תמונות בעמוד
PDF
ePub

SPECIMENS OF THE COMMENTARIES OF KUNG-YANG AND

KUH-LEANG.

隐公元年,一章元年春王正月。

[ocr errors]

The first year of duke Yin, par. 1. It was the [duke's] first year, the spring, the king's first month. 公羊傳日元年者何君之」穀梁傳日雖無事,必舉正 始年也。

月謹始也 春者何歲之始也

公何以不言即位成公志 王者郭謂。謂文王也。 也。

為先言王而後言正月。」焉成之言君不取為公也 王正月也。

君之不取為公何也將 何言乎王正月大一統也。以讓桓也 公何以不言即位。成公意」讓桓正乎,曰不正。 也。

春秋成人之美不成人之 何成乎公之意。公將平國惡魔不正而成之何也。將 而反之桓。

以惡桓也。 為反之桓桓幼而貴隱」其惡桓何也。隱將讓而桓 長卑其為尊卑也微國人之則桓惡矣,桓而隱 莫知,隱長又賢諸大夫板應」讓則隱善矣。 而立之隱於是焉而辞立善則其不正焉何也,

春秋 則未知桓之将必得立也,且貴義而不貴惠信道而入 如桓立則恐諸大夫不能相邪孝子揚炎之美不楊 幼君也,故凡隐之立爲恒之惡先君之欲與桓非正 立也。

也邪也,雖然既勝其邪心 隱長又賢、何以不宜立。立以與隱矣,己探先君之邪志 適以長不以賢立子以貴

而遂以與桓則是成災之惡

也兄弟天倫也,為子受之 不以長。

父為諸侯受之君己廢天倫 桓何以貴母貴也。 而忘君父以行小惠小道也 母貴則子何以貴。子以母若隱著可謂輕千乘之國, 貴母以子貴。

蹈道則未也。

The Chuen of Kung-yang says:

The Chuen of Kuh-lëang says :-'Al"What is meant by ? The first though there was nothing to be recorded

(under the first month], it was necessary year of the ruler. What is meant by (spring)? The ment [of the rule] required this attention

# ; first season of the year.

to be paid to it. What is meant by E (the king)? Why is it not said that the duke came It means king Wăn.

the (vacant] seat? To give full exWhy does [the text] first give “king,” pression to the duke's mind. and then “first month ?" [To show that] In what way does this give full expresit was the king's first month.

sion to the duke's mind ? It tells that Why does it [so] mention the king's Yin did not himself care to be duke. first month ?

What is meant by saying that he did To magnify the union of the kingdom intended to resign the marquisate to

not himself care to be duke ? That he [under the dynasty of Chow].

Hwan. Why is it not said that the duke came

Was it correct in him [to wish] to to the [vacant] seat? To give full ex- resign it to Hwan ? pression to the duke's mind.

It was not correct. In what way does it give full expres The Ch'un Ts'w gives full expression sion to the duke's mind? The duke to men's excellent qualities, but does not intended to bring the State to order, and do so to their evil; -why should it give then restore it to Hwan.

such expression to (the intention of] Yin What is meant by restoring it to which was not correct ? Hwan?

With a view to show detestation of Hwan was younger, but nobler [than Hwan. the duke by birth]; Yin was grown up,

How does that detestation of Hwan but lower than Hwan by birth). The dif- appear ? ference between them in these respects, Yin intended to resign in his favour, however, was small, and the people of the and yet Hwan murdered him;-showing State did not know their father's intention Hwan's wickedness. Hwan murdered about the succession). Yin being grown him, and yet Yin would have resigned in up and a man of worth, the great officers his favour;-showing Yin's goodness. insisted on his being made marquis. If If Yin was thus good, why do you say he had refused to be made so, he did that he was not correct? not know for certain that Hwan would In the Ch'un Ts'ëw, what is righteous be raised to the dignity; and supposing is held to be noble, and not what is that be were raised to it, he was afraid (merely] kind. It would lead forward in that the great officers might not give the (straight] path, and not in the crooktheir assistance to so young a ruler. ed. A filial son tries to display the exTherefore the whole transaction of Yin's cellent qualities of his father, and not the elevation was with a view (in his mind) evil ones. The father was not correct, to the eleration of Hwan.

but perverse, in seeking to give the State But since Yin was grown up and a to Hwan. Notwithstanding, he overman of worth, why was it not proper came this perversity of mind, and the that he should be made marquis? State was given [at last] to Yin; but Yin

Among the sons of the wife proper, had fathomed the purpose of their father, the succession devolved on the eldest, and and thereon would have given the State not on the worthiest and ablest. Among to Hwan ;-carrying out their father's a ruler's sons by other ladies of his wickedness. That there should be elder harem, the succession devolved on the brother and younger brother is in the noblest, and not on the eldest.

order of Heaven, A man receives his In what respect was Hwan nobler [in sonship froin his father; and a feudal rank] than Yin:

prince receives his rank from the king. His mother was of higher position To disannul the order of Heaven, and [thian Yin's mother.

forget his ruler and father in order to do Though the mother was nobler, why a small kindness, is what is called walkshould the son be (also) nobler? A sou, ing in a small path. Looking at Yin, we

was held to share in the nobility of his may say that he could make light of a mother; and a mother shared in the State of a thousand chariots, but could (subsequent] nobility of her son.' not tread the way that is rigbt.'

桓公十有一年四章宋人執 鄭祭仲。

The eleventh year of duke Hwan, par. 4. The people of Sung seized Chae Chung of Ch'ing. 公羊傳日祭仲者何鄭相」穀梁傳日宋人者宋公也。 也。

其日人何也。貶之也。 何以不名賢也。

The Chuen of Kuh-leang says:一 何賢乎祭仲以為知權也。 (人[people] here means the duke of 其為知權奈何。古者鄭國處 | Sung. 于留,先鄭伯有善於公者, Why is he designated (the people, 通乎夫人以取其國,而遷鄭

or one of the people)?

To condemn him.' 焉,而野留。莊公死、已葬祭 仲將往省于留,塗出於宋 宋人之謂之日為我出忽 而立突祭仲不從其言則 君必死國必亡,從其言則君 可以生易死國可以存易亡 則突可以故出,而忽可以故 反是不可得,則病,然後有 鄭國,古人之有權者,祭仲 之權是也。

權者何權者反於經然後 有善者也,權之所設舍死亡 無所設行權有道,自貶損以 行權不害人以行權,

殺人 以自生亡人以自存君子 不為也。 The Chuen of Kung-yang says:“Who was Chae Chung? The chief minister of Ch'ing. Why is he not mentioned by his name? Because of his worth. What worthiness was there in Chae Chung:

[ocr errors]

He is to be considered as knowing how to act according to circumstances. · In what way did he know to act accord. ing to circumstances?

Anciently the capital of Ch'ing was in Lëw. A former earl of Ch‘ing was on friendly terms with the duke of Kwei; and having an intrigue with his wife, he took the capital of Kwei, transferred that of Ch‘ing to it, and left Lëw to become a wilderness. After the death of duke Chwang, Chae Chung was going to inspect the state of Lëw; and as his road lay through Sung, the people of that State seized him, and said, “Drive out Hwuh (Chwang's eldest son, who was now earl of Ch'ing) for us, and raise Tuh (Hwah's brother) to the earldom.”

If Chae Chung did not do as they required, his ruler must die, and the State perish. If he did as they required, his ruler would exchange death for life, and the State be preserved instead of perish. ing. Then by and by, [by his gradual management], Tuh might be sent forth as before, and Hwuh might return as before. If these things could not be secured, he would have to suffer [under the imputation of evil conduct], but yet there would be the State of Ch'ing. When the ancients acted according to the exigency of circumstances, they acted in the way in which Chae Chung now did.

What is meant by acting according to the exigency of circumstances?

It is acting contrary to the ordinary course of what is right, yet so that good shall result. Such a course is not to be adopted apart from the imminent danger of death or ruin. There is a way to regulate the pursuing of it. A man may adopt it when the censure and loss will fall on himself, but not to the injury of another. A superior man will not slay another to save himself, nor ruin another to preserve himself.'

十有五年一章。春二月天王 使家父來求車。

The fifteenth year, par. 1. In spring, in the second month, the king [by] Heaven's [grace] sent Këa Foo to Loo to ask for carriages.

公羊傳日,何以書識。 穀梁傳日古者諸侯時獻 何識爾,王者無求求車非于天子以其國之所有故 禮也,

有辭讓而無徵求求車非禮 The Chuen of Kung-yang says:

也求金甚矣。 ‘Why was this entry made?

The Chuen of Kuh-lëang says: of censure.

Anciently the feudal princes at the Censure of what? The kings did not ask for anything. Heave their offerings of the things

[proper] times presented to the son of To ask for carriages was contrary to which they had in their States. He propriety.

might thus decline, but he did not demand or ask for, (anything]. To ask for carriages was contrary to propriety; to ask for money was still more so.

By way

莊公四年四章紀侯大去其國,

The fourth year of duke Chwang, par. 4. The marquis of Ke made a grand leaving of his State. 公羊傳日大去者何,滅也。」穀梁傳日,大去者,不遗 郭滅之齊滅之。

人之辭也,言民之從者,四 為不言齊滅之為襄公年而後畢也,紀侯賢而齊 辞也,春秋為賢者諱, 侯滅之不言减而日大去其

何賢乎襄公復譬也。 國者不使小人乎君子, 何彎爾遠祖也,氣公亨乎

The Chuen of Kuh-lëang says:周紀侯證之,以襄公之為於 "“Made a grand leaving” is as much 此者,事祖爾之心盡矣。

as to say that [the marquis did not leave

a man behind him. It tells us that tbe 盡者何襄公將復警乎紀, people did not cease to follow him tillall 卜之日師獎分為,寡人死

were gone in the space of four years.

The marquis of Ke was a worthy prince, 之不為不吉也。

and the marquis of Ts'e extinguished bis 遠祖者幾世乎九世矣, State. The text does not say so, but 九世猶可以復警乎。雖百 Hot allowing the injurions action of]

that he made a grand leaving of it, there世可也。

a small man towards a superior man to 家亦可乎,曰不可。

appear.

« הקודםהמשך »