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A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES LITERATURE, HISTORY POLITICS AND

BIOGRAPHY,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

Vol. X.

Philadelphia:

CAREY AND LEA.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK

BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY

CARTER & HENDEE.

1832.

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by

CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Source linprown

1-16-46

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA. .

INJUNCTION-INK.

ND.

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Per, WRITING-Pens. It is well known year 1433, extremely rare in Venice. We
that the ancients employed a certain reed, learn from the familiar letters of learned
the nature of which is not precisely ascer men of that time, that they were equally
tained, for writing. The reeds were split, troubled by the rarity of quills and by the
and shaped to. a point like our quills. difficulty of making good ink. Of late,
When goose-quills first came into use, or steel pens have been much used and im-
who first borrowed from the emblem of proved, and for certain purposes, as for
folly the instruments of wisdom, is not signing bank notes, to make the signatures
known. It has been asserted, that quills uniform, they appear well adapted; as also
were used for writing as early as the fifth for ple who cannot make pens; but,
century, according to the history of Con on the whole, the quill affords a much
stantius. The oldest certain account is a easier and handsomer chirography.
passage of Isidore, who died 636 A. D., PENAL LAW. (See Criminal Law.)
and who, among the instruments employ. PenaNCE; every penalty borne for the
ed for writing, mentions reeds and feath- expiation of an offence. In the early
ers. There exists, also, a poem on a pen, Christian church, this ancient judicial
written in the same century, and to be principle was transferred to religious pen-
found in the works of Adhelm, the first ance, that is, to the atonement which the
Saxon who wrote in Latin. Alcuin (q. v.), sinner has to make, for his trespasses, to
the friend and teacher of Charlemagne, God and the church. According to the
mentions writing-pens in the eighth cen- doctrine of the Protestants, it is not among
tury. After that time, proofs exist which the sacraments. This doctrine considers
pui the question of their use beyond dis- compunction and faith as the only ele-
pute. Mabillon (q. v.) saw a manuscript ments of repentance and reformation.
gospel of the ninth century, in wbich the Penance is considered by the Catholic
evangelists were represented with pens in church a sacramental institution. The
their hands. Calami properly signify the conditions for the necessary transition
Teeds which the ancients used in writing. froin bad to good, are a humble conscious-
Modern authors often use the word as a ness of guilt. The conversion itself is a
Latin term for pens, and it is probable change in the soul of man, effected by the
that the same was employed to signify power of God, but necessarily connected
quills before the time of Isidore. Reeds with an exterior alteration. The power
were used for a considerable time after the of forgiving sins, in the literal sense of the
introduction of writing-pens. In convents word, say the Catholics, has been trans-
they were retained a long time for the ferred by Christ to the apostles, and to
initials only. By some letters of Erasmus the church; but the latter can forgive the
to Reuchlin, it appears that the former re- sins only of the truly repentant and con-
ceived three reeds from the latter, and verted sinner. To bring him to the
expressed a wish that Reuchlin, when he knowledge of himself, the church has
procured more, would send some of them established confession; to calm his con-
to a certain learned man in England. science, absolution ; for the instruction
Quills, for some reason, were, about the and discipline of the converted, she in-

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