« הקודםהמשך »
Pompey's feat; with what view ? To fee PompeyHe knew he was at Allium. To see his house ? He had been in it a thousand times. What then could be the reason of this loitering and shifting about ? He wanted to be upon the spot when Milo came up.
But if, my Lords, you are not yet convinced, though the thing shines out with fuch strong and full evidence, that Milo returned to Rome with an innocent mind, unftained with guilt, undisturbed by fear, and free from the accusations of conscience ; call to mind, I beseech. you by the immortal gods, the expedition with which he came back, his entrance into the forum while the senate-house was in flames, the greatness of soul he discovered, the look he assumed, the speech he made on the occasion. He delivered himself up, not only to the people, but even to the senate ; nor to the senate alone, but even to guards appointed for the public security ; inor merely to them, but even to the authority of him whom the senate had intrusted with the care of the whole republic: to whom he would never have deliver. ed himself, if he had not been confident of the goodness of his cause.
What now remains, but to beseech and adjure you, my Lords, to extend that compassion to a brave man, which he disdains to implore, but which I, even against his confent, implore and earnestly intreat. Though you have not seen him shed a single tear while all are weeping around him, though he has preserved the same steady countenance, the same firmness of voice and language, do not on this account withhold it fro him.
On you, on you I call, ye heroes, who have lost so much blood in the service of your country! to you, ye centurions, ye soldiers, I appeal in this hour of danger to the best of men, and bravest of citizens ! while you are looking on, while you stand here with arms in your hands, and guard this tribunal, thall virtue like this be expelled, exterminated, cast out with dishonour? By the immortal gods I wish (pardon me, O my country! for I fear what I shall say out of a pious regard for Milo may be deemed impiety against thee), that Clodius not only lived, but were prætor, consul, dictator, rather than be witness to such a scene as this. Shall 'this man,
then, who was born to save his country, die any where but in his country? Shall he not at least die in the fervice of his country? Will you retain the mentorials of his gallant foul, and deny bis body a grave in Italy? Will any person give bis voice for banishing a man from this city, whom every city on earth would be proud to receive within its walls ? Happy the country that shall receive him! ungrateful this, if it shall banish him! wretched, if it flould lose him! But I must conclude; my tears will not allow me to proceed, and Milo for. bids tears to be employed in his defence. Yon, my Lords, I befeech and adjure; that; in your decision, you would dare to act as you think. Trust me, your forti tude, your jedtice, your fidelity, will more especially be approved of by him (Porrfey), who in his choice of judges has raised to the bench the braveft, the wifeft, and the best of men.
SPEECHES ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 1. Romulus to the People of Rome, after building the City. Fall the strength of cities lay in the height of their
ramparts, or the depth of their ditches, we should have great reason to be in fear for that which we have now built. But are there in reality any walls too high to be scaled by a valiant enemy? and of what use are ramparts in inteftine divisions? They may ferve for a defence against sudden incurfions from abroad; but it is by.courage and prudence chiefly, that thie invasions of foreign enemies are repelled ; and by unanimity, fobriety, and justice, that domestic seditions are prevented. Cities fortified by the Itrongest bulwarks have been often seen to yield to force from without, or to tumults from within. An exact military discipline, and a steady obfervance of civil polity, are the surest barriers against these evils.
But there is still another point of great importance to be considered. The prosperity of some rising colonies, and the speedy ruin of others, have, in a great measure, been owing to their form of government. Were there but one manner of ruling Nates, and cities that could make them happy, the choice would not be difficult. But I have learnt, that, of the various forms of government among the Greeks and Barbarians, there are three which are highly extolled by those who have experienced them; and yet, that no one of these is in all respects perfect, but each of thein has some innate and incurable defect. Choose you, then, in what manner this city hall be governed. Shall it be by one man? shall it be by a select number of the wisest among us? or shall the legislative power be in the people? As for me, I shall submit to whatever form of administration you shall please to establish. As I think myself not unwortly to command, fo neither am I unwilling to obey. Your having chosen me to be the leader of this colony, and
your calling the city after my name, are honours fufficient to content me ; honours, of which, living or dead, I can never be deprived. II. Hannibal to Scipio Africanus, at their Interview pre
ceding the Battle of Zamia. SINCE fate has so ordained it, that I, who began the
war, and who have been so often on the point of ending it by a complete congnest, should now come of my own motion to ask a peace; I am glad that it is of you, Scipio, I have the fortune to ask it. Nor will this be among the least of your glories, that Hannibal, vicforious over so many Roman generals, submitted at laft
I could with, that our faihers and we had confined our ambition within the limits which nature seems to have prescribed to it; the shores of Africa, and the faores of Italy. The gods did not give us that mind. On both sides we have been so eager after foreign pos.. dissions, as to put our own to the hazard of war. Rome and Carthage have had, each in her turn, the enemy at 1.er gates. But since errours past may be more easily blamed thai corrected, let it now be the work of you und me, to put an end, if possible, to the obstinate conSention. For my own part, my years, and the expe. sience I have had of the instability of fortune, incline me to leave nothing to her determination which tero son can decide. But much I fear, Scipio, that yoiir - youth, your want of the like experience, your uninter: rupted success, may render you averse from the thoughts of peace. He whom fortune has never failed, rarely reflects upon her inconstancy. Yet, without recurring to former examples, my own inay perhaps fuffice to teach you moderation. I am that fame Hannibal, who, after my victory at Cannæ, became master of the greateft part of your country, and deliberated with myself what fate I hould decree to Italy and Rome. And now see the change! Here, in Africa, I am come to treat with a Roman, for my own preservation and my.country's. Such are the sports of fortune. Is the then to bé trusted because she smiles ? An advantageous peace is preferable to the hope of victory. The one is in your
own power, the other at the pleasure of the gods. Should you prove victorious, it would add little to your own glory, or the glory of your country; if vanquished, you lole in one hour all the honour and reputation you have been fo many years acquiring. But what is my aim in all this ?-that you should content yourself with our cession of Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, and all the islands between Italy and Africa. A peace on these conditions will, in my opinion, not only secure the future tranquil lity of Carthage, but be fulficiently glorious for you!; and for the Roman name. And do not tell me, that fome of our citizens dealt fraudulently with you in the late treaty-it is I, Hannibal, that now ask a peace : 1 aik it, because I think it expedient for my country; and, thinking it expedient, I will inviolably maintain it.
III. Scipio's Reply: I KNEW very well, Hannibal, that it was the hope of
your return which einboldened the Carthaginians to • break the truce with us, and to lay aside all thoughts of a peace when it was just upon the point of being concluded ; and your present proposal is a proof of it. You retrench from their concessions' every thing but what we are, and have been long, pofseffed of. But' as it is your care that your fellow.citizens should have the obligations to you of being eafed from a great part of their burden, so it ought to be mine that they draw no advantage from their perfidiousness. Nobody is more fene fible than I am of the weakness of man, and the power of fortune, and that whatever we enterprise is subject to a thousand chances. If, before the Romans palled into Africa, you had of your own accord quitted Italy, and made the offers you now make, I believe they would not have been rejected. But as you have been forced out of Italy, and we are matters here of the open country, the fituation of things is much altered. And, what is chieily to be considered, the Carthaginians, by the late treaty which we entered into at their request, were, over and above what you offer, to have restored to us our prisoners without ranfom, delivered up their Mips of war, paid us five thousand talents, and to have given hostages for the performance of all. The senate