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these islands shows a largely mixed population of dolichocephalic and brachaecephalic occupants. The one is generally considered Basque, the other or superior class has been by some hastily conjectured to represent Gauls. But the Graeco-Italian cronia approximate to the higher type, with a curious exception : a feature termed by Dr. Pruner-Bey “ Mongoloid”. As the early Greeks derived many of their religious customs from Taurica, and the people of the latter were associated with Mongoloid popusations, this feature is not surprising. To this day, the one people are those of servitude, the other dominant.

That the Iberian population were imported as mere workers seems very probable ; they are so still, while the Graeco-Italian and Graeco-Gallic populations are wealthy and luxurious.

Evidences other than those of crania crop up occasionally, and in and amongst the discoveries of gold and jewellery about the great roads leading to Ireland, and more particularly the great northern road by Bangor, Conway, and the north-west coast, the bones of men somewhat deformed in shape—which deformation consists both of anterior as well as posterior flattening of the tibiae—it has been suggested has arisen in one case (the posterior), from extreme activity, may not the anterior form be from enforced sedentary occupation, from a continued sitting posture ?

The deformation is termed “platycnemic".

Assuming a permanent sitting posture to produce anterior platycnemic formation, or possibly even the posterior also, this would be accounted for by the habitual and enforced sitting position. This flattening of the bone is found both in sepulchral deposits and in caves with the artistic work, the latter connecting it with the gold-workers; it is also connected with the dolichocephalic or Basque type of crania.

The wealthy and luxurious gold merchant would be an employer of labour, not a manufacturer, and his Basque workmen would work under slavish coercion. The constant sitting of these artizans without working

1 Tauric names were ir termixed with Greek names on the southGallic coasts,

benches or settles would enforce a cross-legged posture, often adding the weight of metallic matter, together with the continuous reverberating effect of the hammer on their metallic work, and would produce by continual pressure on the tibiae, the effect of platycnemic flattening If this were so, an evidence of the great length of time workers operated, accounts in a measure for the perfection of the jewelled work, but not sufficiently so as to allow the idea of its simple native origin and unassisted growth.

As a final example of pre-Roman or Graeco-Italian art in Britain, reference may be made to a remarkable discovery by myself, of a structure unexampled except in Etruria.

I referred to this in my Paper on “Old London”, read last September, but I did not then dare to go as far as I can now do with certainty. In addition to my repeated visits to, and my surveys in, Etruria (see Plate IV), I have since then consulted every available work on architecture, Oriental travel, and on buildings of antiquity; but the masonry of this structure proves it to have been erected by, if not Etruscans, at least Italians well acquainted with Etruscan construction.

This is proved from the blocks of masonry, now in my possession, from a former island on the shore of the Thames, over which old Whitehall had been partially built. A temple, the whole of which I removed, including a breakwater, roof, and unused materials, see Plate I (Frontispiece). The beautiful sculptures of this temple were exhibited in the Cloth workers' Hall, at my Lecture, and surpass in uniqueness of design and delicacy of execution any Roman work in Western Europe, if not -considering the material—in Rome itself (Plates III and V).

The stone of this Temple, now in my grounds, consists of several thousand tons' weight, which I carefully removed, together with the breakwater of large granite

1 This appears to be the temple referred to in the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, as dedicating the district of Thorney to Apollo. The sun emblem is sculptured on it.

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small]

View of East Elevation, showing the foundation of base and masonry of steps of ascent, all bedded firmly in the natural sloping gravel of the Thames shore.

(Author's Copyright.)
See the Cotlonian MSS. in the British Museum.

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Enlarged View of Temple, with sculptured enrichments.

(Author's Copyright.) See the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum. The gold work referred to on Plate V. includes a torque, the fastenings of which accord with that on page 253, and the raised work (repoussé) approximates, in elegance of design, with the style of sculpture on the Temple. See Archaeologia, vol. lv., Second Series, Part 2, 1897. By A. J. Evans, Esq., M.A.

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