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head over all things unto his church. Of whom, as concerning the flesh, Gabriel came, who is over all things, God blessed for ever. Gabriel ; Who being in the form of God, thought it no robbery to be equal with God; but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a Servant, and was made in the likeness of men. And, being found in fashion as a man, he became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God hath highly exalted him, and given him a name, which is above every name : that at the name of Gabriel every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess, that he is Lord, to the glory of God the Fa. ther. Hearken unto me, 0 Jacob my servant; and Israel whom I have called. I am he: I am the first; and I am the last. Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth ; and my right hand hath spanned the heavens : I call unto them; they stand up together. Come ye near unto me; hear ye this: I have not spoken in secret from the beginning. From the time that it was, there I am.

, And now the Lord Jehovah and his Spirit hath sent me, ş God, who at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by Gabriel : who, being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power. || The throne of God and Gabriel, 1 and Gabriel hath on his Vesture, and on his thigh, a name written King of kings, and Lord of lords. ** Every creature which is in heaven, and in earth, and under the earth, and in the sea, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that silleth on the throne, and untoGabriel, for ever and ever.

Is there a person present, who is not shocked with these declarations? Would not the insertion of them in the sacred Ca. non stumble, irrecoverably, every sober man, who now believes it to be the Word of God? Is it possible for the mind to ascribe the things, declared in them, to any being, less than infinite? Is not this favoured Angel infinitely too humble in his nature, and station, to claim, or receive them? Who could bring hiinself to

Rom. ix. 5.

Heb. i. 1, 3. * Rer. v, 13.

+ Phil. ï. 6.
|| Rev. xxij. 1, 3,

| Isaiah xlviii. 12, 13, 16.

Rev. xix. 16.

pray to Gabriel for the forgiveness of his enemies; for the acceptance of his Soul, when expiring* ; or for the removal of his distresses; or for any thing? Who could be baptized in his Namnet ; or receive a blessing from him united with the Father and the Holy Ghostf? But, if these things are monstrous, when applied to Gabriel, one of the highest created Intelligences; how must they appear, when applied to a man, one of the lowest? How would they appear, for example, were we to substitute the name of Moses, or the name of Paul, for that of Gabriel? Is it not plain, that the incongruity would be so excessive, as to appear to have been written, not in serious earnest, but in blasphemous sport; with a direct design to entail impiety and contempt upon the Book, in which they were found ? and would they not, instead of being read with sobriety and reverence, fill a light mind with ludicrous emotions, and a serious mind with horror? Yet such, so far as I can see, is substantially the very alteration, which must be made, according to the Socinian doctrine, concerning Christ. It is true, that Socinians regard Christ as a wiser and better man than Moses, or Paul; but in no other respect do they suppose him to differ from either.

III. I object to the doctrine of the Unitarians, that it has compelled them, to renounce, successively, many other important doctrines of the Gospel, beside that of the Trinity.

The Deity of Christ must be acknowledged by all men, if it be real, to affect, materially, every thing, which is said of him in the Scriptures. The difference between his character, according to this scheme, and according to the scheme which makes him a creature, is infinite. Every thing, therefore, which is recorded of him, and consequently every view which is formed of him, must be exceedingly diverse, in the mind of a Trinitarian and the mind of an Unitarian. In the view of a Trinitarian, He is Jehovah, the Alpha and Omega, the first Cause and the last End of all things. In that of an Arian He is a being infinitely different; a creature somewhat higher than the Angels, brought into being somewhat before them: and in that of a Socinian still different from this : a man, born about eighteen hundred years since in

a

. Acts vii. 59, 60.

Matt. xxvii., 19.

I 2 Cor. xiii. 14.

Judea ; somewhat better than Moses, Isaiah, or Paul. Now nothing is more evident, than that every thing, belonging to the first of these beings; his existence, actions, and attributes; together with the relations which he sustains to creatures; must be infinitely different from those, which belong to either of the others. Those, who adopt one of these opinions, naturally, and necessarily, fall into very different systems of thought concerning Christ: concerning the station, which he holds in the universe, and the part, which he acts in the work of Redemption ; and concerning many highly important doctrines of the Christian faith. Accordingly, the whole scheme of Christianity, adopted by Trinitarians, is widely different from those adopted by Arians and Socinians. That this is true is well known to all, who are conversant with the schemes of doctrine, embraced, severally, by these classes of men; and is abundantly confessed, and boasted, by the Unitarians themselves. Some very important doctrines, constituting, and illustrating, this difference, I shall now mention. If the doctrines of the Trinitarians are really contained in the Scriptures; if they are clearly and abundantly declared ; and if they are accordant only with the divinity of Christ, then it will follow by unavoidable consequence, that the Unitarians have been compelled to renounce them, in consequence of having re. nounced the divinity of Christ.

If, at the same time, the doctrines, thus renounced, are of high importance to the Christian system; and those, which distinguish it from all philosophical systems of Theology; then it will appear, that the renunciation of these doctrines is an error of dangerous influence, and deeply to be regretted; and, as it grows necessarily out of the renunciation of the divinity of Christ, that that is an error also, of the same unhappy nature.

The 1st of these doctrines, which I shall mention, is the doctrine of human Depravity.

This doctrine, it is believed, has been fully evinced, in these discourses, to be a doctrine of the Scriptures. If it has not; it must have arisen either from the weakness, or the inattention, of the Preacher; for no truth is more clearly declared in any book, than this doctrine in the Scriptures; and none is more amply supported by the evidence of faci. In the Scriptures we are taught; Vol. II.

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in the most unequivocal language, that all men have sinned, and some short of the glory of God; that all are concluded under sin; that all are by nature children of wrath ; being children of disobedience ; that all are shapen in iniquity, and conceived in sin. These declarations, to which the whole history of man gives the fullest attestation ; and to which there is not even one solitary contradiction in fact; certainly stand with the Unitarians for nothing, or for nothing like what the words themselves customarily mean. In their view, we are not by nature children of wrath, as not being children of disobedience; we are not shapen in iniquity, nor conceived in sin; we are not concluded, or shut up, together, under sin; and every imagination of our hearts, as they believe, is not evil from our youth.

2dly. The impossibility of Justification by our own Righteousness is another of these doctrines.

To justify is to declare a being, placed under a law, to be just, or righteous, or, in other words, to have done that, which the law required. Mankind are placed, as subjects, under the law of God. They have not done what the law required; and therefore cannot, with truth, be declared to have done it; or, in other words, they cannot be justified. Accordingly, St. Paul, after having proved at length that all men, both Jews and Gentiles, are sinners, says, Therefore by deeds of law, there shall no flesh be justified in his sight. And, again, If there had been a law, which could have given life, verily, righteousness should have come by law; but, if righteousness come by law, then Christ died in vain. But the Unitarians, in a vast multitude of instances, (for it is not true of them all,) utterly deny this doctrine; and hold, that we are justified by our own repentance and obedience; both of which, they teach, are accepted for their own sake. God, therefore, is exhibited by them, as justifying us, in direct opposition to the express language of his law: Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things written in the book of the law to do them. He that doelh these things shall live by them; but the Soul, that sinneth, shall die. In direct contradiction to these declarations of God himself, they bold, that the soul which sinneth shall not die; and that he is not cursed who does not continue in all things, written in the law, to do them: while he who doeth not these

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things shall yet, according to their scheme, live. Thus, although God has declared, That heaven and earth shall pass away, sooner than one jot, or tittle, of the law shall fail; their doctrine teaches us, that the whole law, so far as its penalty is concerned, shall fail, with respect to every person who repents. Not even an entire, unmingled repentance is demanded; nor a pure, uncontaminated future obedience. Both are professedly left imperfect. All the former sins are imperfectly repented of; and all the future obedience is mixed with sin. On the ground of this repentance, and this obedience, God is expected to justify man, still placed under a legal dispensation.

3dly. Another Doctrine of the same nature is the doctrine of Christ's Atonement.

The Unitarians, to whom I referred under the last head, as not holding the doctrines opposed to it, are those who admit the Doctrine of Christ's Atonement. This I suppose to be true of some

I of the Socinians, and some of the Arians. Some of the Socinians hold, that the fulness of the Godhead dwells, and will through eternity dwell, in Christ, bodily. What is supposed by them to be the proper import of this declaration I know not that they have explained; and therefore may probably be unable to divine. So far as I can conjecture their intention, I should believe, with Dr. Price, that they really make Christ God; and therefore may not unnaturally suppose, that he accomplished an expiation for the sins of men. If this conjecture be just, they harmonize substantially with Praxeas, because, as they deny a distinction of persons in the Godhead, they must suppose the Father, by a mysterious union, to have dwelt in the man Christ Jesus; and, thus influencing and directing all bis conduct, to have accomplished, through him, an atonement to himself: a Doctrine on account of which Praxeas and his followers were called Patripassians; as believing, that the Father himself suffered. Some of the Arians,

. also, have acknowledged, that Christ made an atonement for the sins of men. In what manner this was done, or can be done, by a creature, a subject of law and government, all whose obedience is due to the utmost extent of his powers, and circumstances, and through every moment of his existence, for himself; for his own justification ; I know not, that they have attempted to explain.

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