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amongst others the well-known Thomas Fuller, who wrote the Worthies of England, and suffered much during the Civil War in the seventeenth century, being forced to fly from the Savoy. His last sermon preached there is preserved, and witń it an interesting epistle to his dear parish St. Mary Savoy, with touching words as to his grief at leaving, and hope that peace might be restored. He happily did return, though to find a very reduced congregation; and the Restoration found him again at the Savoy, where he died of fever at the age of fifty-three.

Îhe witty epigram referring to his name, and called by him a “prayer”, may be quoted

“My soul is stained with a dusty colour;

Let Thy Son be the sope, and I'll be the fuller.” These are but a few of the ancient monuments and tablets which escaped destruction in the fire of 1864.

A list was made by the antiquary, John Strype, in the early part of the last century, which comprises forty different memorials. Many familiar names occur among them, and one or two at least deserve special mention here : Gawin Douglas, born 1474, and son of Archibald, Earl of Douglas, better known as Bell-the-Cat. Educated at St. Andrew's University, Gawin became rector of Hawick, then Provost of St. Giles's in 1501; he was made Bishop of Dunkeld in 1516, but lost his see for party strifes, and took refuge at the court of Henry VIII. It has been supposed he was lodged at the Savoy, but more probably he was received into the house of Lord Dacre, in the parish of St. Clement Danes, as in his will he speaks of that residence as his dwelling, but directs that he may be buried in the church of the Savoy. He died of the plague in 1522. His writings comprise several original poems, but his most remarkable work is the translation of Ovid : this being the first rendering of any classic work into English verse. He gives the twelve books with original prologues, remarkable for the diffuse splendour of description.

The work is marked by strength and simplicity. It is to be observed that Douglas is the first writer who applies the Celtic word “Scotch” to the dialect of English

used north of the Tweed. His complete works were elaborately edited by “Smale”, Edinburgh, in 1874, and the life of the poet is given in the first volume.

He shares the same gravestone with Thomas Halsey, also a bishop, whose epitaph is doubtful in intention, and at least oddly chosen. He is described as “a man of Probity, who left this only behind him, that while he lived he lived well”. There is reason to suppose, from contemporary records, that this bishop was noted for his luxurious life and impecuniosity. He left nothing behind bim except the reputation of having loved good living.

Several quaint and interesting epitaphs were formerly in the chapel, but with few exceptions they were destroyed in the fire. George Wither, the poet, was buried here, May 2nd, 1667. Neglected in his own time, modern readers have appreciated his genius, though no monument marks his grave.

He wrote some beautiful hymns, and some of his lighter poems are well known-one of his songs, indeed, commencing :

“Shall I, wasting in despair,

Die because a woman's fair ?” is still often quoted. Wordsworth and Charles Lamb seem to have discovered his claims as a poet, and the former, indeed, has prefixed a dozen lines by him to his own poem,

“ To a Daisy". Pope, at a date nearer Wither's own time, satirised him in the Dunciad as

“Sleeping among the dull of ancient days,

Safe where no critics damn!” However, though he was little thought of and neglected in his lifetime, and suffered much for writing severely of the abuses of his own day, he never lost faith, and his best hymns are truly Christian in their hopefulness and joyful aspirations. Space fails to record many other names of note connected with St. Mary-le-Savoy, and I must conclude with the hope that the discursive paper I have been allowed to read to you this evening may induce some erudite member of our Association to turn his attention to the subject of this most interesting, and, as far as I can discover, very little known relic of Old London.

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cuprous oxide.

(Read 19th May, 1897). N his History of the Conquest of Peru,

Prescott informs us that the tombs of the Incas have been found to contain many specimens of curious and elaborate workmanship. “ Among these,” he adds, “are vases of gold and silver, bracelets, collars,

and other ornaments for the person. A short time ago, a small portion of a silver ornament which was of primitive Inca workmanship came into my possession. The crust was submitted to chemical treatment, and was found to be almost entirely composed of

The silver ornament was also carefully examined, and was found to contain 72.30 per cent. of copper and 25.25 per cent. of silver. Iron was found to the extent of 1.25 per cent., and the quantity of zinc was 0.25 per cent. Traces of gold and lead were also discovered.

It is not unlikely that the ornament had been composed by melting down in a furnace the native silver and copper of the Andes of Peru and Chili.

The analysis of a silver ring taken from an Inca grave in Peru is given in the Journal of the Chemical Society for 1896. In this case the percentages of iron, zinc, gold and lead are higher, and as the strip of metal forming the ring had been folded over and the two ends soldered together, it was considered that doubtless the zinc and the lead, and perhaps a portion of the iron, formed part of the solder. The analyst considered that the gold came from the use of native silver and copper, which usually contained a small quantity of this precious metal.


Antiquarian Intelligence.

A History of Margam Abbey ; derived from the Original Documents in the British Museum, H. M. Record Office, the Margam Muniments, etc.

With numerous Illustrations. By WALTER DE GRAY BIRCH, L.L.D., F.S.A., of the British Museum.-In the March number of the Journal we noticed the approaching completion of this important work; it has since been published, and we are now glad of the opportunity of giving a short review of it. The production of this valuable history is mainly due, as stated by the author in his preface, to the interest excited by a visit to the ruins of the Abbey by the British Archaeological Association during the Congress at Cardiff in 1892 which, in itself, is evidence of the usefulness of such Annual Congresses. Dr. Birch commences his task at the very beginning of the establishment of Christian religious institutions in Glamorganshire, which preceded by some centuries the arrival and settlement in that county of the Cistercian monks, to which Order Margam Abbey belonged. The earliest of these religious foundations appear to have been hermitages, the heremitical system having been favourably regarded by the people of that county, and it is to a hermit that the origin of Margam Abbey is to be ascribed. The first chapter of the book deals with the historical remains of some of the chief monastic predecessors of Margam in Glamorganshire, and carefully authenticated lists of the dignitaries who presided over these houses, whether abbots or otherwise, are given by the author from the charters and other muniments preserved in the British Museum. Turning, however, to the history of the Cistercian Abbey, we learn from an examination of the earliest records that, previously to the erection of the Abbey buildings on the present site, a hermit named Meiler inhabited a cell at a place called Pendar. It appears probable that this Meiler had some connection with the Cistercian Abbey of Neath not far distant, founded about twenty years previously. He may have been an inmate of the monastery, although not professed, before taking up his abode at Pendar; of that, however, we have no certain information, but the author gives extracts from the original Latin grant in the Talbot



Collection by Caradoc Uerbeis to “God and St. Mary and the Cistercian Order and to brother Meiler and the brethren of Pendar of all his land lying between the three waters”, etc., which grant was afterwards confirmed under seal and duly attested. From this grant, supported by another deed not dated, but attributable to the year 1151, brother Meiler appears then to have been presiding over the two establishments of Pendar and Margam, and so he may be regarded as probably the first of the abbots of the latter monastery. Dr. Birch produces ample evidence from the Cottonian MSS., to prove that as early as the year 1147 the present site had been granted to the


Carter's View of the West Front of Margam Abbey, A.D. 1803.

Cistercians for the purpose of building an Abbey thereon, and Margam is included in the list of Cistercian Abbeys preserved in the British Museum. In Chapter VI we have much information in regard to the privileges granted to the brethren by a Bull of Pope Urban III at the close of the twelfth century, which shows that the Abbey at that time held an important position and was in the possession of many benefactions. Much progress had by then been made with the various buildings of the Abbey, and Margam was rapidly approaching to that pre-eminence it subsequently attained amongst the monasteries of Wales. The architectural features of the Abbey are well described and clearly illustrated, including reproductions of views and sketches

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