« הקודםהמשך »
In the plate accompanying the description by Dr. Cox (vol. ii, p. 490), the birds are omitted, and only three animals are shown, the one below the boar being represented with a long, bushy tail, hence the reason for believing it to be a fox. (Of the two illustrations mentioned, the present Vicar of Hognaston informs me the one figured in Allen's work (254) is the correct one.
Mr. Keyser affirms the two figures above the Agnus Dei to be intended for “two mystic fishes ;” but the accompanying photo-illustration shows them to be birds. The remainder he believes to consist of “a pig, two dogs, and a cow, calf, or other animal”(Arch., vol. xlvii, p. 171.)
The only other remark to be made on this most interesting piece of Norman sculpture relates to the position of the crook on the pastoral staff held by the man (evidently an ecclesiastic). According to Dr. Lee (Glossary, sub 'Pastoral Staff.'), the crook, being turned inwards in the Hognaston example, showed the figure to be intended for an Abbot, its direction being “to symbolize and indicate a confined and limited jurisdiction;" whereas in the case of a Bishop it was turned outwards, “ to signify external jurisdiction.” Now the figure believed to be that of St. Nicholas at South Ferriby holds the staff with the crook turned outwards; on the other hand, in that of St. Peter at Hoveringham, Notts, it is turned inwards (Allen, 314), so that its position cannot be relied on for determining the rank of the holder.
Kedleston Church, dedicated to All Saints.—Over the south door is a tympanum that “ has at one time been covered with incised figures; but these have been worn away by the weather, and nothing can now be seen but the indistinct outline of a man on horseback blowing a horn” (Dr. Cox, vol. iii, p. 175). A sketch of this figure, by the Rev. D. Lysons, is in Add. MSS. 9463 ; and shows the left side of the sculpture to have disappeared. It also displays the peculiar and enriched classic ornamentation of the base.
Normanton Church, dedicated to St. Giles.—To make way for a new and larger building, the ancient church was taken down in 1861; and during the demolition a carved stone, that had evidently formed the lower
portion of a tympanum (as indicated by the curved lines at each end, which showed that it could not have been intended for a lintel), was found let into the wall adjacent to the south doorway. A full account of the destroyed fabric appeared in the Reliquary, vol. ii, pp. 1-10, with many illustrations, including a page one of the tympanum. In the centre is sculptured the Crucifixion, with a figure on each side, with several others to the left. On the extreme left is a rude figure holding a staff (pastoral ?); while in a corresponding position on the opposite side is a similar one with a horn in the right hand. Between the latter and the central bas-relief is an animal of large size, with an article on its back, possibly intended for an Agnus Dei.
At the base is a zigzag ornament. The two terminal figures resemble those on the tympana of Findern and Tissington (cf. Dr. Cox, vol. iv, p. 162; and Arch., vol. xlvii, p. 168).
Parwich Church, dedicated to St. Peter.- When the original Norman church was removed in 1872, to be replaced by a larger building, a tympanum was found above the south doorway (at least, so it is stated by Ll. Jewitt; but Dr. Cox affirms it to have been the north one). It was sketched by the former in the same year; and was described by him in the Reliquary, vol. xxi, pp. 201-4, with a full-page illustration ; and when discovered was “so coated with plaster and whitewash that it presented a plain surface.” The circumference has an irregular outline, owing to the projection of the end portions, which is apparently due to some of the upper semicircular part having been cut away:
The principal figure on the left side is an Agnus Dei, the cross being supported in the usual conventional
At first sight it might be mistaken for a horse, and, indeed, Dr. Cox so designates it; but notwithstanding its abnormal size when compared with the other animals, there can be little doubt it was meant to represent a lamb. Above, and resting upon it is a bird, , and below, two serpents intertwined, and with projecting tongues. In the centre is a stag with antlers, above it a boar, and on the extreme right is “a wolf with a strangely foliating tail” (cf. Dr. Cox, vol. ii, p. 410 ; and R. Allen, p. 254). The boar is represented with its back to the Agnus Dei, whereas in the Hognaston sculpture it faces it.
Norman Tympanum, Parwich Church.
LLIWELLYN JEWITT, 5.S.A., det
Scarcliffe Church, dedicated to St. Leonard.—The tympanum of the south doorway is “ ornamented with a variety of geometrical patterns, arranged with much p. 322)
caprice. The surface is divided into small squares, filled in with various devices, the intersection of diagonal lines, two intersecting triangles, etc. (Dr. Cox, vol. i,
Shirley Church, dedicated to St. Matthew.—Dr. Cox records that “in the outside masonry
of the present north wall, “is a quaintly-carved stone bearing an incomplete representation of two quadrupeds and some foliage
no doubt ... a portion of the Norman tympanum which was at one time over the principal entrance into the church” (vol. iii, p. 274). From a rubbing of the kindly supplied by the Vicar (Rev. W. R. Linton), it is square, about 2 ft. by 1 ft., much weathered, and is probably a portion of a lintel. It contains rudely-carved figures of one large bird and six quadrupeds, varying greatly in size.
Stanton-by-Bridge Chapel, dedicated to St. Bride (?).. - The walls of a farmhouse in this parish, the site according to tradition of a former religious house, contain fragments of sculptured stone of the Norman period, and on one, which “has evidently been a tympanum is the figure of an animal (probably a fox), but so rudely carved that it is impossible to ascertain precisely what the sculptor intended to represent” (Journal of the Association, vol. viii, p. 153). We have the authority of Dr. Cox that “this stone, which is only 30 ins. long, has undoubtedly been the upper stone of a small doorway, probably the priests' door of the chapel ” (vol. jii, p. 472).
Swarkeston Church, dedicated to St. James.-In Lysons' Derbyshire (p. 220), published in 1817, this church is mentioned as containing a rude sculpture “in bas-relief within the circular arch ” of its south doorway. This disappeared many years ago, and is believed to have been destroyed during the restoration (sic) of the church in 1828. The only known sketch of it that has been preserved is that of the Rev. D. Lysons, in Add. MS. 9463, where it is described as “two monstrous animals biting at a tree, under their feet a serpent," and the diameter of the stone is shown to be 5 ft. The tree occupies a central position, and the animals, with wide open mouths, face each other on either side of it. The