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喪天不赫有節何國不憂 亂方平赫寶被用既敢心 弘薦謂師其南不卒戲如 多。差。何。尹務。山。監動。談。幟。


A fire burns in their grieving hearts;
They do not dare to speak of you even in jest.
The kingdom is verging to extinction;-

How is it that you do not consider the state of things? 2 Lofty is that southern hill,

And vigorously grows the vegetation on it!
Awe-inspiring are you, O [Grand-] master Yin,
But how is it that you are so unjust?
Heaven is continually redoubling its afflictions;

Deaths and disorder increase and multiply;
The rhymes are—in st. 1, 1, cat. 13; were charged with the highest functions of the

state. Keih-foo of iii.III., was a Yin, and the 來,來, eat. 1 .1; 激濕, cat. . t.3: in 2,

in cat
. 7, t. 3: in 2, minister, against whom this

ode is directed, was 阿池, at 17: 饒,具,cat. . t.2 | probaby his son or grandson. In St. he in 3. 蒸雄,兢,励,贴,升,cat.6: in

called + , grand-master,' and was thus

one of the three kung,' the highest ministers at 4. 魚,旗魚,旗 cat. . .15 年湊,cat. the court of Chow ;-see the Shoo, V.xx. 3. We 12, t. 1.

must believe, indeed, that he was the chief of

the three, the chief administrator of the govt. Ode 7. Allusive and narrative. A LAMEN- at this time. --us in I,vii.IV, et al.

燃 -the mind distressed, as if scorched by fire.' The people dared not speak even in jest

of the minister's doings, but the writer does DUCT OF THE KING. This piece, and all that not hesitate freely to expose them, and even follow to the end of the Part, are assigned, by gives his name in st.10. - in the the old interpreters, to the reign of king Yëw ( E., B.C. 780—770), though the evidence end.' T, “to be cut down,'- , to be exfor such a fixing of their date is far from suf- tinguished. We must take 1.7 as speaking of ficient, excepting in regard to four or five of what would be the issue of the state of things, them. Yëw was son to king Seuen, but was and % = 'since. There mil. to see,' 'to worse than his father in the days of his decline,

observe.' and resembled him in none of the higher quali- and to the king, as Yen Ts'an interprets it.

L.8 is addressed to the minister; ties which ennobled the earlier period of his

St. 2. Choo acknowledges that he does not reign. His comparatively short reign ended in his violent death, and immediately after there understand 1.2. Acc. to the view which I have took place the removal of the royal residence to followed, by PTT is intended the vegetation the eastern capital,—the great event in the history of the Chow dynasty.

on the hild its fruit (草木,山之實 St. 1. The southern hill is the same as that

that t),

' and I***, in I. v.1.1. The in V.1. fi describes its appearance as “lofty ;' energy of nature appeared everywhere on the and the app. of the masses of rocks hill; there was no partiality in it, as in the adon it. What that mountain, with its frown- ministration of the minister. U tos - pp ing rocks, was among other hills, that the fol ;—see Wang Yin-che on ti- now, grand-master Yin was among other men, in

as in I. iii. XIII.1; but not for the first time, the estimation of the writer. #

was the

so that it - stily every as in iVI. 薦一 clan name of a great family in the royal domain, members of which, through successive reigns, 7, 'to continue," "to redouble.' 淫一病


信。弗盟 不 民是尹喔。民
弗躬宜 秉氏



不宜空我師 民不迷不用吴



No words of satisfaction come from the people;

And yet you do not correct nor bemoan yourself ! 3 The Grand-master Yin

Is the foundation of our Chow,
And the balance of the State is in his hands.
He should be keeping together the four quarters [of the

He should be aiding the Son of Heaven,
So as to preserve the people from going astray.
O unpitying great Heaven,

It is not right he should reduce us all to such misery! 4. Doing nothing himself personally,

The people have no confidence in him.
By making no inquiry, and no trial of their services,

He should not deal deceitfully with superior men. "sickness. The term is ased of epidemics. Tot has also the signification of “a potter's wheel;" 言-善言,good words, words expresive

but balance' suits the connection better. 維 of pleasure and satisfaction. L. 8 is addressed # 'to grasp,' 'to hold together. mile reproachfully to the minister, unmoved by the , to assist. Mi, “to pity.? I have prevailing troubles

. 1 is here, have' followed Yen Tsan in taking 1.7 as an appeal It also means in 'to be painful;' but that

to Heaven. Choo makes it='unpitied by Hea

ven.' Yen, however, seems to be wrong in his meaning, though adopted by Yen Ts'an, is not so suitable in this place. K-ang-shing construes #fit of the minister, 'our Grand-master," 腾-會, but he makes the concluding嗟,

who, filling his office as he did, filled it to worse exclamation of the writer,='Alas!'

than no purpose (空), I cannot follow him St.3. #-like , in Ana. III. i.

here. , 'to exhaust,' 'to reduce to F-* the root,' or the foundation,' mean

extremity.' Bi=1, all.' ing that the fortunes of the House of Chow

St. 4. The interpretation of this st. mainly depended or resteri on the minister Yin. K

depends on the meaning we attach to l. 4. Choo 平, even, or that which makes eren' It take

君子 there of the king(指王); Yen

construction of the last line.

He understands

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姻 亞無

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By dismissing them on the requirement of justice,
Mean men would not be endangering [the common weal];
And his mean relatives

Would not be in offices of importance. 5 Great Heaven, unjust,

Is sending down these exhausting disorders.
Great Heaven, unkind,
Is sending down these great miseries.
Let superior men come [into office),
And that would bring rest to the people's hearts.
Let superior men do justly,

And the animosities and angers would disappear. 6 O unpitying, great Heaven,

There is no end to the disorder! Ts'an of superior men, officers who really deserved | Ll. 7, 8 tell us who his employés were, and what the name. Maou agrees with Choo as to the would be the consequence of decisive dealing particular phrase; but his construction of the with them. B Wi-fragmentary," stallwhole st. is hopelessly involved and obscure.

looking.' "The father of a son-in-law is called Yen Ts'an appears to be right.

# F stands

姻; ; two song-in-law call each other 亞; in opposition to 小人 in 1.6. The whole st. condemns the minister for his own idle occupa- !='relatives by affinity. thick, tion of his office, and delegating his duties to *substantial'廳仕,一to be employed in a his relatives, mean creatures, upworthy of trust. substantial-remunerative office.' L.1 describes the minister's personal inattention

St. 5 first attributes the misfortunes of the

kingdom to Heaven, and then shows how the to business (C and 2 are synonymous), and

employment of proper men would remedy them. 1.2 its natural consequence. Ll. 3, 4 describe his 24, 'fair, “just., "disorders

. neglect of good officers. U and I must be the dictionary explains it by litigations, closely allied in meaning; and H='to employ "wranglings;' but its meaning must be more in office,'--as in 1. 8.

general; corresponding to泉in1.4. 屆至 Ll. 5, 6 tell how he should dismiss his mean employés. A is the initial particle. - "to be far away.

* to come to. W-1, 'to rest.' di 'to be just,' and E-It, 'to stop," *to have St. . L.2. 定-止, to stop' to enal done with(廢退)'一危 to endanger. I L. 3-月月益甚as in the translation

懲吴夷方瞻駕自蔓定。 其天茂四彼為 心。不擇。爾方。 政。女 覆平。 如惡。感壮。 我相相變四 四:

疇爾摩 正。不矣。矛所項姓。國

矣。聘。領。 成。 不

我 不穿。


With every month it continues to grow,
So that the people have no repose.
I am as if intoxicated with the grief of my heart.
Who holds the ordering of the kingdom?
Not attending himself to the government,

The issue is toil and pain to the people. 7 I yoke my four steeds,

My four steeds, long-necked.
I look to the four quarters [of the kingdom);

Distress is everywhere; there is nowhere I can drive to. 8 Now your evil is rampant,

And I see your spears,
Again you are pacified and friendly,

As if you were pledging one another. 9 From great Heaven is the injustice,

And our king has no repose.
[Yet] he will not correct his heart,

And goes on to resent endeavours to rectify him. # and are the particles. L.5. place of quiet, but no such place was to be Mi, 'disease induced by spirits, 'zz'to be in- found. - the app. of being drawn back, toxicated, stupified, by drinking. The answer and small,

= to be in distress.? to drive to 1.6 would be, “The Grand-master Yin. of swiftly ;' here=' to go.' is best translated by a general term.

St. & sets forth the uncertain humour of the make it here- 'the pacification.'

• creatures,' to whose misconduct the troubles of

are synony. St. 7 is intended graphically to set forth the the time were owing. * and that disorder prevailing all through the States of the mous, or nearly so,-' to be pacified," "to be kingdom. The writer would fain go to some pleased.'


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1Q 1, Këa-foo, have made this song,

To lay bare the king's disorders.
If you would but change your heart,
And nourish the myriad States!—

VIII. Ching yueh.

瘋哀憂念亦民我正面 曼我心我孔之心月正 以小京獨 誠意 痒。心京。今。將 了。

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heart grows

1 In the first inonth [of summer] the hoar-frost abounds,

heart is wounded with sorrow.
The false calumnies of the people
Also wax greater and greater.
I think how I stand alone,
And the sorrow of


intense. Alas! through my anxious cares,

My hidden sorrow goes on to make me ill. St. 9. Choo gives an active meaning both to fiti, oat. 15, t.1: in 4, FILM I, cat. 12, t. 1;

and E. - Yin is unjust, as if Heaven 7, FEL, cat. 1, t. 2: in 5, Uif, made him so, and therefore we read # 詞, al. ;惠民居,喝, at. 15 .35 不平.; and still he does not correct his 夷違,, t.1; in 6, 定生穿,醒成 heart, but resents the efforts of the men who? would rectify him?" I agree with him in taking Te, kadcat, 11: in 7, Fili (prop.cat, 12)


, 1. 3 of the minister, and nat, as Yen Ts'an, of the ib.: in 8,7 cat. t l: in , 平,

SE. 10. Here at last the king is openly ad- E cat. 11: in 10, ii, 2X #B, cat. 9. lessly discloses his name, and intimates that Ode. 8. Narrative, allusive and metaphorical. there was one more guilty even than the guilty A LAMENTATION OVER THE MISERIES OF THE

A Kön-foo from the royal court is



dressed. The writer, in the conclusion, fear

minister. .

KINGDOM AND THE RUIN COMING ON IT, ALL twice mentioned in the Ch'un Ts'ëw, in the time THROUGH THE KING'S EMPLOYMENT OF WORTHof duke Hwan, as coming on messages to Loo. LESS CREATURES, AND HIS INDULGENCE OF ITS He would be a son or grandson of the writer of FAVOURITE, Paou SZE. The mention of Paou this ode.

as belonging to —'to examine to the utmost,'='to lay bare.' unless, indeel, we ought to translate there in the

past tense, which is not likely. The piece is 品

long, and, I confess, wearisome, not being sufficulty, and consequently of difference among

alt=1t: 'to transform,” “to change.

The rhymes are-in st. 1, lit. V. ciently specific. There is a good deal of diffi談斬监cat. : in 2, 狗,何摆

Visa, fod, so the critics, in the interpretation of many passa嘉隆 cat 17: in 3,師,氏,維毗迷ges in it.

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