton, and nken de Word 5, and to Richet he above persi 3c-similes de

him does not appear by his will; yet we find in the church-wardens
accounts for St. Margarets Westminster, an entry made in the year
1498. “Item for the knell of Elizabeth de Worde vi pence, Item,
For ii torches, with the grete belle for her, v. iii.” Again, in the
year 1500,-item for the knell Julian de Worde, with the grete bell,
vi. pence."

“By his connection with Mr. Caxton, and on account of this new
art, he occasionally fell into the company and acquaintance of the
learned and noble of this kingdom ; and at length was appointed
printer to Margaret mother of king Hen. VII. and grandame to
Henry the VIII., as he styles himself in 1509; which is the first
year of thus describidg himself.

"After the death of Mr. Caxton, he printed, in his house as afore.
said; primarily it may be supposed with his types, sometimes using
his cypher only, without the printer's name; sometimes adding

Caxton's house;" and at other times, probably the latter part of his
dwelling there, adding thereto his own name also. By his colophons
we learn that he continued at Westminster until the
very likely 1501; in which year we find in
only one book, "Mons perfectionis. ucent for being a printer to the

year Too, or was printed ; but Palmer's contorew, by which he was auf. Ames, an account of refer to Westminster precationer, and to print anderem ithout any account

where it printed by him at the

anguages, as also Grotiuator has added " ibid," which must find “ The ordynarivith English ; and tim ing j. and he does not mention any book

Hun in Fleet-street before 1503: however I en mot fans, which might be at le of erysten men" was printed there in 1502. We do find

sign him . as a siames Servingham I supposed that Caxton's cypher might have been exhibited

le Holde of Hur:n, but we find no imitation of this by either Caxton or himnered, 1582."

A Copy so' He printed Bartholomæus de Proprietatibus Reruw. - The first another at ook printed on paper made in England.

Juhn I At the Duke of Roxburgh's in 1812, a copy sold for 701. 78. An in Suffor imperfect copy at the Sale of Stanesby Alchorne, Esq. in 1813, sold late T to the Duke of Devonshire for 131. 13s.

Rowe Mores was of opinion that Wynken de Worde was his own Bra Letter Founder, a circumstance that shews the rapid progress of the fess Art in England at so early a period ; in fact, the circumstancc cannet

not be doubted, for it appears that Caxton had him employed with il, Fust's servant's, at Cologne ;-amongst whom were also said to be, A. Pynson, Rood, Macklin, and Lettou.

The great advancement and improvements in this beautiful Art,

during the whole of the last and present centuries, has been truly f

astonishing; aided by the taste and talents of the Caslons, Basker. ville, Fry, Figgins, Thorowgood, and others, as Type Founders.

Richard Pynson, Esq., was born in Normandy in France, as appears by king Henry's patent of naturalization, wherein he is styled “ Richardus Pynson, in partibus Normand, oriund.” However there were of the same name in England, as may be seen in the church-warden's account for St. Margaret's Westminster, in the year 1504 ; “ Item, received of Robert Pynson for four tapers ii d.” Perhaps some relation of his. There was one also Philip Pinson an Englishman, who died of the plague, the 2d of December, 1503; three days after he had been nominated to the archbishoprick ef Tuam, in Ireland.”

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“Whether this artist was apprentice to Mr. Caxton, as intiinated by Mr. Lewis, is rather uncertain; nor can I see any reason for such

supposition of him any more than of W. de Worde, whom he styles his foreman or journeyman : perhaps these characters may be equally true of them both, at different periods of time. However this be, Pynson himself in his first edition of Chaucer, calls Caxton his wor. shipful master" whiche boke diligently ouirsen & duely examined by his pollitike reason and ouirsight of my worshipful master William ( axton,” &c.”

Mr. Ames intimates that our artist was in such esteein with the Jady Margaret, King Hen. Vll's mother, and other great personages, that he printed for them all his days; but this does not particularly appear.

He printed The life of a Virgyn cully'd Petronylia, whom Erle Flaccus desired to his Wyt." 18mo.

“A very rare Poetical Tract, consisting only of three leaves, 18mo.,

and which at Townley's Sale in 1814, was sold for the very moderate Str. tournamenti Words, or two guineas per leaf, to Messrs. Longman and Co."

and was burn , Horne Tooke's Sale in 1813, for the Mr. Heber bought a copy

though 01.3 sixpence. sum of sic pounds, iwo shillings, ana Westmi. Roman letters to this coun

“ Pynson was the first who introduced the age wublications, which contry, and he was eminently successful in his pen th' or: died about 1529. sist chiefly of law books. He is supposed to havever hatuthe utmost fami

Psalmanaazaar intimates that this printer lived in of Caxtösturbed by liarity and friendship with W. de Worde, and quite und de Wrather any mutual emulation or rivalship in trade; the contrary Rich difappears by their works, for they are found frequently printing personas ferent editions of the same books, at or near the same time; not f the partners, or the one's name taken out, and the other's inserted to certain number of the same edition. He tells us indeed that they o printed several year books together : perhaps they might be joined in the same privilege or licence for printing them.

Reynold Woolfe, Esq., King's Printer, "He was a man of eminence, a good antiquary, great pronoter of the reforniation, and in favour with king Henry VIII. lord Cromwell, archbishop Cranmer, &c. John Leland was of his acquaintance. Our learned Kentish antiquary John Twine calls him a German by nation, good man, and we 11 learned, and a very faithful friend of his, whose kindness he had experienced in prosperity and adversity, and who, when he was set at liberty from his imprisonment in the Tower, took him into his house, situ squaloreque obsitum, and entertained him there till he could return to Canterbury, to his own house and family. John Stowe observes of him, that in the year 1549, the bones of the dead, in the Charnel house of St. Paul's, amounting to more than 1000 cart ioads, were carried to Finsbury field, and the expence paid by him. He spent 25 years in collecting materials for an universal cosmography of all nations, which though at his death he left undigested, be thereby laid the foundation of those chronicles, which afterwards were compiled by Ralph Holinshed, who frankly acknowledged so much in his dedication to lord Burghleigh. Those chroniclos were published in 1577 by John Harrison his son in law; and

again with large additions, in 1587, by the said John Harrison, and others. We are further informed by Edinund Howes, the continuer of Stowe's Annals, that if Stowe had lived but one year longer, he purposed to have put in print Reyne Woolfes chronicle, which he began and finished at the request of Dr. Whitgift, late archbishop. of Canterbury; but being prevented by death, left the same in his study, orderly written, really for the press ; but it came to nothing."

" He settled his printing office in Paul's Church.yard, and set up the sign of the Brazen Serpent, which device he used to most of his books, though he sometimes used that of the tree of charity; his rebus you will see in the frontispiece."

The house, says Stowe, as I guess, he built from the ground, out of the old chapel, which he purchased of the king at the dissolution of monasteries, where on the same ground he had several other tenements, and afterwards purchased several leases of the dead and chap. ter of St. Paul's. He followed his business of printing with great reputation for inany years, and printed for airchbishop Cranmer most of his pieces, and for others of great note Henry Binneman was servant to him, who afterwards proved a good printer, and used the same device of the Brazen Serpent; as also did John Shepperde, another of his apprentices.

“ He was the first who had a patent for being a printer to the king in Latin, Greek and Hebrew ; by which he was authorized to be his bookseller and stationer, and to print and publish all sorts of books in the said languages, as also Greek and Latin Grammars, although mixed with Englislı ; and likewise charts, maps, and such other things, which might be at any time useful and necessary." He printed, " James Servingham Yates's, Castell of Courtesie, whereunto is adjoynell the Holde of Humilitie, with the Charivt of Chastitie, thereunto an. nered, 1582.”

A Copy sold at the Sale of G. Steeven's, 1800, for £2 10s. And another at Saunders's Sale Room, 1818 for £23 10s.

Juhn Duy, Daye, or Daie, was born in St. Peter's parish, Dunwich in Suffolk, to which he left a gift; as appears by the papers of the late Thomas Martin, Esq.; of Paulsgrave, from Mr. Le Neve. He is supposed to have been descended from a good family, buried at Bradley-Parva, in that county. He bore for his arms, ermin, on a 'fess indented, two eaglets displayed ; his crest, out of a ducal coropet, a demi eagle with wings expanded ermin. He first began printing a little above Holborn conduit; and about 1549 removed into

Aldersgate, where he printed, and, for his greater convenience, according to Stowe, built much on the wall of the city, towards St. Anu's church; he kept also, at the same time, several shops in different parts of the town, where his books were sold. He had a li. tense in September, 1552, to print the Catechism, which K. Edw. vi had caused to be set forth, both in Latin and in English: but as Raynold Woulfe had a former privilege for all Latin books, he seems to have applied for redress ; accordingly ainong Cecil's papers, published by the Rev. Mr. Hains in 1740, page 128, is this memoran

dum :-Item, that were one Day, hath a priviledge for the catechisme, and one Reyne Wolfe, who hath à former priviledge for

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Latyn Books they may joyne in printing of the sayd catechisme.” However, it appears to have been determined that Wolfe should print it in Latin, and Day in English, for thus we find it printed; and Day in another license, dated 25 March, 1553, had privilege to print it only in English, with a brief of an A B C, thereunto annexed: Also, for the printing and reprinting all such works and books, devised and compiled by John (Ponet) now bishop of Winton, or by Tho. Beacon, professor of divinity; so that no such book, be in any wise repugnant to the holy scriptures, or proceedings in religion, and the laws of the realm.”

He printed The Whole Psulter translated into English Metre, which containeth an hundred aud fifty Psalms."

It is so scarce, that Mr. Strype tells us he could never get sight of it; and Warton, in his " History of English Poetry," points it out as a great rarity, adding It certainly would be deemed a fortunate acquisition to those capricious Students, who labor to collect a library of rarities."

“ Its rarity is conjectured to arise from the circumstance of only a few copies having been given away to the nobility, by the Arch. bishop's wife Margaret, to whom Fuller, in his “ Church History," has given a very high character."

Dir. Ames then continues to give a full account of all the eminent Printers from Julian Notary in 1498, and William Faques in 1500, down to William Aspley, and John Bailie, in 1600, with a general history of Printing from its origin to that period; this elaborate Worli, with Mr. Herbert's additions, form 1875 quarto pages, and Mr. Dibden's edition still enlarges it.

Mr. Herbert, after his labours in correcting and enlarging Ames's Typography, from a single volume, to three extensive ones, concludes his history of Printers, and Printing in England at page 1467, and in the following one, thus commences bis history of

PRINTING IN SCOTLAND. . Since an account has been given of printing in England, I shall now proceed to offer a few hints, relating to the rise and progress of the art in Scotland, which may be of use to such as would pursue this subject further, in that formerly antient kingdom.

The late ingenious James Watson, who with Freebairn obtained a patent from Q. Anne, for printing in Scotland and was afterwards one of his majesty's printers there in the time of K. George the first, did in the year 1713, publish a short history of the art of printing, containing an account of its invention and progress in Europe ; to which he added a preface, wherein he mentions three or four books, and as many printers of Scotland within my assigned time; that is, from the introduction of the art there, to the year 1600, which I shall take notice of in their proper place. He indeed supposes they had the art of printing early from their having a constant trade with the Low Countries; from their cases and presses being all of the Dutch make, till of late years ; from their manner of working, in distributing the letter on hand with the face from us and the nick downwards ; and their ntaking ink, as the printers there do at this day ; but that the books may be lost, being either lives of saints and legendary miracles, or of devotions then in vogue, carried away by the priests, who fled beyond the sea, or destroyed by the zeal of the reformers. His further account of the Scotch printers are later than my time."

“The first book I have found mentioned by any, is, A breviary of the church of Aberdeen, printed at Edinburgh 1509, thirty-five years after the introduction of this art by William Caxton. The account Mr. Ames bad of this, is in a letter directed to his good friend, Dr. John Mitchell, from Mr. Charles Mackey, professor of history in the university of Edinburgh. “The art with us is as early as 1509. I imagine, though I am not certain, that I have found Mr. Ames's voucher for it. Mr. John Ker, late humanity professor here, gave into the lawyers library an old breviary in octavo, for the use of Aberdeen, but the title page, and some sheets at the end are wanting."

In 1510, another Breviary, was printed at Edinburgh, and Mr. Herbert remarks that they evince that Mr. Watson's conjectures were well founded.

During the succeeding space of forty years, to the middle of the 15th century, about twelve books only were printed in Scotland.

Mr. Herbert, after devoting upwards ot' filty pages in describing Printing in Scotland, from 1509 to the close of 1600 ; proceeris to the following account of

PRINTING IN IRELAND. Ireland was one of the last European states into which the art of printing was introduced. Mr. Ames used his best en lesvours to form thence an account of its rise and progress in that kingdom be. fore 1600 ; but all the information he received was the following:

Ectract of a Letter from Doctor Rurty, of Dublin, dated June 28, 1744, to Dr. WILLIAM CLARK, of London.

Thy commission for furnishing a catalogue of books printed in Ireland before the year 1600, I think I have had pretty good opportunities of executing, and have accordingly made use of them. First, I had an acquaintance with a learned antiquary, who has made things of this sort his particular study for many years, who is able to furnish me with but one book, which he can assure me to have been printed within that period, which is this:

"The book of common prayer, and administration of the sacraments, and other ceremonies of the church of England. Dublinæ in ufücina. Humphredi Poweli. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum, anno Domini 1551." Io black letter, a large quarto.

Next, I had recourse to the large library of Dr. Worth, a late eminent physician here, who was eminently curious in collecting antient pieces, but there I found but one printed here so early as 1633. Lastly, on perusing the catalogue of the college library, I found within the period by thee limited, but that one individual book, as above recited. The truth is, printing is but of a very late date in Ireland. Here were indeed some few authors within that period, but their works were printed abroad as in England, France, Flanders, Italy, &c. Even down to 1700 very few books were printed here, but whatever was written here, was generaliy printed in London ;


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