« הקודםהמשך »
THE TWELFTH CENTURY.
THE EXTERNAL HISTORY OF THE CHURCH.
dals, and others, who, either by their incu. Concerning th. Prosperous Events that happened
sions or by revolt, drew upon then the weight
of his victorious arm. He unshcathed his to the Church during this Century. sword, not only for the defence and happiness A CONSIDERABLE part of Europe lay yet in- of his people, but also for the propagation and volved in pagan darkness, which reigned more advancement of Christianity; and wherever especially in the northern provinces. It was, his arms were successful, he pulled down the therefore, in these regions of gloomy supersti-temples and images of the gods, destroyed their tion, that the zeal of the missionaries was prin- | altars, laid waste their sacred groves, and subcipally exerted in this century; though their | stituted in their place the Christian worship, efforts were not all equally successful, nor the which deserved to be propagated by better methods they employed for the propagation of means than the sword, by the authority of reathe Gospel equally prudent. Boleslaus, duke son, rather than by the despotic voice of of Poland, having conquered the Pomeranians, | power. The island of Rugen, which lies in offered them peace, upon condition that they the neighbourhood of Pomerania, submitted to would receive the Christian teachers, and per-| the victorious arms of Waldemar, A. D. 1168; init them to exercise their ministry in that van- and its fierce and savage inhabitants, who quished province. This condition was accept- were, in reality, no more than a band of robed; and Otho, bisliop of Bamberg, a man of bers and pirates, were obliged, by that prince, eminent piety and zeal, was sent, in the year to hear the instructions of the pious and learn1124, to inculcate and explain the doctrines of led doctors that followed his army, and to reChristianity, among that superstitious and bar-ceive the Christian worship. This salutary barous people. Many were converted to the work was brought to perfection by Absalom, faith by his ministry, while great numbers archbishop of Lunden, a man of superior gestood firm against his most vigorous efforts, nius, and of a most excellent character in every and persisted, with an invincible obstinacy, in respect, whose eminent merit raised him to the the religion of their idolatrous ancestors.- summit of power, and engaged Waldemar to Nor was this the only mortification which that place him at the head of attairs. * illustrious prelate received, in the execution of III. The Finlanders received the Gospe in his pious enterprise; for, upon his return into the same manner in which it had been propaGermany, many of those whom he had engag-| gated among the inhabitants of the isle of Rued in the profession of Christianity, apostatised gen. They were also a fierce and savage peoin his absence, and relapsed into their ancient ple, who lived by plunder, and infested Sweprejudices: this obliged Otho to undertake a den in a terrible manner by their perpetual second voyage into Pomerania, A. D. 1126, incursions, until, after many bloody battles, in which, after much opposition and difficulty, they were totally defeated by Eric IX. styled his labours were crowned with a happier issue, after his death the Saint, and reduced under and contributed much to enlarge the bounds of the Swedish yoke. Historians differ about the the rising church, and to establish it upon so-precise time when this conquest was completlid foundations.* From this period, the Chris-ed;t but they are all unanimous in their actian religion seemed daily to acquire new de- counts of its effects. The Finlanders were grees of stability among the Pomeranians, who commanded to embrace the religion of the conhad hitherto refused to permit the settlement queror, which the greatest part of them did, of a bishop among them. They now received
* Saxo-Grammaticus, Histor. Danic. lib. xiv. p. Adalbert, or Albert, in that character, who | 2:39.—Helmoldus, Chron. Sclavorum, lib. ii. cap. xii. was accordingly the first bishop of Pomerania. p. 231, and Henr. Bangertus, ad h. 1.-Pontoppidani II. Of all the northern princes of this cen
Annales Ecclesiæ Danica, tom. i. p. 401. tury, none appeared with a more distinguished | Mosheim, we refer the curious reader to an excellent
Uz Beside the historians here mentioned by Dr lustre than Waldemar I. king of Denmark, history of Denmark, written in French, by M. Mal who acquired an immortai name by the glori- let, professor at Copenhagen. In the first volume of ous batiles he fought against the pagan na
this history, the ingenius and learned author has gi.
ven a very interesting account of the progress of *jons, such as the Sclavonians, Venedi, Van-Christianity in the northern parts of Europe, and a
particular relation of the exploits of Absaloni, who * See Henr. Canisii Lectiones Antiquæ, tom. iii. was, at the same time, archbishov, general, admiral, part ii. p 34, where we find the life of Otho, who, A. and prime minister, and who led the victorious Dance D. 1189, was canonised by Climent III. See the Ac. to battle, by sea and land. without neglecthg the cure 11 Banctor. Mensis Julii, tom. i p. 349. Dan. Crame. | of souls, or in the least diminishing his pious le hours i Chronicon Eccles. Pomeraniae, lib. i. as also a in the propagation of the Gospel abroad, 2:...s earned Dissertation concerning the conversion of maintenance and support at home. he Pomeranians by the ministry of Oth), written in † Most writers, with Baronius, place this event in che German language, by Christopher Schotgen, an: the year 1151. Different, however, from this is the published at Stargarid, in the year 1724. Add to these chronology of Vastovins an1 Qernhielmis, ite fago Mabillon, Annal. Benedict. tom vi. D. 123, 146, 323. mer placing it in 1750 and the latter in 12:57
though with the utmost reluctance.* The ed, and torme ited this wretched people, that founder (ard ruler) of this new church was exhausted at length, and unable longer to Henry, arclibish p of Upsal, who accompani- stand firm against the arm of persecution, ed the victorious monarch in that bloody cam- strengthened still by new accessions of power, paigr This prelate, whose zeal was not suf- they abandoned the statues of their pagan deificiently tempered with the mild and gentle ties, and substituted in their places the images spirit of the religion he taught, treated the of the saints. But, while they received the new converts with great severity, and was as- blessings of the Gospel, they were deprived saszinated at last, in a cruel manner, on ac- of all earthly comforts; for their lands and cours of the heavy penance he imposed upon possessions were taken from thein, with the a person of great authority, who had been inost odious circumstances of cruelty and vioguilty of homicide. This melancholy event lence, and the knights and bishops divided the procured Henry the honours of saintship and spoil.* martyrdom, which were solemnly conferred V. None of the northern nations had a more upon him by pope Adrian IV.f
rooted aversion to the Christians, or a more IV. The propagation of the Gospel among obstinate antipathy to their religion, than the the Livonianis was attended with much difficul- Sclavonians, a rough and barbarous people. ty, and also with horrible scenes of cruelty and who inhabited the coast of the Baltic sea. bloodshed. The first missionary, who attempt- This excited the zeal of several neighbouring ed the conversion of that savage people, was princes, and of a multitude of pious missionaMainhard, a regular canon of St. Augustin, in ries, who united their efforts, in order to conthe monastery of Segeberg, who, toward the quer the prejudices of this pecple, and to open conclusion of this century, travelled to Livo- | their eyes upon the light of the Gospel. Hennia, with a company of merchants of Bremen, |ry, duke of Saxony, surnamed the Lion, disand improved this opportunity of spreading the tinguished himself in a particular manner, by light of the Gospel in that barbarous region the ardour which he discovered in the execuof superstition and darkness. The instruc- tion of this pious design, as well as by the cions and exhortations of this zealous apostle wise methods he employed to render it sucwere little attended to, and produced little or | cessful. Among other measures that were 10 effect upon that uncivilized nation; where-proper for this purpose, he restored from thei: apon he addressed hi.nself to the Roman pon- ruins, and endowed richly, three bishoprics! tiff, Urban III. who consecrated him bishop of that had been ravaged and destroyed by thesc the Livonians, and, at the same time, declared barbarians, namely, the bishoprics of Ratzea holy war against that obstinate people. This i burg and Schwerin, and that of Oldenburg; war, which was at first carried on against the which was afterwards transplanted to Lubeck. inhabitants of the province of Esthonia, was The most eminent of the Christian doctors, continued with still greater vigour, and render- who attempted the conversion of the Sclavoed more general, by Berthold, abbot of Lucca, | nians, was Vicelinus, a native of Hamelen, a who left his monastery to share the labours and man of extraordinary merit, who surpassea laurels of Mainhard, whom he accordingly | almost all his contemporaries in genuine piety succeeded in the see of Livonia. The new bi- | and solid learning, and who, after having preshop marched into that province at the head | sided many years in the society of the regula: of a powerful army which he had raised in canons of St. Augustin at Falderen, was at Saxony, preached the Gospel sword in hand, length consecrated bishop of Oldenburg and proved its truth by blows instead of argu- | This excellent man employed the last thirty ments. Albert, canon of Bremen, became the years of his life,ț amidst numberless vexathird bishop of Livonia, and followed, with a tions, dangers and difficulties, in instructing barbarous enthusiasm, the same military me- || the Sclavonians, and exhorting them to com thods of conversion that had been practised by his predecessor. He entered Livonia, A. D. * See the Origines Livoniæ, seu Chronicon vetus 1198, with a fresh body of troops drawn out || Livonicum, published in folio, at Francfort, in the of Saxony, and, encamping at Riga, instituted year 1740, by Jo. Daniel Gruberus, and enriched with
ample and learned observations and notes, in which there, by the direction of pope Innocent III., | the laborious author enumerates all the writers of the military order of the knights sword-bear-the Livonian history, and corrects their mistakes. ers,Ş who were commissioned to dragoon the
- † Dr. Mosheim's account of this matter is vry Livonians into the profession of Christianity, || asserts, that it was Hartwick, archbishop of Bre
ditferent from that which is given by Fleury, who and oblige them by force of arms to receive men, who restored the three-ruined sees, and conso. the benefits of baptism.|| New legions were crated Vicelinus bishop of Oldenburg; and that, as sent from Germany to second the efforts, and he had done this without addressing himself to lien
ry, the duke seized the tithes of Vicelinus, until a add efficacy to the mission of these booted || reconciliation was afterwards brought about between apostles; and they, in concert with the knights the offended prince and the worthy tiishop. See Fieu. sword-bearers, so cruelly oppressed, slaughter- ry, Hist. Eccles. liv. lxix. p. 665, 668. edit. Bruxelles.
Fleury, in this and other parts of his history, shows, * Vernhielmii Histor. Eccles. Gentis Suecorum, | that he is but indifferently acquainted with the history lib. iv. cap. iv. sect. 13.-Jo. Loccenii Histor. Suecica, of Germany, and has not drawn from the best sources. lib. iii. p. 70, ed. Francof.-Erlandi Vita Erici Sanc The authorities which Dr. Mosheim produces for his ti, cap. vii. Vastovii Vitis Aquilonia, p. 65. account of the affair, are the Origines Guelphicæ, tom.
† Vastovii Vitis Aquilon. seu Vitæ Sanctorum iii. p. 16, 19, 34, 55, 61, 63, 72, 82, with the celebrated Regni Sueogothici, p. 62. Eric. Benzelii Moumenta Preface of Scheidius, sect. xiv. p. 41. Ludewig's Re. Ecclesiae Sueogothicæ, part i. p. 33.
liquiæ Manuscriptorum, tom. vi. p. 230. Jo. Ern. de | In the year 1186.
Westphalen, Monumentn inedita Rerum Cimbrica. Equestris Ordo Militum Ensiferorum.
rum et Mega polens. tom. ii. p. 1998. See llenr. Leonardi Schartzfleischii Historia Or 1. That is, from the year 1124 to the year 1154, 10 Binis Ensiferoi um [.xuiulli, Wiitcab.rg. 1701, Evo. which he died.
ply with the invitations of the Gospel of | mencement of t... century, and proved, by its Christ; and, as his pious labours were directed effects, extremely beneficial to the Christian 67trve wisdom, and carried on with the most Toward the conclusion of the precedindefatigable industry and zeal, so were they ing century, died Koiremkhan, otherwise calattended with much fruit, even among that led Kenkhan, the mout powerful münarch that fierce and intractable people. Nor was his mil was known in the eastern regions of Asia; and, nistry among the Sclavonians the only circum- | while that mighty kingdom was deprived of stance that redounds to the honour of his me- | its chief, it was invaded with such uncommon mory; the history of his life and actions in ge- | valour and success, by a Nestorian priest, neral furnishes proofs of his piety and zeal, suf- || whose name was John, that it fell before his ricient to transmit his name to the latest gene- victorious arms, and acknowledged this warrations.*
like and enterprising presbyter as its monárch. VI. It is needless to repeat here the observa- | This was the famous Prester John (as he was tion we have so often had occasion to make called,) whose territory was, for a long time, upon such conversions as these, or to intimate considered by the Europeans as a second parato the reader that the savage nations, who || dise, as the seat of opulence and complete feliwere thus dragooned into the church, became city. As he was a presbyter before his elevathe disciples of Christ, not so much in reality, tion to the royal dignity, many continued to as in outward appearance. [63- They pro-call him Presbyter John, even when he was fessed, with an inward reluctance, a religion seated on the throne;* but his kingly name which was inculcated by violence and blood was Unkhan. The high notions which the shed, which recalled to their remembrance nothing but scenes of desolation and misery; and Presbyter, commonly called Prester John, who was,
* The account I have here given of this famous which, indeed, when considered in the repre- for a long time, considered as the greatest and happi. sentations that were given of it by the great- | est of all earthly monarchs, is what appeared to me est part of the missionaries, was but a few de- have been given of the life and
adventures of that grees removed from the absurdities of pagan- extraordinary man. This account is moreover con ism.] The pure and rational religion of the firmed by the testimonies of contemporary writers, Gospel was never presented to these unhappy whose knowledge and impartiality render them wor! nations in its native simplicity; they were only || fresne's Adnot. ad Vitam Ludovici St. a Joinvillio taught to appease the Deity, and to render him | scriptam, p. 89.) as also a certain bishop of Gabala propitious, by a senseless round of trifling ce mentioned by Otto Frising. Chronic. lib. vii. cap. remonies and bodily exercises, which, in many | xviii
. p. 36, in the Antiqua in Asiam Itinera, collect,
xxxii. See also Guillaume Rubruquis, Voyage, cap. circumstances, resembled the superstitions they || ed by father Bergeron, and Alberic in Chronico, ad were obliged to renounce, and might have been A. 1165, and 1170, in Leibnitii Accessionibus Histor. easily reconciled with them, had it not been icis, tom. ii. p. 345, 355. It is indeed surprising, that that the name and history of Christ, the sign | the observation of the learned, and that so many
such authentic records as these should have escaped of the cross, and some diversity between cer different opinions should have been advanced con: tain rites and ceremonies of the two religions, || cerning Prester John, and the place of his residence. opposed this coalition. Besides, the missiona- || But it is too generally the fate of learned men, to
overlook those accounts that carry the plainest ries whose zeal for imposing the name of
marks of evidence, and, from a passion for the mar. Christians upon this people was so vehement vellous, to plunge into the regions of uncertainty and even furious, were extremely indulgent in and doubt. In the fifteenth century, John II. king all other respects, and opposed their prejudices of Portugal
, employed Pedro Covilliano in a labori and vices with much gentleness and forbear- || of Prester John. The curious voyager undertook ance. They permitted them to retain several this task, and, for information in the matter, travel. rites and observances that were in direct oppo- || led with
few companions into Abyssinia; and ob. sition to the spirit of Christianity, and to the serving in the emperor of the Abyssinians, or Ethi.
opians, many circumstances that resembled the ac. nature of true piety. The truth of the mat counts which, at that time, prevailed in Europe con ter seems to have been this, that the leading | cerning Prester John, he persuaded himself that he views of these Christian heralds, and propa- || Lence of that extraordinary monarch, who was the gators of the faith, a smaller number excepted, || object of his researches. His opinion easily gained were rather turned toward the advancement of credit in Europe, which had not yet emerged out of their own interests, and the confirming and ex
its ignorance and barbarism. See Morinus, de Sa. tending the dominion of the Roman pontiffs, | cris Eccles. Ordinationibuspart ii. p: 367. But a
new the . than toward the true conversion of these sa
teenth century, by the publication of several pieces, rage Pagans; that conversion which consists which the industry of the curious drew forth from in the removal of ignorance, the correction of
their obscurity, and by which a great number of error, and the reformation of vice
learned men were engaged to abandon the Portu.
guese opinion, and were convinced that Prester John VII. A great revolution in Asiatic Tartary, | reigned in Asia, though they still continued to dis. which borders upon Cathay, changed the face pute about the situation of his kingdom, and other of things in that distant region about the com
particular circumstances. There are, notwithstand. ing all this, some men of the most eminent learning
in our times, who maintain, that John was emperor * There is a particular and ample account of Vi. of the Abyssinians, and thus prefer the Portuguese celinus in the Cimbria Literata of Mollerus, tom. ii. opinion, though destitute of authentic proofs and p. 910, and in the Res Hamburg. of Lambccius, lib. testimonies, to the other above mentioned, though ii. p. 12. See also upon this subject the Origines Ne- || supported by the strongest evidence, and the most i monaster. et Bordesholmens. of the most learned unquestionable authorities. See Fusel. Renaudot, aud industrious Joh. Ern. de Westphalen, which are Hist. Patriarch. Alexandr. p. 223, 337. Jos. Franc. published in the second tome of the Monumenta in- || Lafitau, Hist. des Decouvertes des Portugaib, tom. i
dita Cimbrica, p. 2344, and the Preface to this tome, p. 58, and tom. iii. p. 57. Henr. le Grand. Dis. de po 33. There is in this work a print of Vicelinus Johanne Presbytero in Lobo's Voyage d'Abyssinie, well engraven
tome i. p. 295.
Greeks and Latins generally entertained of the engage the emperor and other Christian princes grandeur and magnificence of this royal pres- to undertake a new expedition into Palestine. byter, were principally produced by the letters IX. This new expedition was not, however, ho wrote to the Roman emperor Frederic I. resolved upon with such unanimity and preand to Emanuel emperor of the Greeks, incipitation as the former had been; it was the which, puffed up with prosperity, and flushed subject of long deliberation, and its expediency with success, he vaunted his victories over the was keenly debated both in the cabinets of neighbouring nations that disputed his passage princes, and in the assemblies of the clergy and to the throne; describea, in the most pompous the people. Bernard, the famous abbot of and extravagant terms, the splendour of his Clairval, a man of the boldest resolution and riches, the grandeur of his state, and the ex- of the greatest authority, put an end to those tent of his dominions; and exalted himself far disputes under the pontificate of Eugenius III. above all other earthly monarchs. All this who had been his disciple, and who was wholly was easily believed; and the Nestorians were governed by his counsels. This eloquent and extremely zealous in confirming the boasts of zealous ecclesiastic preached the cross, i. e. the their vain-glorious prince. He was succeeded crusade, in France and Germany, by his son, or, as others think, his brother, | ardour and success; and in the grand parliawhose nanie was David, though, in common ment assembled at Vezalai, A. D. 1146, at discourse, he was also called Prester John, as which Louis VII. king of France, his queen, his predecessor had been. The reign of Da- and a prodigious concourse of the principal vid was far from being happy, nor did he end nobility, were present, Bernard recommended his days in peace; Genghiz Khan, the great this holy expedition with such a persuasive and warlike emperor of the Tartars, invaded power, and declared with such assurance that his territories toward the conclusion of this he had a divine commission to foretell its glocentury, and deprived him both of his life and rious success, that the king, the queon, and al. his dominions.
the nobles, immediately put on the military VIII. The new kingdom of Jerusalem, cross, and prepared themselves for the journey which had been erected by the holy warriors into Palestine. Conrad III. emperor of Gerof France, near the close of the preceding cen- | many, was, for some time, unmoved by the tury, seemed to flourish considerably at the exhortations of Bernard; but he was at length beginning of this, and to rest upon firm and gained over by the urgent solicitations of the solid foundations. This prosperous scene was, | fervent abbot, and followed the example of the however, but transitory, and was soon succeed- French monarch. The two princes, each at ed by the most terrible calamities and desola- the head of a numerous army, set out for Pations. For, when the Mohammedans saw | lestine, to which they were to march by differvast numbers of those who had engaged in ent roads. But, before their arrival in the this holy war returning into Europe, and the Holy Land, the greatest part of their forces Christian chiefs that remained in Palestine di- | perished miserably, some by famine, some by vided into factions, and every one advancing the sword of the Mohammedans, some by shiphis private interest, without any regard to the wreck, and a considerable number by the perpublic good, they resumed their courage, re- fidious cruelty of the Greeks, who looked upon covered from the terror and consternation into the western nations as more to be feared than which they had been thrown by the amazing the infidels themselves. Louis VII. left his valour and rapid success of the European le- kingdom A. D. 1147, and, in the month of gions, and, gathering troops and soliciting suc March of the following year, he arrived at Ancours from all quarters, they harassed and ex- tioch, with the wretched remains of his army, hausted the Christians by invasions and wars dejected and exhausted by a series of hardwithout interruption. The Christians, on the ships. Conrad set out also in the year 1147, other hand, sustained these efforts with their in the month of May; and, in November folusual fortitude, and maintained their ground lowing, he arrived at Nice, where he joined auring many years; but when Atabeck Zen- the French army, after having lost the greatghi,* after a long siege, made himself master est part of his own by calamities of various of the city of Edessa, and threatened Antioch kinds. From Nice, the two princes proceeded with the same fate, their courage began to fail, || to Jerusalem, A. D. 1148; whence they led and a diffidence in their own strength obliged | back into Europe, the year following, the them to turn their eyes once more toward | miserable handful of troops, which had surEurope. They accordingly implored, in the vived the disasters of the expedition. Such most lamentable strain, the assistance of the was the unhappy issue of this second crusade, European princes; and requested that a new which was rendered ineffectual by a variety of army of cross-bearing champions might be causes, but more particularly by the jealousies sent to support their tottering empire in the and divisions that reigned among the Christian Iloly Land. Their entreaties were favourably | chiefs in Palestine. Nor was it more ineffecreceived by the Roman pontiffs, who left no tual in Palestine than it was detrimental to method of persuasion unemployed, that might | Europe, by draining the wealth of its fairest * Atabeck was a title of honour given by the sul provinces, and destroying a prodigious number
of its inhabitants.* tans to the viceroys or lieutenants, whom they in. trusted with the government of their provinces. * Beside the historians enumerated by Bongarsius The Latin authors, who have written the history of see Mabillon, Annal. Benedict. tom. vi. p. 399, 404, this holy war, and of whom Bongarsius has given || 407, 417, 451. Jac. Gervasii Histoire de l'Abbo 118 a complete list, call this Atabeck Zenghi, Sangui. || Suger, tom. iii. p. 104, 128, 173, 190, 239. This was
See Herbelot, Biblioth Orient. at the word the famous Suger, abbot of St. Denys, who had seslaheck, p. 142.
conded the exhortations of Berna'd in favour of the
X. The unhappy issac of this second expe- || lost his life in the river Saleph,* which runs dition was not however sufficient, when con- through Seleucia. The manner of his death sidered alone, to render the affairs of the is not known with certainty; the loss howeve: Christ ans in Palestine entirely desperate. Had of such an able chief dejected the spirits of his their chiefs and princes relinquished their ani- | troops, so that considerable numbers of them mosities and contentions, and attacked the returned into Europe. Those who remained common enemy with their united force, they continued the war under the command of would have soon repaired their losses, and re- Frederic, son of the deceased emperor; but the covered their glory. But this was far from greatest part of them perished miserably by a being the case. Å fatal corruption of senti- pestilential disorder, which raged with extraments and manners reigned among all ranks ordinary violence in the camp, and swept off and orders. Both the people and their leaders, || vast numbers every day. The new general and more especially the latter, abandoned died of this terrible disease, A. D. 1191; those themselves without reluctance to all the ex- || who escaped its fury were dispersed, and few cesses of ambition, avarice, and injustice; they returned to their own country. indulged themselves in the practice of all sorts XII. The example of Frederic Barbarossa was of vices; and by their intestine quarrels, jea- followed, in the year 1190, by Philip Augustus lousies, and discords, they weakened their ef- | king of France, and the lion-hearted Richard, forts against the enemies that surrounded king of England. These two monarchs sr* them, and consumed their strength by thus out from their respective dominions with a collunhappily dividing it. Saladin, viceroy or siderable number of ships of war and transi rather sultan of Egypt and Syria,* and the ports;arrived in Palestine in the year 1191, most valiant chief of whom the Mohammedaneach at the head of a separate army; and wero annals boast, took advantage of these lamenta- || pretty successful in their first encounters witin ble divisions. He waged war against the the infidels. After the reduction of the strong Christians with the utmost valour and success; || city of Acre or Ptolemais, which had been de took prisoner Guy of Lusignan, king of Jeru- || fended by the Moslems with the most obstisalem, in a fatal battle fought near Tiberias, | nate vali ur, the French monarch returned A. D. 1187; and, in the course of the same || into Europe, in the month of July, 1191, leav year, reduced Jerusalem itself under his do-ing, however, a considerable part of the army minion.f The carnage and desolation that which he had conducted into Palestine. After accompanied this dreadful campaign, threw his departure the king of England pushed the the affairs of the Christians in the east into a war with the greatest vigour, gave daily marks deplorable condition, and left them no glimpse of his heroic intrepidity and military skill, and of hope, but what arose from the expected suc not only defeated Saladin in several engagecours of the European princes. Succours were ments, but also made himself master of Jaffaş obtained for them by the Roman pontiff's with and Cæsarea. Deserted, however, by the much difficulty, in consequence of repeated | French and Italians, and influenced by other solicitations and entreaties. But the event, || motives and considerations of the greatest as we shall soon see, was by no means an- weight, he concluded, A.D. 1192, with Saladin, swerable to the deep schemes that were con a truce of three years, three months, and as certed, or to the pains that were employed, | many days, and evacuated Palestine with his for the support of the tottering kingdom of Je-whole army. Such was the issue of the third rusalem.
expedition against the infidels, which nearly XI. The third expedition was undertaken, exhausted England, France, and Germany, A. D. 1189, by Frederic I. surnamed Barba- || both of men and money, without bringing any rossa, emperor of Germany, who, with a pro- solid advantage, or giving even a favourable digious army, marched through several Gre- || turn, to the affairs of the Christians in the cian provinces, where he had innumerable | Holy Land. difficulties and obstacles to overcome, into XIII. These bloody wars between the ChrisAsia Minor, whence, after having defeated the tians and the Mohammedans gave rise to threo sultan of Iconium, he penetrated into Syria. famous military orders, whose office it was to His valour and conduct promised successful and glorious campaigns to the army he com
* Mainbourg, in his Histoire des Croisades, manded, when, by an unhappy accident, he and Marigny in his Hist. du xii. Siecle, say, thai
Frederic perished in the Cydnus, a river of Cilicia. crusade, and whom Louis appointed regent of France But they are easily to be reconciled with our author, during his absence. Vertot, Histoire des Chevaliers since, according to the descriptions given of the Sa de Malte, tom. i. p. 86. Joh. Jac. Mascovius, de leph by several learned geographers, and anong Rebus Imperii sub Conrado III.
others by Roger the Annalist, it appears that the (3 * Saladin, so called by the western writers, | Saleph and the Cydnus were the same river under Salahuddin by the Orientals, was no longer vizir | diferent names. or vcrroy of Egypt, when he undertook the siege of † See an ample and satisfactory account of thia Jerusalem, but had usurped the sovereign power in unhappy campaign in the Life of Frederic I. written that country, and had also added to his dominions, in German by Henry count Bunali, p. 278, 293, 309. hy right of conquest, several provinces of Syria. 03 | The learned anthors of the Modern Univer.
† Sce the Life of Saladin by Boban'ddin Ebn sal History affirm that Philip arrived in Palestine, Sheddad, an Arabian writer, whose history of that with a supply of men, money, &c. on board of six warlike sultan was published at Leyden in the year || ships, whereas Renaudot mentions 100 sail as em. 1732, by the late celebrated professor Albert Schul- || ployed in this expedition. The fleet of Richard con. tens, and accompanied with an excellent Latin sisted of 150 large ships, beside galleys, &c. translation. See also Herizelot, Biblioth. Orient. at $ More commonly known by the name of Joppa. the article Salah-a'ddin, p. 742, ard Marigny's His. | Daniel, Histoire de France, tome iij. p. 420.toire des Arabes, tome iv. p. 299.0 But, above Räpin Thoyras, Histoire d'Angleterre, tome i all, see ille learned History of the Arabians in the Regne de Richard Caur-de-Lion.-Marigny, His moderr part of the Universal History.
toire des Arabes, tome iv. p. 285.