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port, and reduced to the neceffity of begging foreign allistance, against an enemy who has seized my throne and my kingdoin—if my unequalled distreffes were all I had to plead it would become the greatness of the Roman commonwealth, the arbitress of the world, to protect the injured, and to check the triumph of daring wickedness over helpless innocence. But, to provoke your vengeance to the utmost, Jugurtha has driven me from the very dominions, which the senate and people of Rome gave to my anceitors; and, from which, my grandfather, and my father, under your umbrage, expelled Syphax and the Carthaginians. Thus, Fathers, your kindness to our family is defeated ; and Jugurtha, in injuring me, throws contempt on you.

O wretched prince! Oh cruel reverse of fortune! Oh father Micipła! is this the consequence of your generosity; that he, whom your goodness raised to an equality with your own children, should be tlie murderer of your children? Muft, then, the royal house of Numidią always be a scene of havoc and blood? While Carthage remained, we suffered, as was to be expected, all sorts of hardships from their hoftile attacks ; our enemy near ; our only powerful ally, the Roman commonwealth, at a distance. While we were so circum fanced, we were always in arms and in action. When that fcourge of Africa was no more, we congratulated ourselves on the prospect of established peace. But, instead of peace, behold the kingdom of Nuunidia drenched with royal blood! and the only surviving fon of its late king, flying from an adopted murderer, and seeking that fatety in foreign parts which he cannot command in his own kingdom.

Whither-Oh! whither shall I fly? If I return to the royal palace of my ancestors, my father's throne is seized by the murderer of my brother. What can I there expect, but that Jugurtha should haften to irabrue, in my blood, those hands which are now reek. ing with any brother's? If I were to fly for refuge, pr for assistance, to any other court; from what prince can I hope for protection, if the Roman commonwealth give me up! From my own family or friends I have : expectations. My royal father is no more. He iş


beyond the reach of violence, and out of hearing of the complaints of his unhappy fon. Were my brother alive, our mutual sympathy would be some alleviation. But he is hurried out of life, in his early youth, by the very hand wisich should have been the last to injure any of the royal fainiiy of Numidia. The bloody Jugurtha has butchered all whoin he fufpected to be int my intereft. Some have been destroyed by the lingering torment of the cross. Others have been given a prey to wild beasts, and their anguish made the sport of men more cruel than wild beaits. If there be any yet alive, they are shut up in dungeons, there to drag out a life more intolerable than death itself.

Lock down, illustrious fenators of Rome! froin that beight of power to which you are raised, on the unex. ampled distresses of a prince, who is, by the cruelty of a wicked intruder, become an outcast from all mankind. Let not the crafty insinuations of him who returns murder for adoption, prejudice your judgment. Do nor listen to the wretch who has butchered the fon and relations of a king, who gave him power to sit on the fame tlirone with his own 5.--have been informeri, that lie labours by his emiffaries to prevent your determining any thing against him in his absence ; pretending that I magnify my distress, and might for hiin bave staid in peace in my own kingdom. But if ever the tinte comes when the due vengeance from above shall overtake him, he will then dissemble as I do. Then ke, who now, hardened in wickedness, triumphs over thofe whom his violence has laid low, will, in his turn, feel distress, and suffer for his impious ingratitude to my father, and his blood-thirsty cruelty to my brother.

Oh murdered, butchered brother! Oh deareft.to my heart-how gone for ever from my light —but why: hould I lament his death? He is, indeed, deprived of the blefled light of heaven, of life, and kingdom, at once, by the very person who ought to have been the first to hazard his own life in defence of any one of Micipia's family? but, as things are, my brother is not so much deprived of these comforts, as delivered from terrour, from flight, from exile, and the endless



train of iniseries which render life to me a burden. He lies full low, gored with wounds, and festering in his own blood. But he lies in peace.

He feels none of the miseries which rend my soul with agony and distraction, while I am set up a spectacle to all mankind of the uncertainty of human affairs. So far from having it in my power to revenge his death, I am not maltec of the means of securing my own life. So far from beo ing in a condition to defend my kingdom from the vio. lence of the ufuper, I am cbliged to apply for foreign protection for my own person.

Fathers! Senators of Rome! the arbiters of the world !-to you I fly for refuge from the njurderous fury of Jugurtha.--By your affection for your children, by your love for your country, by your own virtues, by the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, by all that is facred, and all that is dear to you-deliver a wretched prince from undeferved, unprovoked injury; and fare ile kingdom of Numidia, which is yorir own property, from being the prey of violence, ufurpation, and cruelty. IX. Speech of Ganuleius to it. Gonfuls; in which he de

mands that the F'lebeians may be admitted into the CorJulship, and that the Law prohibiting Patricians and

Plebeians from inter marrying may be repealed. WHAT an infilt upon us is this! If we are not fo

rich as the Patricians, are we not citizens of Rome as well as they? inhabitants of the fame country? mem.. bers of the same community? The nations bordering upon Rome, and eveb strangers more remoie, are admit. ted, not only to marriages with us, but to what is of much greater importance, the freedom of the city. Are we, because we are commoners, to be worse treated than Atrangers ? --- And, when we demand that the people may be free to bestow their offices and dignities on whom they please, do we ask any thing unreasonable or new? Do we claim more than their original inherent rigin? What occasion, then, for ali sluis uproar, as if the universe were falling to ruin? They were just going to lay violent hands lipon me in the tenaie-house. What! must, this empire, thien, be unavoidably. over



turned ;, must Rome of necessity fink at once, if a Ple. beian, worthy of the office, Mould be raised to the confulfhip? The Patricians, I am persuaded, if they could; would deprive you of the common light. It certainly offends them that you breathe, that you speak, that you have the shapes of men. Nay, but to make a commoner a conful, would be, say they, a moft enormous thing, Numa Pompilius, however, without being fo much-as a Roman citizen, was made king of Rome. The elder Tarquin, by birth not even an Italian, was nevertheless placed upon tlie throne. Servius Tullius, the son of a captive woman (nobody knows who his father was), obtained the kingdom as the reward of his wisdom and virtue. In those days, no man in whom virtue shone conlpicuous was rejected or despised on account of his race and defcent. And did the state proper the less for that? Were not these strangers the very best of all our kings? And, fuppofing, now, that a Plebeian thould have their talents and merit, must not he be suffered to govern:

But, «we find, that; upon the abolition of the regal power, no commoner was chosen to the confulate." And what of that? Before Numa's time, there were no pontiffs in Rome. Before Servius Tullius's days, there were no census, no division of the people into classes and centuries. Who ever heard of consuls, before the expulsion of Tarquin the Proud ? Dictators, we all know, are of modern invention ; and so are the offices of tribunes, ædiles, quæstors. Within these ten years we have made decemvirs, and we have unmade them. Is nothing to be done but what has been done before? That very law forbidding marriages of Patricians with Plebeians, is not that a new thing? Was there any such law before the decemvirs enacted it? and a-most shameful one it is in a free state. Such marriages, it seems, will taint the pure blood of the nobility! Why, if they think so, let ihem tak: care to match their sisters and daughters with: men of their own fort. No Plebeian will do violence to the daughter of a Patrician. Those are exploits for our prime nobles. There is no need to fear that we shall ! force any body into a contract of marriage. But, to : make an express law to pronbit marriages of Patricians


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with Plebeians, what is this but to how the utmost con. tempt of us, and to declare one part of the community to be impure and unclean ?

They ialk to us of the confusion there will be in fas milies if this statute should be repealed. I wonder they don't make a law against a commoner's living near a. nobleman, or going the same road that he is going, or being prefent at the same feaft, or appearing in the fame market-place. They might as well pretend that these things make confusion in families, as that intermarriages will do it. Does not every one know, that the chil. dren will be ranked according to the quality of their fa-ther, let him be a Patrician or a Plebeian? In short, it: is manifest enough that we have nothing in view but to: be treated as men and citizens ; nor can they who oppose our demand have any motive to do it but the love of domineering. I would fain know of you, Consuls and Patricians, is the fovereign power in the people of Rome, or in you? I hope you will allow, that the people can, at their pleasure, either make a law or repeal one. And will you, then, as loon as any law is proposed to them, pretend to lift them immediately for the war, and hin.. der them from giving their fuffrages, by leading them into the field ?

Hear me, Consuls. Whether the news of the war you" talk of be true, or whether it be only a falle rumour spread abroad for nothing but a colour to send the people out of the city, I declare, as tribune, that this peo ple, who have already so often spilt their blood in our country's cause, are again ready to arm for its defence and its glory, if they may be refiored to their natural rights, and you will no longer treat us like strangers in our own country: but, if you account is unworthy of: your alliance by intermarriages, if you will not suffer the entrance to the chief offices in the state to be open to all persons of merit indifferently, but will confine your : choice of magistrates to tlie senate alone-talk of warsa as much as ever you please ; paint, in your ordinary discourses, the league and power of our enemies, ter times more dreadful than you do now I declare, that this people whom you so much despise, and to whom you are nevertheless indebted for all your victories


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