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fate which he had no reason to think he fhould escape ; and which he did not desire to escape by leaving his friend to suffer it in his place. Such fidelity softened even the favage heart of Dionysius himself. He pardoned the condemned; he gave the two friends to one another, and begged that they would take himself in for a third,
XVI. Dionyfius and Damocles. DIONYSIUS, the tyrant of Sicily, showed how far he
was from being happy, even whilst he abounded in riches, and all the pleasures which riches .can procure. Damocles, one of his flatterers, was complimenting him upon his power, his treasures, and the magnificence of his royal fate, and affirming that no monarch ever was greater or happier than he. “ Have you a mind, Damocles," says the king, “ to taste this happiness, and know by experience what my enjoyments are, of which you have so high an idea?” Damocles gladly accepted the offer. Upon which the king ordered, that a royal banquet should be prepared, and a gilded.couch placed for him, covered with rich embroidery, and side-boards loaded with gold and silver plate of immense value. Pages of extraordinary beauty were ordered to wait on him at table, and to obey his commands with the greatest, readiness and the most profound fubmiffion. Neither ointments, chaplets of Aowers, nor rich perfumes were wanting. The table was loaded with the most exquitite delicacies of every
kind. Damocles fancied himielt a. mongst the gods. In the midst of all his bappiness, he fees let down from the roof, exactly over his neck, as he lay indulging himself in state, a glittering sword hung by a single hair. The fight of destruction thus threatening him from on high, foon put a stop to his joỳ and revelling. The pomp of his attendance, and the glitter of the carved plate, gave him no longer any pleafure. He dreads to stretch forth his hand to the table ; he throws off the chaplet of roses; he haftens to remove from his dangerous situation ; and at lait begs the king to restore him to his former humble condition, having no desire to enjoy any longer luch a dreadful kind of happiness.
XVII. Charafter of Catiline. LUCIUS CATULINE, by birth a Patrician, was by na
ture endowed with superiour advantages both bodily and mental; but his difpofitions were corrupt and wicked From his youth, his supreme delight was in violence, flaughter, rapine, and intestine confusions ; and such works were the employment of his earliest years. His constitution qualified him for bearing hunger, cold, and want of sleep, to a degree exceeding belief. His mind was daring, fubtle, unsteady. There was no character which he could not assume and put off at pleafure. Rapacious of what belonged to others, prodigal of his own, violently bent on whatever became the objeet of his pursuit. He possessed a considerable share of eloquence, but little folid knowledge. His insatiable temper was ever pushing him to grasp at what was immoderate, romantic, and out of his reach.
About the time of the disturbances aised by Sylla, Catiline was seized with a violent lust of power ; nor did he at all hesitate about the means, so he could but attain his purpose of raising himíelf to supreme dominion. His restless spirit was in a continual ferment, occafioned by the confusion of his own private affairs and by the horrours of his guilty conscience ; both which lie had brought upon himself by living the life above described. He was encouraged in his ambitious projects by the general corruption of manners which then prevailed amongst a people infected with two vices, not less opposite to one another in their natures than mischievous in their tendencies ; I mean, Luxury and Avarice.
XVIII. Avarice and Luxury. There were two very powerful tyrants engaged in a
perpetual war against each other : the name of the firit was Luxury, and of the second Avarice. The aim of each of them was no less than universal monarchy over the hurts of mankind. Luxury had many generals under him who did him great service; as Pleafure, Mirth, Pomp, and Fashion. Avarice was likewife very strong in his officers, being faithfully served by Hunger, Industry, Care, and Watchfulnets: he had
likewise a privy-counsellor who was always at his elbow, and whispering fomething or other in his ear: the name of this privy.counsellor was Poverty. As Avarice conducted himself by the counsels of Poverty, his antagonift was entirely guided by the dietates and advice of Plenty, who was his first counsellor and minister of ftate, that concerted all his measures for him, and never departed out of his fight. While these two great rivals were thus contending for empire, their conquests were very various. Luxury got possession of one heart, and Avarice of another. The father of a family would often range himself under the banners of Avarice, and the fon under those of Luxury. The wife and husband would often declare themselves on the two different parties ; nay, the fame person would very often fide with one in his youth, and revolt to the other in his old age. Indeed the wise men of the world stood neuter; but, alas! their numbers were not considerable. At length, when these two potentates had wearied themselves with waging war upon one another, they agreed upon an interview, at which neither of their counsellors was to be present. It is said that Luxury began the parley; and, after having represented the endless ftatc of war in which they were engaged, told his enemy, with a frankness of heart which is natural to him, that he believed they two should be very good friends, were it not for the instigations of Poverty, that pernicious counsellor, who made an ill use of his ear, and filled him with groundlefs apprehensions and prejudices. To this Avarice replied, -that he looked upon Plenty (the firit ininister of his antagonist) to be a much more destructive couniellor than Poverty ; for that he was perpetually fuggefting pleasures, banishing all the necessary cautions againit want, and, consequently, undermining those principles on which the government of Avarice was founded. At last, in order to an accommodation, they agreed upon this preliminary; that each of them should immediately dismiss his privy.counsellor. When things were thus far adjusted towards a peace, all other differences were foon accommodated; insomuch, that for the future they resolved to live as good friends and confederates, and to share between them whatever conquests were made on
either side. For this reason, we now find Luxury and Avarice taking poffeffion of the fame heart, and dividing the same person between them. To which I shall only add, that since the discarding of the counsellors above mentioned, Avarice supplies Luxury in the room of Plenty, as Luxury prompts Avarice in the place of Poverty.
XIX. Hercules's Choice. WHEN Hercules was in that part of his youth in
which it was natural for him to consider what course of life he ought to pursue, he one day retired into a desert, where the filence and folitude of the place very much favoured his meditations. As he was mufing on his present condition, and very much perplexed in himself on the state of life he should choose, he saw two women of a larger stature than ordinary approaching towards him. One of them had a very noble air and graceful deportment; her beauty was natural and easy, her person clean'and untpotted, her eyes cast towards the ground with an agreeable reserve, her motion and behaviour full of modesty, and her raiment as white as snow. The other had a great deal of health and flosidness in her countenance, which she had helped with an artificial white and red; and the endeavoured to appear more graceful than ordinary in her mien, by a mixture of affectation in all her gestures. She had a wonderful confidence and assurance in her looks, and all the va. riety of colours in her dress that she thought were the molt proper to fhew her complexion to advantage. She cast her eyes upon herself, then turned them on those that were present, to see how they liked her; and often looked on the figure the made in her own shadow. Upon her nearer approach to Hercules, she stepped before the other lady, who came forward with a regular composed carriage ; and, running up to him, accosted him after the following manner :
“ My dear Hercules," says she, “I find you are very much divided in your thoughts upon the way of life that you ought to choose : be my friend, and fol. low mę ; I will lead you into the possession of pleasure, and out of the reach of pain, and remove you from all
the noise and difquietude of business. The affairs of either war or peace shall have no power to disturb you. Your whole employment shall be to make your life eafy, and to entertain every sense with its proper gratifications. Sumptuous tables, beds of roses, clouds of perfumes, concerts of music, crowds of beauties, are all in readiness to receive you. Come along with me into this region of delights, this world of pleasure, and bid farewel for ever to care, to pain, to business.”
Hercules, hearing the lady talk after this manner, defired to know her name ; to which she answered, My friends, and those who are well acquainted with me, call me Happiness ; but my enemies, and those who would injure my reputation, have given me the name of Pleasure..
By this time the other lady was come up, who addressed herfelf to the young hero in a very different
“Hercules," says she, “ I offer myself to you, becaufe I know you are : descended from the gods, and give proofs of that descent by your love to virtue, and application to the studies proper for your age. This makes me hope you will gain, both for yourself and me, an immortal reputation. But, before I invite you into my society and friendship, I will be open and fincere with you, and must lay down this as an established truth, that there is nothing truly valuable which can be purchased without pains and labour. The gods have fet a price upon every real and noble pleasure. If you would gain the favour of the Deity, you must be at the pains of worshipping him ; if the friendship of good men, you must study to oblige them ;
oblige them; if you would be honoured by your country, you must take care to serve it. In short, if you would be eminent in war or peace, you must become master of all the qualifications that can make you fo. These are the only terms and condi/ tions upon which I can propose happiness.” The goddess: of Pleafure here broke in upon her discourse : “ You see,” said she, “ Hercules, by her own confeffion, the way to her pleafures is long and difficult; whereas that which I propose is short and easy.”. 6. A. las !". laid the other lady, whofe vifuge glowed with