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a state but little removed from the condition of the wild creatures aniong whom the life of Paläolithic man was cast, to the time when the discovery and use of the most serviceable of the metals made him the conqueror of Nature, and put him on the road which has already brought him so far forward in the pathway of progress. Whether Sir William Turner was right in saying, as he did at the recent meeting of the British Association, that "man's intellect is still in process of evolution,” may be a moot point; but nothing is surer than that what man has already won is nothing to what he shall win in the future, and what he is is nothing to what he shall be.

On the subject of the “ Antiquity of Man,” the author may be said to hold moderate views when compared with those of some workers in the same field; but he clearly demonstrates that the space that separates us from the time when the Palæolothic hunters roamed over Northern France must be immense. The river Somme, for example, then flowed at a level 100 ft. above its present bed, and along its banks ranged a savage race of hunters and fishermen; while in the forests wandered the mammoth, the two-horned woolly rhinoceros, a species of lion, the musk-ox, the reindeer, and the urus. Well


he add: “No one can properly appreciate the lapse of time indicated who has not stood on one of the points overlooking the valley of the Somme, or on the summit of one of our English chalk hills; nor could any geologist return from such a visit without an overwhelming sense of the changes which have taken place, and the length of time which must have elapsed since the first appearance of man in Western Europe.”

The chapters dealing with modern sa vages, and their analogies with the men of the Later Stone Age, are striking and convincing; but the researches of recent travellers, such as those of Messrs. Spencer and Gillen in Australia, the late Miss Mary Kingsley in West Africa, and many others, show that these analogies may be carried even further than is done by the author in this latest revised edition of his work.

The book is handsomely got-up, and is adorned with forty plates and nearly 250 figures of weapons, tools, implements, etc., found in recent years. There is, moreover, a good index.

Prehistoric Scotland. By Robt. Munro, M.D., F.R.S.E. (Edinburgh : Wm. Blackwood and Sons, 7s. 6d.). - Dr. Munro has written this book, as the title-page informs us, to serve as the Introduction to the series of County Histories of Scotland, which Messrs. Blackwood are now engaged in bringing out; and, needless to say, he has performed the task, for which none was more qualified than be, right well.

As he himself says, the work was not so easy nor so simple as it might appear, for, though Scotland is but a small country in itself, the attempt to write upon Scotland in prehistoric times at once introduces the larger question of the races who inhabited the country from the first arrival of man therein, up to the time when history begins with the Roman occupation, and the relationship in which they stood to the contemporary races of Europe.

The author simplifies matters by at once ruling out Palæolithic man; in his opinion Scotland at that time was still buried beneath the ice of the Glacial Period; but he has a formidable opponent in the person of the Rev. F. Smith, who contends that he has found plenty of Palæolithic implements, not of flint, which is rare in Scotland, but of other rocks, in many localities. Again, coming to Neolithic days, another bone of contention is found in the author's opinion as to the so-called “ 25 or 30 ft. raised beach,” which he contends points to an elevation in the land-surface, and a consequent receding of the sea to that extent, " at some time subsequent to the appearance of man, but prior to the Roman occupation;" and he points to the MacArthur Cave at Oban, and to other indications in support of this.

But here, again, Prof. Geikie disagrees with bim, so far as to this having been caused by any local "earth-movement" at any such period.

If, as Dr. Munro holds, the Carse of Stirling was sea in the days of Neolithic man, as the implements of deer-horn found beside the carcases of whales seem to show, and if in Roman times the sea had withdrawn, and forests grown up where the waves used to roll, then, in any case, on his own showing, prehistoric man in Scotland must be thrown back to a dim and shadowy past, whether the first arrivals were of the Neolithic or Paläolithic races.

At any rate, by the time the Romans arrived, Scotland, as Tacitus proves, had for the most part reached a fairly advanced stage in the higher or middle barbarism : for she could raise a united army as large as that which Bruce commanded at Bannockburn, and one, moreover, provided with horses, chariots, and weapons of iron.

At the same time, in many secluded and out-of-the-way districts, the people had hardly even then emerged from the Stone Age, as may be reasonably inferred from recent discoveries.

The author describes with his usual learning the relics of the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages, and educes from an examination of the remains discovered in the memorials of the dead" and the "abodes of the living," an accurate account of what may be supposed to have been the manner and customs of the people at these different epochs.

As to Dr. Munro's remarks on the undoubtedly puzzling discoveries at Dumbuck and Dumbuie, the reader need not be reminded that there are a variety of opinions upon the subject, and the learned author's almost contemptuous remarks are hardly worthy of his position. There is ample evidence, in our opinion, to prove that the "finds," and the rock-drawings are alike genuine (if they are not genuine they must be "forgeries"), and if genuine they must be explained, and fitted into their true place in Scottish archæology, not on any à priori notions of their "unlikeness to any known phase of Scottish civilisation,” but on the principle of a broad outlook upon comparative anthropology. This has been attempted in the paper on “Jet and Cannel Coal Ornaments” in the present volume of this Journal, pp. 164-188, to which we would refer the reader.

The author seems, again, to extend the term “mediæval ” in a somewhat illegitimate manner, when he speaks of "crannogs, lake dwellings, and other medieval' remains.” There is no doubt that, both in Scotland and Ireland, their use survived down to medieval times, but, apart from the Dumbuck crannog altogether, there is undoubted evidence of these abodes in England, Scotland, and Ireland, as in Switzerland, during the Neolithic Age, and from that time downwards.

As regards the “Caledonians," Dr. Munro does not decide whether these were

" earlier Celts” or “Teutons ;” and as to the “Picts,” he seems to agree with Professor Rhys in considering them to be the descendants of the Neolithic Iberian or Euskarian people, whose modern representatives are the Basques. He will not allow that the Pictish language spoken of by Adamnan in the sixth century A.D., was “ pre-Celtic,” i.e., Euskarian, but holds rather that it was a mere dialectical variety of Gaelic. In this we think him mistaken; it may have been a very mixed and debased speech, but that its foundation was Iberian may, we think, be taken as highly probable.

All attempts, however, to establish any affinity between the remains of the Pictish language and the Basque having entirely failed, a more modern theory still endeavours to trace a parallelism between the former and the Berber languages of North Africa, and the ancient Egyptian ; in which case the aborigines of Britain may have been a branch of the Berber, or white race, of North Africa. But the Berbers themselves are very probably a branch of the great Iberian race. The evidence as to racial athinities derived from language is always a precarious one ; to take one kind of example only, viz., that in which a conquered people has adopted the speech of the conquerors.

In conclusion, let us say that if the book does not enhance, it fully maintains the author's reputation ; it is ably written, as was to be expected, well and abundantly illustrated, and is in every way a worthy addition to the literature of Scottish archæology.

Scottish Market Crosses. By John SMALE, F.S.A.Scot., Architect, Stirling; with an Introductory Chapter by ALEXANDER HUTCHESON, F.S.A.Scot. (Stirling : E. Mackay, Murray Place). — This tinelyproduced book is one of the latest additions to the antiquarian literature of Scotland, and will occupy a deservedly prominent place among the works devoted to illustrating Scottish archæology, of which we have frequently taken notice in past times. Mr. Smale draws with a free, bold stroke, and has succeeded well in reproducing, as far as can be on paper, the principal features of a difficult, unconventional class of relics, the market crosses of North Britain. It is a varied collection that he has been enabled to gather up, on 118 large plates, from the plain upright shaft to the elaborately-carved pillar set on pedestals or steps, and of an age reaching from prehistoric times to almost the present day. The author takes very little notice of date, material, or dimensions, but this is not a great fault in a book intended primarily to be pictorial rather than technical. The delineations are faithful, and those who know the original relics will easily recognise the views given in the series. Mr. Hutcheson prefixes a very interesting introduction, dealing with the historical and social aspects which cling around the market cross. He shows that these objects have been long neglected in literature, the late James Drummond being the first to deal with the subject comprehensively in 1861. Numerous notices of the crosses in records and mediæval documents have been gathered together, and the historical events which have occurred in connection with such crosses, and punishments which were carried out at the cross have been carefully noted. The whole, therefore, forms a monograph of considerable value to the archæologist; and we do not doubt that the book will be in demand with the antiquary who studies Scottish manners and customs. Its size may perhaps prevent its universal acquisition, but it would bear reprinting in a smaller form, with corresponding reduction of the plates. The publisher deserves a word of praise for the charming manner in which he has executed his share of the task.

The Parish and Church of Godalming. By S. WELMAN (London Elliot Stock, 10s.).—This is a capital book, and supplies a good illustration of the advantage which would accrue to every town such as Godalming, consisting of an ancient parish, and possessing a church whose very walls tell of its growth through long centuries before it


became what it is to-day, if it had residing in it an architect like Mr. Welman, with eyes to see, and sufficient interest in antiquity to investigate, things hidden from the ordinary passer-by.

The author begins with a description of the parish, and argues with much probability that its size (it is one of the largest in Surrey) and peculiar shape preclude the idea that it was deliberately set out by St. Dunstan for ecclesiastical purposes, and must be due to the fact that the boundaries of the manor had been fixed in this, and doubtless in numberless other cases, before the introduction of Christianity. After that event, the boundaries of the parish would then naturally follow those of the manor. The present site of the church is not the original

Mr. Welman finds that site in the outlying hamlet of Tuesley, where there was in all probability an altar and temenos sacred to Tiu, the Saxon Mars, or god of war, from whom we derive the name Tuesday (Mardi) for the third day of the week. In the year 1220, when Dean Wanda made his Visitation of Godalming, the existence of an ancient chapelry here is mentioned, but after that time it became neglected and forgotten.

The present church consists of nave, central tower, transepts, nave aisles north and south, and chancel aisles or chantries; and it is the architectural history of this church, or rather the story of its growth that Mr. Welman describes in the larger half of his book. This he does in a most careful and painstaking way, and he provides more or less conjectural plans and drawings of the building, to illustrate its probable appearance at each stage of its history.

Starting with the discovery-after long observation and study-of two small Saxon eye-holes, or circular windows, in the wall above the present western arch of the tower, he traces the development of the building from an original Saxon church, consisting of an aisleless oblong nave, and a chancel almost square, which he thinks became the towered crossing of the later building. This would be an unusual method of enlarging a chancel, but Mr. Welman marshals his arguments forcibly, and clearly illustrates the evidences he has discovered, while he distinguishes carefully between the facts and the conclusions to which he considers they point.

The history of the church, as developed by Mr. Welman, shows that it is one upon which every period of architecture has left its mark; and it is a most fascinating study to follow the author as he unfolds its growth from the first probable Saxon building down to the last restoration of the nineteenth century. The remaining chapters are somewhat sketchy, and an index is needed to make the book of real value to the student. The illustrations are good, but, considering that the book is the work

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