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is able to relift.--Mere effigies ! nay, shadows of men ! wretches, emaciated with hunger, and benumbed with cold! bruised' and battered to pieces among the rocks' and craggy cliffs ! their weapons broken, and their horses weak and foundered ! Such are the oavalry, and such. the infantry, with which you are going to contend; not enemies, but the fragments of enemies. There is nothing which I more apprehend, than that it will be thought Hannibal was vanquished by the Alps before we had any conflict with him. But, perhaps, it was firring it should be so ; and that, with a people and a leader who had violated leagues and covenants, the gods themselves, without man's help, should begin the war, and bring it to a near conclusion ; and that we, who, next to the gods, have been injured and offended, thould happily finish what they have begun. I need not be in any fear that you

should suspect me of saying these things werely to encourage you, while inwardly I have different sentiments. What hindered me from going into Spain? That was my province, where I should have had the less dreaded Asdrubal, not flannibal, to deal with. But hearing, as I pased along the coast of Gaul, of this enemy's march, I landed my troops, sent the horse forward, and pitched my camp upon the Rhone, A part of my cavalry encountered, and defeated that of the enemy. My infantry not being able to overtake theirs, which fled before us, I returned to my fleet ; and, with all the expedition I could use in so long a voyage by sea and land, am come to meet them at the foot of the Alps. Was it, then, my inclination to avoid a contest with this tremendous Hannibal ? and have I met with him only by accident and unawares ? or am I come on purpose to challenge him to the combat? I would gladly try, whether the earth, within these twenty years, has brought forth a new kind of Carthaginians; or whether they be the same fort of men who fought at the Ægates, and whom at Eryx, you

Suffered to redeem themselves at eighteen denarji per head : whether tlis Hannibal, for labours and journeys, be, as he would be thought, the rival of Hercules ; or whe. ther he be, what his father left him, a tributary, a vas. fal, a Nave of the Roman people. Did not the con


sciousnels of his wicked deed at Sagontum torment him and make hiin desperate, he would have some regard, if not to his conquered country, yet surely to his own family, to his father's memory, to the treaty written with Amilcar's own hand. We might have starved him in Eryx; we might have passed into Africa with our viltorious fleet, and, in a few days, have deltroyed Carthage. At their humble fupplication, we pardoned them; we released thein, when they were closely shut up without a poffibility of escaping; we made peace with them when they were conquered. When they were distressed by the African war, we considered them, we treated the in, as a people under our protection. And what is the return they make us for all these favours? Under the conduct of a hair-brained young man, they come hither to overturn our state, and lay walle our coun. try.--I could wish, indeed, that it were not so; and that the war we are now engaged in concerned only our own glory, and not our prefervation. But the contest at prefent, is not for the possession of Sicily and Sardinia, but of Italy itself: nor is there behind us another army, which, if we fhould not prove the conquerors, may make head against our victorious enemies. There are no more Alps for them to pafs, which might give us leisure to raise new forces. No, Soldiers ; here you must make your stand, as if you were just now before the walls of Roine. Let every one reflect, that he is now to defend, not his own person only, but his wife, his children, his helpless infants. Yet, let nọt private considerations alone possess our minds : let us remember that the eyes of the fenate and people of Roine are upon us; and that, as our force and courage hall now prove, sucli will be the fortune of that city and of the Roman enipire. VII. Speech of Hannibal to the Carthaginian Army on the

fame Occasion. I

KNOW not, Soldiers, whether you or your prisoners

be encompassed by fortune with the stricter bonds and Recessities. Two seas inclose you on the right and left; not a fhip to fly to for escaping. Before you is the Po, a river broader and more rapid than the Rhone:

behind you are the Alps ; over which, even when your numbers were undiminished, you were hardly able to force a passage. Here, then, Soldiers, you must either conquer or die, the very first hour you meet the enemy But the same fortune which has thus laid


under the neceffity of fighting, has set before your eyes the mest glorious rewards of victory. Should we, by our valour, recover only Sicily and Sardinia, which were ravished from our fathers, those would be no inconsiderable prizes. Yet, what are those? The wealth of Rome; whatever riches she has heaped together in the spoils of nations; all these, with the masters of them, will be yours. The time is now come to reap the full recompense of your toilsume märches, over so many mountains and rivers, and through so many nations, all of them in arms. This is the place which Fortune has appointed to be the limits of your labour ; it is here that you will finish your glorious warfare, and receive an ample recompense of your completed service. For I would not have you imagine, that victory will be as difficult as the name of a Roman war is great and sounding. It has often happened, that a despised enemy has given a bloody, battle ; and the most renowned kings and nations have by a small force been overthrown. And, if you but take away the glitter of the Roman name, what is there wherein they may ftand in competition with you? For (to say no: hing of your service in war, for twenty years together, with fo much valour and success) from the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the ut. most bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious ? And with whom are you now to fight? With raw földiers, an undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished, belieged by the Gauls the very lait fummer; an army unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with him.

Or fhall I, who was born, I might almost fay, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general ; thall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but, which is greater till, of the Alps themselves; fhall I compare


myself with this half-year captain ? a captain, before whom Bould one place the two armies without their enligns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of the in he is conlul. Iesteem it no small advantage, Soldiers, that there is not one among you, who has not often been an eye-witness of my exploits in war; not one, of whose valour I myself have not been a fpectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble achieve ments; that with soldiers, whom I have a thousand times praised and rewarded, and whose papil I was be. fore I became their general, I shall march against an army of men strangers to one another.

On what fide loever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and strength. A veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalry ; you, my Allies, mola faithful and valiant ; you, Carthaginians, whom not only your couptry's cause, but the justest anger, impels to battle. The hope, the courage of assailants, is always greater thau of those who act upon the defensive. With hoftile banners displayed, you are come down upon Italy : you bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities, fire your minds, and spur you forward to revenge.--First, they demanded me, that I, your general, fould be delivered up to them ; next, all of you who had fought at the siege of Saguntum : and we were to be put to death by the extremelt tortures. Proud and cruel nation ! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal? You are to prescribe to us with whom we fhall make war, with whom we fhall make peace? You are to let us bounds; to fhut us up within hills and rivers ; but you, you are not to observe the limits which yourselves have fixed ! « Pals not the Iberus,” What next? “ Touch not the Sa. guntines ; Saguntum is upon the Iberus, move not a Itep towards that city.” Is it a small matter, then, that you have deprived us of our ancient poffeffions, Sicily and Sardinia? you would have Spain too. Well; we thall yield Spain, and then--you will pass into Africa. ---Will país, did I say this very year they ordered one of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, Soldiers ; there is nothing left for us but what we can vindicate with our swords. Come on, then. Be men. The Romans may, with more safety, be cowards : they


have their own country behind them, have places of fuge to fly to, and are secure from danger in the roads thitler; but, for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds; and, once again, I say you are conquerors. VIII. Speech of Adherbal to the Roman Senate, imploring

their Afiance against Jugurtha. FATHERS! IT is known to you, that king Micipsa, my father,

on liis deathbed, left in charge to Juglirtha, his adopted son, conjunctly with my unfortunate brother Hiempfal, and myself, the children of his own body, the administration of the kingdom of Numidia, directing us to consider the senate and people of Rome as proprietors of it. He charged us to use our best endeavours to be serviceable to the Roman commonwealth, in peace and war; affuring us, that your protection would prove to us a defence against all enemies, and would be instead of armies, fortifications, and treasures.

While my brother and I were thinking of nothing but how to regulate ourselves according to the directions of our deceafed father-jugurtha--the most infamons of mankind !--breaking through all ties of gratitude and of common humanity, and trampling (in the authority of the Roman commonwealth, procured the murder of my unfortunate brother, and has driven me from my throne and native country, though he knows I inherit, from my grandfather Mafliisia, and my father Micipła, the friendihip and alliance of the Romans. 2. For a prince to be reduced, by villany, to my di. strefsful circumftances, is calamity enough ; but my misfortunes are heightened by the confideration--that I find myself obliged to folicit your affiftance, Fathers, for the services done you by my ancestors, not for any I have been able to render you in my own person. Jei gurtha has put it out of my power to deserve any thing Sat your hands; and has forced me to be burdensome, before I could be useful to you. And yet, if I had no plea, but my undeserved misery- once powerful prince, the descendant of a race of illustrious monarchs, now, without any fault of my own, deftitute of every fupВъ


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