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II. 1 In the [duke's] second year, in spring, the marquis of Ts'e invaded our northern border. 2 In summer, in the fourth month, on Ping-seuh, Sun Léangfoo of Wei led a force, and fought with the army of Ts'e at Sin-chuh, when the army of Wei received a severe defeat. 3 In the sixth month, on Kwei-yéw, Ke-sun Hāng-foo, Tsangsun Heu, Shuh-sun K'eaou-joo, and Kung-sun Ying-ts'e, led a force, and joined Kéoh K'ih of Tsin, Sun Léangfoo of Wei, and the Kung-tsze Show of Ts'aou, [after which] they fought with the marquis of Tsoe at Gan, when the army of Tsoe received a severe defeat. 4 In autumn, in the seventh month, the marquis of Tsoe sent Kwoh Tso to the army [of the allies], which made a | covenant with him on Ke-yéw at Yuen-low. 5 In the eighth month, on Jin-woo, Paou, duke of Sung, died. | 6 On Kång-yin, Suh, marquis of Wei, died. 7 We took the lands of Wän-yang.

8 In winter, an army of Ts'oo and an army of Ching made an incursion into Wei. 9. In the eleventh month, the duke had a meeting with the Kung-tsoe Ying-tsoe of Ts'oo in Shuh. 10. On Ping-shin, the duke made a covenant in Shuh with an officer of Ts'oo, an officer of Tsin, an officer of Sung, an officer of Chin, an officer of Wei, an officer of Ch'ing, an officer of Tsoe, an officer of Ts'aou, an officer of Choo, an officer of Séeh, and an officer of Tsäng. Par.1. The Chuensays:—'Inthecourse of this invasion, the marquis of Tsoelaid siege to Lung, when his favourite, Leu-p'oo Tséw-kwei was made prisoner in attacking one of the gates. The marquis said, “Do not put him to death, and I will make a covenant with you, and not

By-and-by the approach of a great number of chariots was announced, and the army of Tsoe stayed its advance, halting at Këuh-keu. “It was Chung-shuh Yu-he, commandant of Sin-chuh, who thus came to the relief of Sun Hwan-tsze, and secured his escape. In conseenter your borders.” The people of Lung did quence, the people of Wei would have rewarded not listen to the request, but put their prisoner | Yu-he with a city, but he refused it, and asked to death, and dismembered him on the top of that he might be allowed to have his suspended the wall. The marquis beat the drum himself, instruments of music disposed incompletely while his soldiers strove to mount the wall; and I [like those of the prince of a State], and to apin three days Lung was taken. He then made pear at court with the saddle-girth and bridlean incursion southwards as far as Ch'aou-k'éw. trappings of a prince;—which was granted to Too observes that he cannot account for the him. silence of the text about this capture of Lung, “When Chung-nesConfucius] heard of this, he

and the subsequent incursion to Ch'aou-kew. Par. 2. Sin-chuh was in Wei...—20 le south

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| said, “Alas! it would have been better to give
him many cities. It is only peculiar articles of
| use, and names, which cannot be granted to other
[than those to whom they belong];—to them a
ruler has particularly to attend. It is by [the
|right use of] names that he secures the con-
fidence [of the people]; it is by that confidence
that he preserves the articles [distinctive of
ranks]; it is in those articles that the ceremonial
distinctions of rank are hid; those ceremonial
distinctions are essential to the practice of
righteousness; it is righteousness which con-
tributes to the advantage [of the State]; and it
is that advantage which secures the quiet of the
people. Attention to these things is the condi-
tion of [good] government. If they be conceded
where they ought not to be conceded, it is giv-
ing away the government to the recipients.
When the government thus perishes, the State
will follow it;-it is not possible to arrest that
issue.”
Par. 3. Too says that Gan was in Tse, and
Kuh-léang says that it was 500 le from the capi-
tal of that State. But so great a distance is ir-
reconcileable with the account which we have
in the Chuen of the immediate advance of the
victors after the battle to Ying-k'éw. Gan was
probably the same place known previously by

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