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PREFACE.

THE SIXTH VOLUME OF THE NEW SERIES OF THE JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH ARCHÆOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION for the year 1900 contains most of the Papers which were laid before the Congress at Buxton, and a considerable number of those read during the recent sessions (18991900) in London, and the Proceedings of the Congress and the Evening Meetings, together with some notes upon the recent Congress at Leicester. Descriptions of some of the discoveries of the year, and criticism of recent books of archæological interest, will be found in the department allotted to Antiquarian Intelligence. The volume is again enriched with numerous plates and drawings, for many of which we are indebted to the liberality of the Authors of the Papers ; by this means the Association is still enabled to render the book more attractive than it would otherwise be.

Some interesting discoveries have been made during the past year, among which may be mentioned those which are due to the excavations now going on in London ; the finding of a remarkable Neolithic burialground in Cornwall; the discovery of further Neolithic remains in Norfolk, and that of a burial-place of the Bronze Age at Bleasdale in Lancashire ; besides which excavations have been going steadily on at Caerwent and Silchester, and have yielded some interesting results. But the most memorable “finds” of the

have not been on British soil. They are those in the Forum at Rome, in the island of Crete, and in Egypt. Of the two former some account will be found in these pages, while of the latter—the discovery of an embalmed burial of the Neolithic Age-we hope to give an account in our next volume.

year

The year has been saddened by the decease of several old friends of the Association, whose loss we deplore: a loss which will be widely felt in the archæological world-among whom we may mention Lieut. Gen. Pitt-Rivers, D.C.L. ; Rev. Sir T. H. B. Baker ; Mr. G. N. R. Wright, F.S.A., for many years the genial Congress Secretary of the Association ; and Mr. J. T. Irvine, who, beneath a most modest exterior concealed a wealth of knowledge in his own particular department, and a fund of information vouchsafed to few.

These and many more are gone, but the Association survives; and strengthened with the conviction that the knowledge of the past is fraught with untold benefits and precious lessons for the present and the future, it advances with confidence into the New Century, fully persuaded that amid all the wonders of these modern days, the human race has still much to learn from, and may still profitably ponder and seek to revive, the wonders of

the past.

H. J. DUKINFIELD ASTLEY.

31 December, 1900.

THE JOURNAL

OF THE

British Archaeological Association.

MARCH 1900.

A SKETCH OF THE ARCHÆOLOGY OF

DERBYSHIRE.

BY JOHN WARD, ESQ., F.S.A. (CARDIFF).

(Read at the Buxton Congress, July 20th, 1899.)
ROM an archæological point of view, Derby-

shire, in proportion to its size, is probably
unsurpassed by any other English county.
The finest monuments, it is true, of each
class of English antiquities must be
looked for elsewhere ; but assuredly this

county is in the very front rank in respect to the number of these classes represented within its borders, and the very complete manner in which most of them are exemplified.

These ancient monuments are very unevenly distributed in the county. Those of pre- and sub-historic age are most numerous in the mountainous region which lies north of Ashbourne and Wirksworth, and west of Ashover and East Moor--the “ Peak Country” familiar to the tourist. The geological structure of this region takes the form of an anticline (or, to be more strict, an elongated dome) in the Carboniferous rocks, the axis of which is approximately north-west and south-east. The nucleus consists of Mountain-limestone, which is traversed by the ravines and rock-girt valleys for which the Peak is famous, and it abounds in water-worn caverns. Bordering this tract are the successive outcrops of Yoredale-shales, Millstone-grit, and Coal-measures, the second attaining an unusual thickness in this part of the country, and forming the highest elevations, its outcrops constituting the "edges” which give character to the scenery of the eastern side of the Derwent valley. The more fertile and less hilly part of the county consisting mostly of Triassic rocks in the south, and of Coal-measures in the east, is relatively richer in medieval antiquities, especially of an ecclesiastical and domestic nature.

[graphic]

Why the older remains should, broadly speaking, be confined to the hilly portions of the county, is uncertain. Did the earlier peoples prefer these highlands, because the more open lowlands were less easily defended against the marauding incursions of other tribes ? Tribal warfare does not seem to have been the normal state of things in Derbyshire, for its ancient camps are few, and, as a rule, insignificant. Probably, cultivation has more to do with the question than anything else. The lowlands have been longer and more completely under cultivation than the highlands ; and if both were once equally strewn with prehistoric monuments, it is hardly a matter of surprise that so few should have survived to our day in the former region. In the Peak, more havoc has been wrought to these remains since the commencement of the long series of Acts for the enclosure of the wastes, a hundred and fifty years ago, than during the whole time before. The cairns have supplied materials for the construction of stone fences and for the repairing of roads, while the greater stones of cists and circles have come in useful for gate-posts. Then, in the case of earthworks, the plough is slowly but surely effecting their removal.

The archæological literature of the county is copious. From the numerous contributions of Major Hayman Rooke, F.S.A., and the Rev. Samuel Pegge, L.L.D., to the pages of Archæologia, last century, down to the present day, there has been an almost unbroken stream of investigators of its antiquities, and some of the works they have written are justly esteemed to have a far

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