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替子時壽嗜小慶既緩

綫樂泰 引子雜考。

考。飲 將後其

食。春 祿。
孫。
惠 首

。 之孔君神飽。具殺以

之孫其孔

既醉w 米具入奏以 仅祿爾

莫怨

6 The musicians all go in to perform,

And give their soothing aid at the second blessing.
Your viands are set forth;
There is no dissatisfaction, but all feel happy.
They drink to the full, and eat to the full;
Great and small, they bow their heads, [saying],
The Spirits enjoyed your spirits and viands,
And will cause you to live long.
Your sacrifices, all in their seasons,
Are completely discharged by you.
May your sons and your grandsons
Never fail to perpetuate these services!'

VI. Sin nan shan.

田會原甸維南山信 之孫隱。之山。彼 南

1 Yes, [all about] that southern hill

Was made manageable by Yu.
Its plains and marshes being opened up,

It was made into fields by the distant descendant.

has the force of land , terminating here he addresses him directly. *-*, with a pause the first member of the line.

'to send forward,' or TT, 'to go round.' St. 6. The feast was given in the apartment of the temple behind the hall where the sacrifice

-'to rejoice,' be happy.' Ll. 9, 10 are descriphad been performed, so that the musicians are

tive of the sacrifice that had been offered, and represented as entering-going in-to continue of all others of the same kind in the same temat the feast the music which they had discours-ple, so that the Head of the family discharged ed at the sacriffice. In 1.2 the feat is called 後| them (盡之一盡其禮), in great accord

an after happiness,' i. e., a blessing and ance with the statutes (1-11), and with privilege following on the sacrifice. They had drunk then; now they were both to eat and

the seasons for them. #- , to discondrink. The pin 1. 3 cannot be got rid of, as tinue;' 51,-'to lead out,’=to prolong. Ź in st. 2. We must, I think, come to the con

refers to the sacrifices. clusion that the ode was written in compliment The rhymes are-in st., 棘穆裏,億 to the sacrificer-the king, probably-by one of the relatives who hared in the feats and so [食記,福cat. . t.3: in 2. 跪

殼。足。湿,柔。益雨上南我

E 之雪天東疆

優以雾同其我 百既能贏赛。雲。理。

生我

cat.

We define their boundaries, we form their smaller divisions,

And make the acres lie, here to the south, there to the east. 2 The heavens over head are one arch of clouds,

Snowing in multitudinous flakes.
There is superadded the drizzling rain.
When [the land] has received the moistening,
Soaking influence abundantly,

It produces all our kinds of grain. €7. The way he does not mean to confine the work of

writer makes mention of it. As Yen Ts'an

says, he does not mean to confine the work of cat. 10: in 3, km X., Yu to that part of the country ; but on the

other hand there is nothing in the language to 店客,錯度,獲,格,醉。 afford a confirmation of the statements of the 6, t. 8: in 4, VT, L (prop. cat. 13), cat. Shoo about that hero's achievements. The 14; ml, tl, 'to regulate,'' to reduce to order. LL 3,4. cat. 1, t. 8: in 5, # THE (prop. cat. 3), JI - PI e 'the app. of being cat. 1, t. 3; It.. , ib., t.2; FAL pened up for cultivation. Ying-tah says that

denotes the use of the plough, and of the cat. 16, t. 1: in 6, X (prop. cat. 4), The, cat. 3, clearing away of the wild natural growth of the t. 3;** ., cat. 10; L., 17., cat. ground. Whom are we to understand by 3, t. 2; int 51, cat. 12, t. 1.

? The old interpreters all say-king Ching.

Choo says,-the principal in the sacrifice ; who Ode 6. Narrative. HUSBANDRY TRACED TO is with him, as in the last piece, some great ITS FIRST AUTHOR; DETAILS ABOUT IT, GOING landed proprietor. Technically, the terms de

note- the great-grandson;' but they are used, There is a close connection between this ode more generally, for any remote descendant. Í and the last, and the critics suppose that they agree with Choo in referring them to the principroceeded from the same writer; this one being pal in the sacrifices, which the poet had in his fuller on the subject of husbandry and more mind; but those royal, I think; and some one of

the kings of Chow is intended. Ź:fers it to the time of king Yëw, and thinks that the author wrote it under an impression of fielded them.' grief that that monarch had ceased to pay re- Ll. 5, 6. # is used as in the last piece. The gard to the statutes of king Ching, under whom the political and land systems of the Chow

writer would be a cadet of the royal House, and dynasty, were first fully organized. But there is identifies himself with its services. denotes nothing in the ode to suggest to us the idea either the larger divisions of the country into fields; of Yëw or of Ching.

St. 1. In 11. 1,2, there is a recognition of the the divisions of the fields into smaller porwork of the great Yu, as the real founder of tions by paths and ditches. The last line simthe kingdom of China, extending the territory ply expresses the direction of the fields according of former elective chiefs, and opening up the to the course of the channels and the nature of country. This merit was universally attributed the ground. See Medhurst's dictionary on the to him, and the writer acknowledges it. l- character till

*, 'True it is! -as in iv.V. 1, St. 2 describes the influences that operate in et al. This hill bounded the prospect to the winter and spring to prepare the ground for the south from the capital of Chow, and hence the labours of the husbandman. This under

ON TO THE SUBJECT OF SACRIFICES TO ANCESTORS.

concise on that of sacrifice.

The Preface re

[graphic]

年。兴務

壮祭天皇瓜。中置考酒或疆 以之 祖 田萬食

萬食。

界孫翼 西。 是盧 我之翼。 考。從 壽殖器 程

泰 執以 考。獻場 賓以養 其辭 受之有 壽癌

為或

[graphic]

3 The boundaries and smaller divisions are nicely adjusted,

And the millets yield abundant crops,
The harvest of the distant descendant.
We proceed to make therewith spirits and food,
To supply our representatives of the dead, and our guests ;-

To obtain long life, extending over myriads of years. 4 In the midst of the fields are the huts,

And along the bounding divisions are gourds.
The fruit is sliced and pickled,
To be presented to our great ancestors,
That their distant descendant may have long life,

And receive the blessing of Heaven. 5 We sacrifice [first] with pure spirits,

and then follow with a red bull;

Offering them to our ancestors. stood by Choo of the clouds all one colour ( abundant app. of the grain.' L. 3 ascribes the

rich harvest all to the virtue of the king. LI. 4 1. Ps is the verb. Fun-fun denotes 'the -6, -as in the last ode. L. 6 specially applies app. of the falling snow;' mih-muh, that of to the king. drizzling rains of spring.' Ll. 4, 5 describe the St. 4. The hundred mow in the centre of ground after receiving plenty () of the rain, a tsing were devoted to the govt., and in the moistening it (1), soaking into it (chen), all in the eight families cultivating the space; and on

them were erected the huts in which they lived, sufficient measure (足)

while they were actively engaged in their agriSt. 3 describes the abundant harvest in con

cultural labours. .-'pickled vegetables.' sequence, and the devoting of a portion of it to

The term here denotes both the process of picksacrificial purposes. L. 1. Ho Këne (for Pit ling and the result. $i) is not only to peel the Ming dyn.) says, “ Këang and yih are both the names of the boundaries of the fields ; the former skin off, but also to elice the fruit. Tie of those marking off the space of a tsing (#), "blessing. cultivated by 8 families, and the latter the sub- St. 5. 清酒-clear spirits' The critics divisions of this assigned to each family.' have much to say on the preparation of these,

on which we need not enter, excepting that they denotes 'the well defined adjustment of were flavoured and made fragrant by various those divisions.' L. 2. Yuh-yuh denotes “the admixtures. The pouring out of them com

萬報先祀越是血其營 壽以祖事芯悉。毛。刀。 無介是孔芬是 取以 疆。福。皇明。芬。享。 其歌

[Our lord] holds the knife with tinkling bells,
To lay open the hair of the victim,

And takes its flesh and fat.
6 Then we present, then we offer;

All round the fragrance is diffused.
Complete and brilliant is the sacrificial service;
Grandly come our ancestors.
They will reward [their descendant] with great blessing,一
Long life, years without end.

VII. Proo t'een.

自農食其我十歲甫偉

章 古人。我陳取千取田。彼

1 Bright are those extensive fields,

A tenth of whose produce is annually levied.
I take the old stores,
And with thein feed the husbandmen.

From of old we have had good years, menced the services, being intended to bring St.6. 7* is taken by some as the name of the Spirits down ( Tilb). The libations were the winter sacrifice; but it is evidently synonyfollowed by the sacrifice of a red bull ( mous here with 3, and is to be taken as

赤), red being the colour in the victimg slain |進, to bring or send forward; The Complete under the Chow dynasty. Til #=&H Digest' gives , 'from this,' 'then' for scribe the action of the principal in the sacrifice the simple L1, 2–6, -as in the last ode. himself 勃者主人親轨也); Yen The rhymnes are-in st. 1, 田,cat. 12, Tstan, that such action was delegated to a high t. 1; , m'he, cat. I, t. 2: in 2,

彎刀-anal | 13: 康涅足,毅, at 3. t.3: in 3 翼 bells were somehow attached to the handle of most cat. I, t.3: 賓,年,cat. 12, the operation. The first operation was to a t. : in 4, 魔瓜,菠 cat. . . 1; 祖 祖, proper colour, that the victim

was - without it

. t.: in 5, y 9, 4.* , cat. 3, t. 2; JJ, spot. - 'the fat.' "The burning of the fat was the second step in inviting the pas, cat. 2: in 6, * ., ., 60, descent of the Spirits.

in st. 2 of last ode.

cat.

official. The text does not enable us to come to a decision in the matter.

Cat. 10.

以與擊收聽或南有 Tot Je Ti I.E.S. IF.

ME. 以犧齊 悉泰或 方羊。明。 我介稷

UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN

THE

PEOPLE

AND

And now I go to the south-lying acres,
Where some are weeding, and some gather the earth about

the roots.
The millets look luxuriant;
And in a spacious resting place,

I collect and encourage the men of greater promise.
2 With my vessels full of bright millet,
And
my pure victim-rams,

, We sacrificed to [the Spirits of] the land, and to [those of] the

four quarters. Ode 7. Narrative. PICTURES OF HUSBANDRY By 我 we can only understand the writer or AND SACRIFICES CONNECTED WITH IT. HAPPY

speaker in the piece. When Yen Ts'an takes it

of the husbandmen, as if they were speaking in THEIR SUPERIORS. Here, again, we must reject their own persons, he overturns all rules of exeany reference to kings Yëw and Ching. Who the l' in the piece is, it is difficult to say, but gesis. , 'to feed,' may be extended so as to evidently he and the distant descendant' are embrace all the duty which was anciently held different persons; and not one, as Choo makes to devolve on a ruler;- see Men. II. Pt. ii. IV.5. them out to be. I suppose he may have been In 1. 7, ki-, to take away the grass,' farms, as we may call them, in the royal domain. “to weed;' tsze # 'to cover up the That the piece describes what was taking place roots.' How this Tast operation was done is a under his observation, and not the state of things in any former reign, is plain from the disputed point, on which we need not enter.

E-e describes the luxuriant appearance' * now (4),' in st.1, 1.6.

of the springing millets. Ll.9, 10. Ch‘ing takes St. 1. LI . 1, 2. 14 'bright-looking.' 7

and 'the huts,? —those

mentioned in st. 4 of last ode; but why introduce =t, “large,' extensive.' Maou says that

here a new meaning of the term ? Choo gives 甫田 means “ all the fields under heaven,' i.e., for 1. 9-# # # to all the fields of the kingdom.; but evidentis the , which is better

; but the meaning of * L. 2 tells the revenue from the produce which was is not in i 1= 5ff, the place which. paid to the crown, –a tenth (A -); the 10th

- LE, “to advance, but the meaning is of every hundred, and the 1000th part of every ten thousand. Maou seems to have attached here more to encourage. - L'of no definite idea to the tand F, and says superior character.'

The general rule was that the sons of husthat they designate the largeness (F) of the bandmen should continue husbandmen; revenue;-in which he is quite in error. Choo, their superior might select those among them in after Ch‘ing, takes the two characters as = 10,000, and makes the revenue to have been a

whom he saw promising abilities, and facilitate ninth;-see Yen Ts'an on the passage.

I have their advancement to the higher grade of offifollowed Yen's view ;-had come to it, indeed, We are not to suppose that he did so in before I examined his Work.

the case mentioned in the text, but his easy Ll

. 3, 4. 16 the old grain,' condescension and familiar intercourse with arising from the abundance of former harvests, them would keep ambition alive in the aspiring mentioned in 1.5 (HT='years of plenty "). | youth among them.

L.8.

as =

but

cers.

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