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not strong artistic feeling for true art decoration in the handling of this craftsmanship? What about art in the figures ? some may ask. Well, it must be admitted that the skill displayed in the foliage does not appear to be altogether carried out in the details of the figure work ; but do not let us forget the centuries of exposure to all kinds of weather: from the blazing sunshine, through damp and wet, and snow and storm, to biting frost, from which this work has suffered. If there is any portion that would be first deprived of its merit, surely it would be in the delicacy of expression in the figure subjects; and no doubt this accounts in a great degree for the apparent rudeness of the figures.

But may we not also remember the roughness of the material, and the consciousness of the workman of the risks his work would be subjected to, and his consequent right judgment to give force, and not refinement of finish and drawing to his work. That such force does even still exist is perfectly clear in such features as remain approximately intact. Take, for instance, the energy given to the form of the Roman soldier pressing his spear to the side of the Crucified, on the west side of the shaft. Or, again, if deep expression of motionless deathlike form be wanted, look at the nether limbs of the Saviour, as they hang on the cross. But before being led to mention these details, the general treatment of the figure subjects should have been given. First of all, let it be noticed that each figure has its niched-like canopy, produced by an arch over the head, springing from the architectural feature of projecting cappings. This is remarkable, having regard to the generally-accepted early character of the work.

It will be seen that the figure-subjects principally occur on what is now the western face of the shaft. They have been distinguished by the Bishop of Bristol as follows:

Beginning at the top on the west side, there is as plainly as possible a rendering of the Crucifixion, with the Roman soldier on either side the Cross, the one actively thrusting the cruel spear to the body's side, the other (judged mostly by analogy) offering the sponge of vinegar. The body of the Crucified seems to have been draped down to just above the level of the knees, the legs alone being bare. The rendering of Mount Calvary is very pronounced and quaint. Next, below the Crucifixion are two standing figures facing one another, which the Bishop of Bristol assigns to the Salutation of the Blessed Mary by Elizabeth.

Then comes a figure of St. Peter, clearly distinguished by the emblem of the Keys, which are held in the hand.

Next is the representation of Our Lord in glory, the figure seated and majestic in form.

Lastly is the portion of a figure, which the Bishop interprets (also mainly from analogy) as being that of some great man or prince, carrying on his hand a hawk in indication of his favourite pastime. The north end of the shouldered projection is formed into a panel, filled with interlaced work, the only part marked by this feature; whilst the south corresponding end has a figure in its panel.

The figure-carving on the east face remains to be mentioned. It is unfortunate that the whole of the panel at the top is not entire : from what remains it is apparent that it represents a man mounted on a horse or ass, with the branches of a tree beneath and running up each side of the central subject. The Bishop of Bristol attributes this to the representation of Christ's entry into Jerusalem.

The foliage of the east face ends beneath the top panel, with the figure of au animal nibbling at a bunch of fruit, and this animal the Bishop puts down as a squirrel.

The question of the date of this monument will best come for notice with the general treatment of this point, later on.

But to quit the subject without one further observation must not be. Amidst all the uncertainties surrounding this work, you will have observed that one fact stands out perfectly free from doubt, namely, that to all intents and purposes it is a Christian monument. Its very shape is an indication of that, and its details, already reviewed, prove it beyond question. Would that we knew the exact time of its erection, and the men, whether cleric or lay, who executed it. But, at all events, we

may conclude with admiration for the hand and eye, chisel and mallet, which produced it; and shall we not also express our gratitude for the feeling of reverence which has preserved for us through the centuries this still existing memorial of the dead of ages long passed

away?

CROSS AT EYAM. The cross at Eyam, like that at Bakewell, stands within the enclosure of the parish churchyard ; but at Eyam its situation is better than at Bakewell, being in the midst of open ground, and fully seen from every point of view. At first sight it has the appearance of a perfect design, but slight examination soon discloses that the shaft itself is not of its full original height, the patterns of carving being abruptly broken through, whilst the limbs of the actual cross do not fit to the top of the present shaft. What additional height the shaft formerly possessed it is not easy to calculate, as much would depend on the treatment of the junction between shaft and cross. If the tapering of the sides be produced upwards, and the bed of the cross fitted to them, the shaft itself would require to be at least as high as the top of the present cross, which would give an additional height of nearly 2 ft. 6 ins. ; besides this, the shaft where it is socketted into the base has been lowered at least some 4 ins., so that it may be safely said that the total height of the cross above the base was at least 3 ft. higher than at present, making it 11 ft. instead of 8 ft.

The proportion of the width of the sides to the faces at Eyam is greater than at Bakewell, the latter being as 14} ins. to 221 ins., and the former as 151 ins. to 204 ins. This gives greater massiveness of effect to the Eyam cross, particularly as here the proportion of the base face to the height of shaft is also greater at Eyam. The plinth stone is regular in shape and well proportioned to the shaft; and if not entirely of recent date has certainly been re-tooled and probably re-shaped.

In general outline the two crosses at Eyam and Bakewell may be said to agree: their section of plan and the tapering of the sides from base to summit of shaft

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CROSS IN THE VICARAGE GARDEN, HOPE, DERBYSHIRE, FROM THE WEST.

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