תמונות בעמוד

for yoll.

They came ; when the Queen, with an aspect and accents diffusing sweetness, thus bespoke them:-" Natives of France and inhabitants of Calais, ye have put us to a vast expence of blood and treasure in the recovery of our just and natural inheritance : but you have acted up to the best of an erroneous judgment;, and we admire and honour in you that valour and virtue, by which we are so long kept out of our rightful poffeffions. You noble burghers ! you excellent citizens ! though you were tenfold the enemies of our person and our throne, we can feel nothing on our part, save respect and affection

You have been sufficiently tested. We loose your chains; we snatch you from the scaffold ; and we thank you for that lesson of huiniliation which you teach us, when you show us, that excellence is not of blood, of title, or station ;--that virtue gives a dignity superiour to that of kirigs ; and that those whom the Almighty informs with sentiments like yours, are juftly and eminently raised above all human distinctions. Yoll are now free to depart to your kinsfolk, your countrymen, to all those whose lives and liberties you have to nobly redeemed, provided you refuse not the tokens of our esteem. Yet we would rather bind you to ourselves, by every endearing obligation ;, and for this purpofe, We offer to you your choice of the gifts and bonours that Edward has to bestow.Riyals for fame, but al. ways friends to virtue, we wish that England were in titled to call you her sons.”_" Ah, my country!” exclaimed Pierre ; “ It is now that I tremble for you. Edward 'only wins our cities, but Philippa conquers hearts."

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I. On Grace in Writing. I will not undertake to mark out with any sort of pre

cition, that idea which I would express by the word Grace: and, perhaps, it can no more be clearly described than justly defined. To give you, however, a general intimation of what I inean when I apply that terns to compofitions of genius, I would resemble it to that cafy air which fo remarkably diftinguishes certain perfons of a genteel and liberal catt. It confifts not only in the particular beauty of single parts, but ariles froni the general fyinmetry and construction of the whole. An author may be just in his sentiments, lively in his figures, and clear in bis expreffion; yet may have no claim to be admitted into the rank of finished writers. The several members must be so agreeably united, as mutually to refleet beauty upon each other ; their arrangement must be so happily disposed as not to admit of ihe least transposition, without manifest prejudice to the entire piece. The thoughts, the metaphors, the allusions, and the diction, thould appear easy and natural, and seem to arife like so many spontaneous produce tions, rather than as the effects of art or labour.

Whatever, therefore, is forced or affected in the seniiments; whatever is pompous or pedantic in the expreffion, is the very reverse of Grace. Her mien is neither that of a prude nor a coquette ; she is regular without formality, and spriglıtly without being fantastical. Grace, in thort, is to good writing what a proper light is to a fine picture ; it not only Ihows all the figures in their several proportions and relations, but Ihows them in the most advantageous manner.

As gentility (to resume my former illustration) appears in the minutest acțion, and improves the moit inconsiderable geiture ; fo grace is discovered in the pla. cing even a single word, or the turn of a mere expletive. Neither is this inexpressible quality continued to one fpe

cies of composition only, but extends to all the various kinds; to the humble pastoral as well as to the lofty epic ; from the slightest letter to the most folemn dilcourse.

I know not whether Sir William Temple may not be considered as the first of our prose authors, who introduced a graceful manner into our language. At least that quality does not seem to have appeared early, or spread far, amongst us. But wheresoever we may look for its origin, it is certainly to be found in its highest perfection in the edays of a gentleman whose writings will be distinguished so long as politeness and good sense have any admirers. That becoming air which Tully esteemed the criterion of fine composition, and wliich every reader, be says, imagines so easy to be imitated, yet will find so difficult to attain, is the prevailing cha. racteristic of all that excellent author's most elegant performances. In a word, one may justly apply to him what Plato, in bis

allegorical language, says of Arifto. phanes; that the Graces, having searched all the world round for a temple wherein they might for ever dwell, settled at last in the breast of Mr Addison.,

II. On the Structure of Animals. THOSE who were skilful in anatomy among the an,

cients, concluded from the outward and inward make of an human body, that it was the work of a being transcendently wise and powerful. As the world grew more enlightened in this art, their discoveries gave them freth opportunities of admiring the conduct of providence in the formation of an human body. Galen was converted by his dislections, and could not but own a fupreme Being upon a survey of his handy-work. There were, indeed, many' parts of which the old anatomists did not know the certain use; but as they saw that most of those which they examined were adapted with ad: mirable art to their several functions, they did not question but those, whose uses they could not determine, were contrived with the fanie wisdom for respective ends and purposes. Since the circulation of the blood has been found out, and inany other great discoveries have been made by our modern anatomists, we see new



wonders in the human frame, and discern feveral important uses for those parts, which ufes the ancients knew nothing of. In short, the body of man is such a fubject as stands the utmost test of exainination. Though it appears formed with the nicest wisdom, upon the most. fuperficial survey of it, it fiill mends upon the search, and produces our furprise and amazement in proportion as we pry into it. What I have here faid of an human body, may be applied to the body of every animal which has been the subject of anatomical observations.

The body of an animal is an object adequate to our senses. It is a particular fyftem of providence, that lies in a narrow coinpals. The eye. is able to command it, and by successive inquiries can search into all its parts. Could the body of the whole earth, or indeed the whole universe, be thus submitted to the examination of our fenses, were it not too big wid disproportioned for our enquiries, too unwieldy for the management of the eye and hand, there is no question but it would appear to us as curious and well contrived a frame as that of an human body. We should see the same concatenation and fubferviency, the same necessity and usefulness, the fame beauty and harmony in all and every of its parts, as what we discover in the body of every single animal.

The more extended our reason is, and the inore able to grapple with immense objects, the greater still are. those discoveries which it makes of wisdom and provi: dence in the works of the creation. A Sir Isaac New.. ton, who stands up as the miracle of the present age, can look through a whole. planetary system ; consider it in its weight, number, and measure ; and draw from it. as many demonstrations of infinite power and wisdom, as a more confined understanding is able to deduce from the system of an human body.

But, to return to our speculations on anatomy. I shall here consider the fabric and texture of the bodies of a. nimals in one particular view, which, in my opinion, thows the hand of a thinking and all-wife Being in their formation, with the evidence of a thoufand demonstrations. I think we may lay this down as an incontested. principle, that chance never acts in a perpetual unifor-mity and consistence with itself. If one should always

fling the same number with ten thousand dice, or fee every throw just five times less, or five times more in number than the throw which immediately preceded it, who would not imagine there were some invisible power which directed the cast? This is the proceeding which we find in the operations of nature. Every kind of animal is diversified by different magnitudes, each of which gives rise to a different species. Let a mari trace the dog or lion kind, and he will observe how many of the works of nature are published, if I may use the expres. fion, in a variety of editions, If we look into the reptile world, or into those different kinds of animals that*. fill the element of water, we meet with the same repe. titions among several fpecies, that differ very little from one another, but in size and bulk. You find the fame creature that is drawn at large, copied out in several proportions, and ending in miniature. It would be redious to produce instances of this regular conduet in pro.. vidence, as it would be fuperfluous to those who are versed in the natural history of animals. The magnifi.. cent harmony of the universe is such that we may obferve indumerable divisions running upon the same ground. I might alfo extend this speculation to the dead parts of nature, in which we may find matter dit. pofed into many similar systems, as well in our survey of stars and planets, as of stones, vegetables, and other fublunary parts of the creation. In a word, providence has shown the richness of its goodness and wisdom, not : only in the production of many original species, but in : the røultiplicity of defcants which it has made on every original fpecies in particular.

But, to pursue this thought still farther. Every living creature, considered in itself, has many very complicated parts, that are exact copies of some other parts which it possesses, which are complicated in the fame manner: One eye would have been sufficient for the subsistence and preservation of an animal; but, in order to better his condition, we fee another placed with a mathematical exactness in the fame most advantageous fituation, and in every particular of the same size and texture. Is it possible for chance to be thus delicate and uniform in her operations? Should a million of dice turn up twice

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