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accepted these conditions ; but Carthage failed on her part ; Carthage deceived us. What then is to be done? Are the Carthaginians to be released from the most is. portant articles of the treaty, as a reward of their breach of faith? No, certainly. If, to the conditions before 2. greed upon, you liad added some new articles to our advantage, there would have been matter of reference to the Roinan people; but when, instead of adding, you retrench, there is no room for deliberation. The Carthaginians, therefore, must submit to us at discretion, or must vanquish us in battle. IV. Calisthenes's Reproof of Cleon's Flattery to Alexander,

on whom he had proposed to confir Divinity by vote. If the king were present, Clcon, there would be no

need of my answering to what you have just proposed. He would himself reprove you for endeavouring to draw him into an imitation of foreign absurdities, and for bringing envy upon him by such unmanly flattery As he is absent, I take upon me to tell you, in his name, that no praise is lasting, but what is rational; and that yon do what you can to lessen his glory, instead of adding to it. Heroes have never, among us, been deified, till after their death: and, whatever may be your way of thinking, Cleon, for my part, 1 with the king may not, for many years to come, obtain that honour.

You have mentioned, as precedents of what you propose, Hercules and Bacchus. Do you imagine, Cleon, that they were deified over a cup of wine and are you and I qualified to make gods ? Is the king, our sovereigri, to receive his divinity from you'and me, who are his sube jects? First try your power, whether you can make a: king. It is furely easier to make a king than a god; to give an earthly dominion, than a throne in heaven. I only wish that the gods may have beard, without offence, the arrogant proposal you have made of adding one to their number; and that they may still be fo propitious to us, as to grant the continuance of that suc.. cess to our affairs, with which they have hitherto favoured us.

For my part, I am not ashamed of my country; nor do I approve of our adopting the rites of foreign nations, or learning from then how we ought

to reverence our kings. To receive laws or rules of conduct from them, what is it but to confess ourselves inferiour to them? V. Caius Marius to the Romans; showing the Abfurdity

of their hesitating to confer on him the Rark of Gene

ral, merely on Account of his Extraction. IT is but too common, my countrymen, to observe a

material difference between the behaviour of those who stand candidates for places of power and trust, before and after their obtaining them. They folicit them in one 'manner, and execute them in another. They set out with a great appearance of activity, humility, and moderation, and they quickly fall into sloth, pride, and avarice.-It is, undoubtedly, no easy matter to dis. charge, to the general fatisfaction, the duty of a supreme commander in troublesome times. To carry on, with effect, an expensive war, and yet be frugal of the public money ; to oblige those to serve, whom it may be delicate to offend ; to conduct, at the same time, a com. plicated variety of operations; to concert measures at home, answerable to the state of things abroad; and to gain every valuable end, in spite of opposition from the envious, the factious, and the disaffected to do all this, my countrymen, is more difficult than is generally thought.

But, besides the disadvantages which are common to me with all others in eminent Itations, my case is, in this respect, peculiarly hard-that, whereas a commander of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of a neglect or breach of duty, has liis great connections, the antiquity of his family, the important services of his ancestors, and the multitudes he has, by power, engaged in his intereft, 10 sereen him from condign punithinent, my whole safety depends upon myself; which renders it the more indispenfably necessary for me to take care that my conduct be clear and unexceptionable. Besides, I am well aware, my countrymen, that the eye of the public is upon mea and that, though the impartial, who prefer the real ad. vantage of the commonwealth to all other considerations, favour my pretensions, the Patricians want nothing fo much as an occasion against ine. It is, therefore, my

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fixed resolution, to tise my best endeavours, that you be not disappointed in me, and that their indirect designs against me may be defeated.

I have, from my youth, been familiar with toils and with dangers. I was faithful to your intereft, my countrymen, when I served you for no reward but that of honour. It is not my design to betray you, now that you have conferred upon me a place of profit. You have committed to my conduct the war against Jugurtha. The Patricians are offended at this. But, where would be the wisdom of giving such a command to one of their honourable body? a person of illustrious birth, of ancient family, of innummerable ftatues, but of no experience! What service would his long line of dead ancestors, or his multitude of motionless statues, do his country in the day of battle? Wliat could such a general do, but, in his trepidation and inexperience, have recourse to some inferiour commander for direction in difficulties to which he was not himself equal ? Thus, your Patrician general would in fact have a general over him; so that the acting commander would still be a Plebeian. So true is this, my countrymen, that I have, myself, known those who have been chosen consuls, begin then to read the history of their own country, of which, till that time, they were totally ignorant; that is, they first obtained the employment, and then betbought themfelves of the qualifications necessary for the proper difcharge of it.

I submit to your judgment, Romans, on which fide the advantage lies, when a comparison is made between Patrician haughtiness and Plebeian experience. The very actions, which they have only read, I have partly feen, and partly myself atchieved.' What they know by reading, I know by action. They are pleased to light my mean birth : I defpise their mean characters. Want of birth and fortune is the objection against me ; want of perfonal worth again!t them. But are not all men of the fame species? What can make a difference be. tween one nian and another, but the endowments of the mind? For my part, I shall always look upon the braveft man as the noblest man. Suppose it were enquired of the fathers of such Patricians as Albinus and Beftia,


whether, if they had their choice, they would defire fons of their character, or of mine: what would they answer, but that they should with the worthiest to be their fons ? If the Patriciaris have reafon to despise me; let them likewise despise their ancestors, whole nobility was the friit of their virtue. Do they envy the honours beltowed upon me? let them envy, likewise, my labours, my abstinence, and the dangers I have undergone for my country, by which I have acquired them. But those worthless men lead such a life of inactivity, as if they despised any honours you can bestow; whilft they aspire to honours, as if they had deserved them by the most industrious virtue. They lay claim to the rewards of . activity, for their having enjoyed the pleasures of luxury. Yet none can be more lavish than they are in praise of their ancestors. And they imagine they ho. nour themselves by celebrating their forefathers; where... as they do the very contrary: for, as much as their ancestors were distinguished for their virtues, so much are they disgraced by their vices. The glory of ancestors casts a light, indeed, upon their posterity ; but it only ferves to fhow what the deseendants are. It alike exli. bits to public view their degeneracy and their worth. I own I cannot boast of the deeds of my forefathers; but a I hope I may answer the cavils of the Patricians by standing up in defence of what I have myself done.

Obferve now, my countrymen, the injustice of the Patricians. They arrogate to themselves honours on account of the exploits done by their forefathers, whilst they will not allow me the due praise for performing the very fame sort of action's in my own person. He has no ftatues, they cry, of his family. He can trace no venerable line of ancestors.-What then? Is it matter of more praise to disgrace one's illustrious ancestors, than to become illustrious by one's own good behaviour ? What if I can show no statues of my family? I can fhow the standards, the armour, and the trappings, which I have myself taken from the vanquished: I can fhow the fcars of thote wounds, which I have received by facing the enemies of my country. There are my ftatues. These are the honours I boast of. Not left me by inheritance as theirs : but earned by toil, by abstinence,


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by valour ; amidit clouds of dust and seas of blood : scenes of action, where those effeminate Patricians, who endeavour by indirect means to depreciate me in your eteem, have never dared to show tlreir faces. vr. Speech of Publius Scipio to the Roman Army before

the Battle of the Ticin. WERE yon, Soldiers, the same army which I had

with me in Gant, I might well for bear saying any. thing to you at this time: for what occafion could there be to use exhortation to a cavalry that had so signally vanquished the squadrons of the enemy upon the Rhone ; or to legions, by whom that fame enemy, flying before them to avoid a battle, did in effect confess themselves conquered ? But as these troops, having been enrolled for Spain, are there with my brother Cneius, making war under my auspices (as was the will of the fenate and people of Rome), I, that you might have a conful for your captain against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, have freely offered myself for this war. You, then, have a new general, and I a new army. On this account, a few words from me to you will be neither improper nor unfeasonable.

That you may not be unapprised of what sort of enemies you are going to encounter, or of what is to be feared from them, they are the very same, whom, in a former war, you vanquished both by land and sea; the fame from whom you took Sicily and Sardinia, and who have been these twenty years your tributaries. You will not, I prefume, march against these men with only that courage with which you are wont to face other enemies; but with a certain anger and indignation, such as you would feel if you saw your slaves on a sudden rise up in arms against you. Conquered and enlaved, it is not boldness, but necessity, that urges them to battle ; unless you can believe that those who avoided fighting when their army was entire, have acquired better bope by the loss of two thirds of their horse and foot in the passage of the Alps.

But you have heard, perlaps, that, though they are few in number, they are men of stout hearts and robust bodies; heroes of such strength and vigour as nothing


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