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hostages, and Tosty went with a land force against them, and they subdued the land. But in the same year during harvest was King Griffin slain on the nones of August, by his own men, by reason of the war that he warred with Harold the Earl. He was king over all the Welsh race: and his head was brought to Harold the Earl, and Harold brought it to the King, and his ships head, and the rigging therewith. And King Edward committed the land to his (i.e., Griffin's) two brothers, Blethgent and Rigwatle.”

and his power.

Robert de Rhuddlan, a valiant Norman, nephew to Hugh Lupus, took the castle from the Welsh, and by the command of William the Conqueror fortified it with new works, and made it his place of residence. He received a visit here from Prince Gruffydh ap Rynan, who came to solicit aid against his enemies, which he obtained; but on some quarrel he attacked Robert in his castle, took and burnt the bailey or yard, and killed such a number of his men that very few escaped into the tower.

In A.). 1157, Hen. II brought an immense army into the champaign land of Caerleon, with the design of subjecting all Gwynedd to himself, and there he encamped ; and Owen, Prince of Gwynedd, called to him his sons, and his strength, and his army, and his He encamped at Basingwerk, having with him an immense host. And David and Cynan, sons of Owen, intercepted the king in the wood of Cennadeog, and fought a severe battle with him, who, having many of his men killed, scarcely escaped into the champaign land again. And when Owain understood that the King was coming upon him from behind, and saw the earls from the other side approaching with an inmense armed host, he left the place and retreated into the place called Cil Owain (i.e., the retire of Owain), and then the King collected his army together and proceeded to Rhuddlan in a rage ; and Owain encamped and entrenched himself at Bryn-y-pin, and skirmished with the king’s men daily; and in the meantime, when the king was fortifying the Castle of Rhuddlan, his navy,

which

1 Hugh Lupus was a Norman who came over to England with the Conqueror, and was created by him first Earl of Chester.llist. of Cambria, by Lhoyd.

was guided by Madoc ap Meredyth, Prince of Powys, anchored in Môn or Anglesea, and put on land the soldiers, who spoiled two churches and a little of the country thereabouts. But as they returned unto their ships, all the strength of the Isle set upon and killed them all. Then the shipmen weighed anchor and went away to Chester. In the meantime there was a peace concluded between the king and the prince, upon condition that Cadwallader should have his land again, and that his brother (Owain) should be his friend. Then the King, leaving the castles of Ruthlan and Basingwerke well fortified and manned, having given Ruthlan Castle to Hugh Beauchamp, and, after he had built a house thereby for the Templars, returned to England.

In 1164, David, son of Owain Gwynedd, ravaged Tégengl, and removed the people, with their cattle, into the valley of Clwyd, from all the country except Basingwerk, the house which his father had founded ; and when the King thought that there would be an attack made upon the castle which was in Tegeniel, he moved an army with extreme haste and came to Rhuddlan, and purposed to erect a castle there, and encamped there three nights.

In 1167, Owain, Prince of North Wales, Cadwalader, his brother, and Rees (or Rhys), Prince of South Wales, laid siege to the Castle of Ruthlan, which the chronicler says the king had lately built and fortified, which the garrison defended manfully and worthilie, yet the princes would not depart until they had won it, which they did at two months in the Tywysogion it says

three months), and then rased it. Afterwards they got the castle of Prestatyn and destroyed it, and then brought all Tagengl to Owain's subjection, and returned home with great honour, or (as it is put in the Tywysogion) : “And then every one happy and victorious to his own country.”

After this, we do not find anything recorded about Rhuddlan until the reign of King John, though it must have been retaken by the English, for in the year 1213

1 Hist. of Cambria, by H. Lhoyd. The transactions from 1157 to 1167 are taken from this history, compared with the Brut y Tywysogion, ed. by the Rev. John Williams ap Ithel, Rolls Series.

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Prince Llewelyn, having captured all the other castles, laid siege to the castles of Dyganwy and Ruthlan, and won them both, so that he left the king neither hold nor castle within his land.

In 1277, Edward I prepared two armies, whereof he led one himself to North Wales, as far as Ruthlan, and fortified that castle. The Prince Llewelyn ap Gryffyth sent to the king for peace, which was granted upon these conditions (amongst others) :

“That four cantrefs should remain to the King for ever, which were : cantref of Ros, where the King's castle of Teganwy stood; cantref of Bynonioc, where Denbigh is; cantref of Tegengl, where Ruthlan standeth; and cantref Dyffryn Clwyd, where Ruthlan is.”

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The peace concluded between the Prince of Wales and King of England did not long continue, and soon after (1281), David, Lord of Denbigh, being reconciled to his brother, the Prince, upon condition that he should never after serve the King of England as he had done before, laid siege to the castle of Hawarden and took Roger Clifford, a noble knight, slaying all that resisted, and, after spoiling all the country hearths, his brother the Prince laid siege to the castle of Ruthlan. The king, hearing of this, hasted thither with a great army to raise the siege. Then the Prince retired with his army. At the same time, Rees, the son of Maelgon, and Gryffyth ap Meredith ap Owen, with other noblemen of South Wales, took the castle of Aberystyth and divers other castles; therefore the king sent the Archbishop of Canterbury (Peckham) to talk with the Prince and his brethren, who returned without doing any good.

The Archbishop then sent Articles to be intimated to the Prince and people, " that they signify with us how peace and concord may be established, and if they say their laws or covenants be not observed, that they signify unto us which these be.”

In answer to this, the Prince complained of the violation of the Articles of the Peace by the English, and sent a note in writing of the wrongs and injuries which were done unto them.

The following are some of the “Griefs” which were sent to the Archbishop, having special special reference to Ruthlan.

The Lord David ap Gryffyth complained :

“ That the Justice of Chester cut down his woods of Lhyweny and his woods at Hope, as well by the dwellers of Ruthlan and others.”

The men of Ros complained :

" It is our right that no stranger should cut down our woods without our leave, yet notwithstanding there was a proclamation at Ruthlan that it should be lawful for other men to cut down our woods, yet to us it was forbidden.

“When any cometh to Ruthlen with merchandize, if he refuse whatsoever any English man offereth, he is forthwith sent to the Castle to prison, and the English man hath the thing and the king hath the price; then the soldiours of the castell first spoile and beate the partie, and then cause him to pay the porter and let

him go.

“If any Welshman buy anything in Ruthlan and any English man do meet him, he will take it from him and give him less than he paid for it.

"A certain gentleman was slaine, who had fostered the son of Grono ap Heilyn, and he that killed him was taken and brought to Ruthlan Castle: then the said Gruno and the kindred of him that was slaine asked justice, but some of them were imprisoned and the killer discharged. Then Gruno went to London for justice which the king did promise him, but he never had anie, but spent twenty marks, and Gruno was faine to go again to London for justice, where he spent xviii marks vjs. viijd., but he could not be heard."

The noble men of Tegengl complained :

“That when they did homage to the king, the king promised to defend them and their goods, but they were spoiled of their right and privileges and customs of the country, and were compelled to be judged by the laws of England whereas their privilege was to be judged according to the laws of Wales at Tref Edwyn, at Ruthlan, and at Caerwys, and the best men of the country were taken because they desired to be judged at Tref Edwyn.

“ The son of Cynwric ap Grono was taken at Ruthlan and put in prison without any cause at all; neither would the king's officers deliver him, unless he would redeem the gages of a certain woman, for the which he was constrained to pay much more than the pawne laie for,

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