תמונות בעמוד

the natural wool on the skin, as both could have been equally in use.

The ancients used ships having one, two, and even three masts; this is shown by various examples, the most graphic being carefully-built inverted ships of stone in Minorca, in the interiors of which the bases or truncated portions of masts, three in number, from the deck to the keel, as described by me at the Congress at Devizes, are in good preservation. Pliny describes ships as carrying one, two, and three masts; and it is therefore probable that for special sails, sheets made of corium or leather, being in common use for protecting naval bulwarks, were also adapted to the masts for speed : the more so as the Veneti were Oriental Gauls, always coast settlers and maritime traders, and their leather sails were probably antique, and belonging to an age of Greek or Phoenician commerce, prior to and unknown to the Romans.

The name, Wellund, brings forward interesting associations. First, it takes us to Wellan or Wellund, the smith referred to by Sir Walter Scott under the name of

Wayland:” a name perhaps acquired from his operations being carried out on the great or Ic-nield Way. Hence

Wayland Smith's Cave,” clearly one of those forges, still existing in fact as well as in tradition, which may be traced from the extreme west coast of Ireland, through North Wales to Wiltshire, and thence to Sussex ; the two most notable being that in Armagh, the Irish Smith's Palace, or Fairy Mansion, called from his name Sidh Cuilinn, and Wayland Smith's cave in Wiltshire. The smith's craft was an occult art, and the workers were looked on as dealers in magic by the superstitious; in short, as having the power of transmuting metals.

This point becomes emphasised when, among the rather sparse remains in this county, the banks of the Wellund and the course of Watling Street have produced heaps of accumulated cinders; as at Castle Dikes in Farthingston, and at Round Hill, near Lilborn. But further, in those heaps, which I venture to call Smith's middens, are found in proximity with such cinders, , broken pottery

The days of excavation in which those heaps were


opened were not days of careful research, and pottery was pottery and nothing more.

With careful examination of exhumed relics for some years along the trade routes in and from Britain to Italy, I have succeeded in classing much of such pottery, as funeral, domestic, religious, and technical; and the latter may be divided into common or trade uses, and superior or scientific, that is to say: the smith's melting-pot, and the vessels used by the analyst; the latter comprise crucibles of various forms and sizes. Waylund or Wellund Smith, probably acquired this name through coming from amongst a people so-called ; and although there is no account of colonists bearing that name, yet the Verones, well-known traders in metal from northern Italy to Spain, had a settlement north of the Wellund, Verometum, near a settlement of the Vennonae, and both were traders here. The v, as a double letter w is common; and the change in Attic Greek of the p () into 2 (1) is almost as common. Professor Donaldson, formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, has shown such changes in the ancient languages of Italy, and some affinities in Russian, or rather Russo - Tauranian ; so that the Verones might be read Welones, or Wellonese, and their district Welland. This actually occurs, as Verometum is now Willoughby; and by the GraecoIberic mutation, Veronese became Beronese. This takes us straight to the old Iberian fort, Berigonium in Argyllshire, which was captured by the Irish Gaels; the vitrified fort on which brings us back to the Smith's middens on the Wellund. The association of our word “ well,” though suitable to a river-fount or welling up of water, can hardly have been the source of the word, or many rivers would have been so named, instead of the usual"eis” or “es," as in Isis, Thames, or Avon, etc. The word applies more to weld,” to unite metal, which appears to be a shortened form of “ wellund," and would in that sense explain the cinder-heaps in itself. Weld is Scandinavian, and the Scandinavian metal traders, though the name was then unknown, clearly trafficked with Italy in pre-Roman times, as described in my paper at Stokeupon-Trent, and that to the British Association at Leeds.

There is so much interest connected with the districts around Northamptonshire in which were the several States that surrendered to Caesar after his crossing the Thames, that time would not permit even a reference to now, tempting as it is. But it must be borne in mind that the Trinobantes were not fighting men, but merchants from Greece, Italy, and the Baltic, and their case was not one of military surrender, but a claim for protection; there could be no stronger proof of their being merchants. We even get a sight of their religion in huge forms of serpents, and traces of Thargelia, a ceremony exclusively Greek; while the traditions worked out by the Rev. W. Cobb, Head Master of the Grammar School at Great Berkhampstead, are as graphic as to serpent worship as those of St. Patrick in Ireland.





PAPER has been recently read before the Anthropological Institute on the caves and stone implements of South Africa ("Eoliths from Pretoria”), in which the writer, or author, Mr. Geo. Leith, gives a very graphic account of these very

primitive stone implements. He says: “ The Eoliths are all traceable to the high-level gravels; they are water- and weather-worn, with a peculiar brown patina ;” and, in another part: “that it is marvellous the correspondence between the implements of the plateau gravels in the Transvaal and those that have been found on the chalk of Kent.” It is this passage in his article which has prompted me to bring the subject (with illustration of specimens from the Kentish plateau) before this Association.

The Stone Age is now divided by most scientific men into three epochs :

1st. The Eolithic, or Dawn of the Stone Age (Wilson). 2nd. The Paläolithic, or Early Stone Age (Sir John Lubbock). 3rd. The Neolithic, or Later Stone Age

). I will commence with the Palæolithic Age, as, until quite recently, it was considered by most archæologists to be the most ancient period yielding any decisive proofs of the existence of man. That was the opinion of many, some eighteen or twenty years ago. Since then great discoveries have been made, which are believed to prove

[ocr errors]

the existence of man many thousands of years previous to the Palæolithic Age.

We will first consider briefly the Palæolithic Age and then the Eolithic period, which has recently come to light in various parts of the world; and I have here some specimens which were obtained from the North Downs of Kent, which we will examine and compare with objects of the later periods.

Sir John Lubbock, in describing the Paläolithic Age, says: “ The antiquities are usually found in beds of gravel and loam, extending along our valleys, and reaching sometimes to the height of 200 ft. above the present water-levels at the same places; and that these beds were deposited by the existing rivers, which then ran in the same direction as at present, and drained nearly the same areas. The rude stone implements found in these deposits were simply chipped into form, and never ground or polished. Some of the types are quite different from what are met with in the subsequent age. The climate varied at different periods, as we find the bones of the marnmoth, the musk ox, the woolly-haired rhinoceros, and other Arctic species, while the hippopotamus, and other Southern species denoted that a warm period intervened. The extinction of these large mammalia must have been a work of time. These valley beds are found from 100 ft. to 200 ft. above the present water-level, and the bottom of the valley is occupied by a (great) bed of peat, which, in some cases, is as much as 30 ft. thick.

“It is quite evident that for the excavation of the valley by the river to a depth of more than 200 ft., and then for the formation of so thick a bed of peat, much time must have been required. If we consider the alteration which has taken place in the climate, as well as in the fauna, and remember also that the last 1900 or 2000 years have produced scarcely any perceptible change, we cannot but come to the conclusion that very many centuries, or more like millions of years, have elapsed since these rivers ran at levels so much higher than the present ones. That man lived at this time we know, as already said, by the discovery of stone implements of undoubted human workmanship. Human bones have also been

« הקודםהמשך »