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himself ruler in his place?" The soldiers all laughed and chuckled.
King Fung had murdered his ruler, but that crime is not mentioned here in connexion with him, because he was not subject to king Ling, and the text would not allow to Ts'oo [the right] to punish him. It is a part of the righteousness of the Ch'un Tsew to employ the noble to regulate the mean, and the worthy to regulate the bad, but not to employ the disorderly to regulate disorder. Do we not have the same sentiment in what Confucius said, "Let a man who himself
cherishes what is wicked punish another,
and that other will die without submitting to him?”,
十有九年二章五章夏五月 戊辰,許世子止弒其君買。冬 葬許悼公。
The nineteenth year, parr. 2 and 5.
In summer, in the fifth month, on Mow-shin, Che, heir-son of Heu, murdered his ruler Mae. In winter, there was the burial of
duke Taou of Heu.
公羊傳日, 未討,何以 書葬。不成于弑, 曷為不成于弒止進藥而 藥殺也。
止進藥而藥殺,則曷為其弟虺, 哭泣餅粥,蓝菜 容,未踰年而死,故君子 即止自責而責之也。
曰,子既生,不免乎水火 母之罪也。覊貫成童,不就 师傅,父之罪也。就師學院 無方心 方心志不通,身之罪 也。心志旣通,而名 聞,友之罪也。名譽旣聞,
是君子之聽止也。葬許悼有司不舉,有司之罪也有 公,是君子之赦止也,止 司舉之王者不用王者之 者,免止之罪辭也。 過也。許世子不知嘗藥,累 .
The Chuen of Kung-yang says: How do we have the burial recorded here,
The Chuen of Kuh-lëang says:-'The mention of the day along with the mur
How did it not amount to a murder? Che gave [his father] medicine, and the medicine killed him.
der shows that the death was a natural one. As it was so, Che did not murder [his father]. Though he did not murder him, it is said that he did;-to reprove Che. Che said, "I am the same as a murderer, and will not stand in my
In these circumstances why does the text say that Che murdered him?
To censure Che for not fully discharg-father's place." On this he resigned the ing the duty of a son.
State to his brother Hwuy, wept and
How does it censure his failure in that? Yoh-ching Tsze-ch'un, when watching his sick [father], would give him an additional dish of rice, [and watch] eagerly whether it made him better; or he would give him a dish less, and watch the result eagerly. He wo put on him a garment more, or a garment less, than usual, in the same way. Che gave the medicine, and the medicine killed [his father], and therefore the superior man charged him with murdering him.
In the [former] entry that Che, heirson of Heu, murdered his ruler Mae," the superior man allows the charge against Che; in the [second] entry about the burial of duke Taou, he pardons Che. He pardons Che, that is, he withdraws the charge against him.'
while the ruffian [-murderer] was not yet punished? The thing did not amount to a murder.
The specification of the day of the death and of the season of the burial does not allow Che to lie under the charge of murdering his father.
When a son is born, if he escape not death from fire or water, it is the crime of his mother; if he have grown up to a boy with two tufts of hair, and do not go to a teacher, it is the crime of his father; if he go to a teacher, and his studies are desultory, and his mind do not become intelligent, it is the crime of himself; if he become intelligent, and the fame of his name be not heard of, it is the crime of his friends; if the fame of his name be heard of, and the officers do not bring him into notice, it is the crime of the officers; if the officers bring him to notice, and the king do not employ him, it is the fault of the king. The heir-son of Heu did not know [his duty]
to taste the medicine [for the ruler], and that ruler was involved [in the conse quences of his ignorance].
The first year of duke Ting, parr.1, 2.
In the [duke's] first year, in spring, the king's.......In summer, in the sixth month, on Mow-shin, the duke came to the vacant seat.
公羊傳日,定何以無正月。穀梁傳日,不言正月,定 正月者,正卽位也,定無正 無正也。 月者,即位後也,
卽位何以後昭公在外,得非正終也,定之始,非正始也。 入,不得入,未可知也。 昭無正終,故定無正始
曷為未可知,在季氏也。不言即位,喪在外也、殯然 定哀多微辭,主人習其讀 後卽位也。
How was it not yet known?
It depended on the Head of the Ke
踰年不言卽位,是有故公 也,言即位,是無故公也。即 位授受之道也先君無正 終,則後君無正始也,先君 有正終,則後君有正始也, 戊辰,公即位,謹之也,定 之卽位,不可不察也,公卽 位何以日也。戊辰之日,然 後即位也。
何為戊辰之日,然後即位 也。正君乎國,然後即位也。 內之大事日,即位君之大 事也, 其不日, 何也。 以年 決者不以日決也。
In(the records about] Ting and Gae
there are many obscure expressions. If 周人有喪,魯人有喪,周
they the rulers--had read the text and
inquired about its explanation, they would 人弔,魯人不弔,周人日,固
not have known whether they were 吾臣也,使人可也,鲁人曰,
charged with crime or not.
As it was on Kwei-hae that duke 吾君也,親之者也使大夫 [Ch‘aou's] coffin came from Kan-how,則不可也,故周人弔,魯人 how was it that it was Mow-shin before 不弔,以其下成康為未久也.
[Ting] ascended the [vacant] seat?
When the coffin had been placed right 君至尊也, 去父之殯,而 between the two pillars, then he ascended 往弔,猶不敢,况未殯而臨
the [vacant] seat. My master Shin-tsze
said, 'When the funeral rites of the 諸臣乎。
[former] ruler had been settled in the State, then [the new ruler] took the [vacant] seat.
The Chuen of Kuh-lëang says:-'The text does not mention the first month, because Ting had no first month [in his first year].
The day of taking that seat should not be given;-how is it given here?
It is a record of what took place in Loo itself,'
Why had Ting no first month? Because duke Chaou's death was not a proper death, and Ting's commencement of his rule was not a proper commencement. As Chaou's was not a proper death, Ting could not have a proper beginning. It is not said [here] that he came to the [vacant] seat, because [Chaou's] coffin was outside the State.
The coffin was now placed in state, and so he took the [vacant] seat. Ting's having no first year shows that there was something which prevented him from having it. But the reason of its not being said that he came to the vacant seat when the year [in which duke Ch'aou died] was expired, was that [the coffin] of the former duke was [still outside]. The notice of coming to the [vacant] seat was the regular way of declaring that the State was passed from one ruler to another. If the former did not die a proper death, the latter could not have a proper beginning; and vice versa. The notice that duke [Ting] came to the [vacant] seat on Mow-shin, is an instance of the care observed [in such a matter]; it was necessary that Ting's accession should be thus definitely marked. How is the day of the duke's accession given?
[To show that] it was on the day Mow-shin.
the year was expired, would have been hazardous; and besides there was a point of righteousness in the case. Before the coffin [of his predecessor] was set in state, a prince would not dare to show himself as ruler to the ministers, even though he had the charge of the son of Heaven. There might be a death equally in Chow and in Loo. From Chow a message of condolence would be sent, but not from Loo. In Chow they would say, "He was our subject; we may send to condole [on his death]." In Loo they would say, “ He was our ruler. Was like our fathor. We cannot send a great officer [to offer our condolences]." In this way from Chow they sent to condole, but not from Loo, for the time was not long removed from Ching and K'ang. The king was the most honourable; yet [the new ruler of Loo] would not dare to leave his father's coffin, and go to Chow on a visit of
condolence; how much less would he show himself as ruler to the ministers, before the coffin was placed in State!
The sixth year of duke Gae, parr. 7, 8.
Yang-săng of Ts'e entered [the capital of] that State. Chin
K'eih of Ts'e murdered his ruler T'oo.
公羊傳日,弒而立者,不以 當國之辭言之,此以當國 之辭言之,何。為諼也 此其爲諼奈何。景公謂陳 乞日,吾欲立舍何如。陳 日,所樂乎為君者,欲立 則立之,不欲立,則不立,君 欲立之,則臣請立之陽 生謂陳乞日,吾聞子蓋將 不欲立我也,陳乞日夫千
穀梁傳日,陽生入而 其 君,以陳乞主之何也。不以 陽生君茶也。
入者,内弗受也,茶弗正 何用弗受。以其受命,可以 言弗受也。