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They not, is expressed by non fi. Ex. They do not speak, non si parla.

They not of it, is expressed by non sone. Ex. They do not talk of it, non lene parla.

They us of it, they you of it, they him of it, &c. with a Verb, the Verb is turned to the Participle Common, and the Verb essere or venire is put before the Participle in all the Tenses. Ex. They speak to us of it, cene vienne parlato.

They speak to him of it, gliene vien parlato.
They promise me some, mene sono promeji, or,

mene vien promeli. Note here, The Verb venire is more elegantly used

than essere.

.

Note also, I. When the Conjunctive Pronouns come after the Particle i, and the Verb that follows has neither Noun or Cafe after it, the Phrase must be changed, and fi not expressed. Ex. They ask for me, fono domandato ; I am asked

for. They seek you, fete cercato ; you are fought

for. They will praise us, saremo lodati ; we all be

praised. II. Si they, or, it is, takes not del, or other Article after it, unless del signifies concerning. Ex. They see Men, si vedono huomini. They speak of War, si parla della guerra. H

Farther,

Farther, They is expressed in this wise : They gave me a Book, mi data un libro; a Book

was given to me. They wrote us a Letter, ci scritta una lettera ;

a Letter was wrote to us. They sent for us to Rome, fummo mandati à Roma;

we were sent for to Rome. Also Remark, when si they, is put after a Verb that is accented, the Letters is doubled, and the Accent' taken away; as,

Fasi for si , they do.
Dirasi for si dirà, they will say.

RU LE XIV.

The Italians, as well as the French, always repeat the Noun, of which they have spoken before, but to avoid tedious repetitions, they make use of the Personal Pronouns lo M. la F. lo Plur. M. and F. also vi and ne ; the three first go with the Verb fono I am. Ex. He is poor, I am so too, è povero, lo sono

anch' jo.

Vi us, and ci you, are both Personal Pronouns, and also Adverbs; and in Italian are put for by it, by them, in it, to it, to them, on it, on them, there, thither, therein, and thereunto. Vide Table of Pronouns, and

Page 47

Ex. I get by it, vi guadagno.

She reads in it, vi legge.
Go you thither, andatė vi.
Thou hast dined there, ci or vi hai pranfato.
We are there, ci siamo

Ne

Ne also is a Personal Pronoun, and an Adverb, and with Verbs is put for of, from, to, at him, her, it, them, for it, fome, any, hence thence, &c. Vid Table of Pronouns, and Page 48. Ex. I have some, ne .

Will you have any ? ne volete?
I receive from her, ne recevo.
What do you say to it? che ne dice?
In promising them fome, promittendone loro.

RULE XV.

we

Of whom, whose, are expressed by di chi or di cui, but if the Article the follows of whom, &c. put il di cui, or il cui, M. la di cui, la cui F. Sing. i di cui, or i cui M. le di cui, or le cui M. Plur. Ex. Whofe Name I know not, di chi, or, il di cui

nome non . Whose Beauties, le cui bellezze, or, le di cui

bellezze. From whose Brother I have received, dal cui,

or, dal di cui fratello ricevuto. The Favours of whom, i di cui favori.

RULE XVI. Of whom, and to whom, in a Question, are expressed by da chi and à chi. Ex. Of whom do you know it? da chi lo sapete?

To whom do you speak ? à chi parlate ?

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RULE XVII.

What, and That, are always che.
Ex. What news is stirring ? che si dice di nuovo ?

What do they say Abroad ? di che si parla ?
The Book that I read, il libro che leggo.

Note, I. Che sometimes signifies because, especially when after the Negative non. Ex. Do not drink it, because it will hurt you, non

lo bevete, che vi farà male.

II. He that, is expressed by chi, rather than quel cbe. Ex. He that says this has reason, che dice questo

ragione.

*

Before I conclude this Chapter, it will be proper to add a few Remarks.

I. Whereas the Pronouns mi myself, ti thyself, fi himself, &c. when joined to the Articles lo, la it, or ne of it, change the i into e; as, melo to me it, tene thee of it, sene himself of it, as is shewn, Page 29. So is it to be particularly noticed of the Pronoun gli to him, or her, that whenever it is joined to the above Articles, it takes the Lettere after it before the Article, and make glielo to him it, gliene to him of it, &C. Ex. To give it to him, per darglielo, not dar

glilo.
To give it to her, per dargliela.

You

You shall give them to him, glieli renderete.
You shall ask him for some, gliene domandete.
You shall speak to him of it, gliene parlerete.

II. When a Pronoun Conjunctive, in Italian, is preceeded by si, it is or they ; as, they me, they thee, they him, &c. the Pronouns me, thee, him, &c. are transposed, that is, put before the Pronoun Personal. Ex. They tell me, mi si dice, not si mi dice.

They tell thee, ti dice, not li ti dice.
They tell him, gli, or le fi dice.

III. The following Words, me fome, or of it; thee fome, or of it; him some, or of it; us some, you : some, &c. are expressed by mene, tene, sene, gliene, cene, vene, &c. Vide Page 29.

IV. They us of it, they you of it, they him of it, they me of it, they thee of it, &c. are frequently turned in the Expression in Italian, and rendered by the Verbs essere and venire. Ex. They will speak to us of it, say, It will be

spoken of to us, cone sarà parlato. They will write to you of it, say, You will

be written to of it, vene farà scritto. They speak to him of it, gliene vien parlato.. They promise me some, mene sono promessi..

See before Page 75.

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