« הקודםהמשך »
adhered to the decrees of the Nicene council; that Christ was tsposolos, cr avouecuos, i. e. un. and hence the Arian sect, a few churches ex- || like the Father, as well in his essence, as in cepted, suffered extirpation in the west. Va-other respects.* Under this general division, lene, on the other hand, favoured the Arians; many other subordinate sects were compreand his zeal for their cause exposed their ad- || hended, whose subtilties and refinements have versaries, the Nicenians, in the eastern pro-| not been clearly developed by the ancient vinces, to many severe trials and sufferings. I writers. The Arian cause suffered as much from These troubles, however, ended with one reign ji the discord and animosities that reigned among of this emperor,
who fell in a battle which was these sects, as from the laboured confutations fought against the Goths in the year 378, and and the zealous efforts of the orthodox parly, was succeeded by Gratian, a friend to the Nice
XVII. The Arian controversy produced nians, and the restorer of their tranquillity. His new sects, occasioned by the indiscreet lengths zeal for their interests, though fervent and ac- to which the contending parties pushed their tive, was surpassed by that of his successor, | respective opinions; and such, indeed, are too Theodosius the Great, who raised the secular generally the unhappy effects of disputes, in arm against the Arians, with a terrible degree which human passions have so large a part of violence; drove them from their churches; || Some, while they were careful in avoiding, and enacted laws, whose severity exposed them to | zealous in opposing, the sentiments of Arius, ran the greatest calamities;* and rendered, through-| headlong into systems of doctrine of an equalout his dominions, the decrees of the council | ly dangerous and pernicious nature. Others, triumphant over all opposition; so that the in defending the Arian notions, went farther public profession of the Arian doctrine was than their chief, and thus fell into errors much confined to the barbarous and unconquered na more extravagant than those which he maintions, such as the Burgundians, Goths, and tained. Thus does it generally happen in reVandals.
ligious controversies: the human mind, amidst During this long and violent contest be- its present imperfection and infirmity, and its tween the Nicenians and Arians, the attentive unhappy subjection to the empire of imaginaand impartial will acknowledge, that unjustifi- tion and the dictates of sense, rarely follows able measures were taken, and great excesses the middle way in the search of truth, or concommitted on both sides: so that when, ab- || templates spiritual and divine things with that stractedly from the merits of the cause, we accuracy and simplicity, that integrity and only consider with what temper, and by what moderation, which alone can guard against means the parties defended their respective erroneous extremes. opinions, it will be difficult to determine which Among those who fell into such extremca of the two exceeded most the bounds of pro- by their inconsiderate violence in opposing th: bity, charity, and moderation.
Arian system, Apollinaris the younger, bishop XVI. The efforts of the Arians to maintain of Laodicea, may be justly placed, though their cause, would have been much more pre- otherwise a man of distinguished merit, and judicial to the church than they were in effect, one whose learned labours had rendered to relihad not the members of that sect been divided | gion the most important services. He strenuamong themselves, and torn into factions, ously defended the divinity of Christ against which viewed each other with the bitterest | the Arians; but, by indulging himself too freely aversion. Of these the ancient writers make in philosophical distinctions and subtilties, he mention under the names of Semi-Arians, Eu-was carried so far as to deny, in soine measure, sebians, Aetians, Eunomians, Acacians, Psathy- | his humanity. He maintained, that the body rians, and others; but they may all be ranked which Christ assumed, was endowed with a with propriety in three classes. The first of sensitive, and not a rational, soul; and that the these were the primitive and genuine Arians, | Divine Nature performed the functions of reawho, rejecting all those forms and modes of ex- son, and supplied the place of what we call the pression which the moderns had invented to mind, the spiritual and intellectual principle in render their opinions less shocking to the man; and from this it seemed to follow, as a Nicenians, taught simply, “ That the Son was natural consequence, that the divine nature in not begotten of the Father (i. e. produced out Christ was blended with the human, and sufferof his substance,) but was only created out of | ed with it the pains of crucifixion and death nothing.” This class was opposed by the itself. This great man was led astray, not Semi-Arians, who, in their turn, were aban-only by his love of disputing, but also by an doned by the Eunomians, or Anomæans, the immoderate attachment to the Platonic docdisciples of Aetius and Eunomius, of whom trine, concerning the two-fold nature of the the latter was eminent for his knowledge and soul, which was too generally adopted by the penetration. The Semi-Arians held, that the divines of this age; and which, undoubtedly, Son was omedeci:5, i. e. similar to the Father in perverted their judgment in several respects, his essence, not by nature but by a peculiar privilege; and the leading men of this party * Sec Basnage's Dissert. de Eunomio, in the Lectiones were George of Laodicea and Basilius of An- | Antiquæ of Canisius, tom. i. where we find the confescyra.f The Eunomians, who were also called || Alb. Fabric. Bibliotheca Græc. vol. viii. and the Codex Aetians and Exucontians, and may be reckon- Theodos. tom. vi. ed in the number of pure Arians, maintained, O f However erroneous the hypothesis of Apollina
ris may have been, the consequences here drawn from it * See the Theodosian Code, tom. vi. p. 5, 10, 130, 146; | are not entirely just; for if it is true, that the human soul u also Godofred's annotations upon it.
does not, in any respect, suffer death by the dissolution + See Prud. Maran's Dissert. sur les Semi-Arians, pub- ll of the body, the same must hold good with respect to th lished in 'oigl's Biblioth. Hæresiolog. tom. ii.
See also Jo.
and led diem into erroneous and extravagant or ray (which he called the word) descended decisions on various subjects.
upon this extraordinary man; that, on account Other errors, beside that now mentioned, of the union of the divine word with his human are imputed to Apollinaris by certain ancient nature, Jesus was called the Son of God, and writers; but it is not easy to determine how far even God himself; and that the Holy Ghost they deserve credit upon that head.* Be that was not a distinct person, but a celestial virtue as it may, his doctrine was received by great proceeding from the Deity." The temerity of numbers in almost all the eastern provinces, this bold innovator was chastised, not only by though, by the different explications that were the orthodox in the councils of Antioch* and given of it, its votaries were subdivided into Milan, holden in the years 345 and 347, and in various sects. It did not, however, long main that of Sirmium, whose date is uncertain, but tain its ground; but, being attacked at the also by the Arians in one of their assemblies at same time by the laws of the emperors, the de- | Sirmium, convoked in 351. In consequence crees of councils, and the writings of the learn- of all this, Photinus was degraded from the ed, it sunk by degrees under their united force. episcopal dignity, and died in exile in 372.
XVIII. Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra, in Ga XX. After him arose Macedonius, bishop of latia, may be ranked in the same class with Constantinople, a very eminent Semi-Arian Apollinaris, if we are to give credit to Euse- doctor, who, through the influence of the Eubius of Cæsarea, and the rest of his adversa- nomians, was deposed by the council of Conries, who represent his explication of the doc- stantinople, in 360, and sent into exile, where trine of the Trinity as bordering upon the Sa-lhe formed the sect of the Macedonians, or bellian and Samosatenian errors. Many how- Pneumatomachians. In his exile, he declared ever are of opinion that this Eusebius, and with the utmost freedom those sentiments that bishop of Nicomedia who bore the same which he had formerly either concealed, or, at name, represented with partiality the senti- least, taught with much circumspection. He ments of Marcellus, on account of the bitter- considered the Holy Ghost as “a divine energy, ness and vehemence which he discovered in diffused throughout the universe, and not as a his opposition to the Arians, and their protec- person distinct from the Father and the Son.”I
But though it should be acknowledged, This opinion had many partisans in the Asiatic that, in some particulars, the accusations of his provinces; but the council assembled by Theoenemies carried an aspect of partiality and re- dosius, in 381, at Constantinople, (to which sentment, yet it is manisest that they were far the second rank, among the æcumenical or from being entirely groundless; for, if the doc- general councils, is commonly attributed,) put trine of Marcellus be attentively examined, it a stop by its authority to the growing evil, and will appear, that he considered the Son and the crushed this rising sect before it had arrived at Holy Ghost as two emanations from the Di-maturity. A hundred and fifty bishops, who vine Nature, which, after performing their re- || were present at this council, gave the finishing spective offices, were at length to return into touch to what the council of Nice had left imthe substance of the Father; and every one perfect, and fixed, in a full and determinate will perceive, at first sight, how incompatible manner, the doctrine of three persons in one this opinion is with the belief of three distinct | God, which is still received among the genePersons in the Godhead. Beside this, a parti- || rality of Christians. This venerable assembly cular circumstance, which augmented consider- did not stop here; they branded, with infamy, ably the aversion of many to Marcellus, and all the errors, and set a mark of execration strengthened the suspicion of his erring in a upon all the heresies, that were hitherto known; capital manner, was his obstinately refusing, they advanced the bishop of Constantinople, toward the conclusion of his life, to condemnon account of the eminence and extent of the the tenets of his disciple Photinus.t
city in which he resided, to the first rank after XIX. Photinus, bishop of Sirmium, may, the Roman pontiff, and determined several with propriety, be placed at the head of those other points, which they looked upon as essenwhom the Arian controversy was the occasion tial to the well-being of the church in general. of seducing into the most extravagant errors. XXI. The phrensy of the ancient Gnostics, This prelate published, in the year 343, his which had been so often vanquished, and in apopinions concerning the Deity, which were | pearance removed, by the various remedies that equally repugnant to the orthodox and Arian had been used for that purpose, broke out anew systems. His notions, which have been ob- in Spain. It was transported thither, in the scurely, and indeed sometimes inconsistently beginning of this century, by a certain person represented by the ancient writers, amount to named Marc, of Memphis in Egypt, whose con this, when attentively examined: "That Jesus verts at first were not very numerous. They Christ was born of the Holy Ghost and the increased, however, in process of time, and Virgin Mary; that a certain divine emanation,
* According to Dr. Lardner's account, this council of * See Basnage's Historia Hæres. A pollin., published || Antioch, in 375, was holden by the Arians, or Eusebians ! ;; Voigt in his Bibliotheca Hæresiologica, tom. i. lascic. and not by the orthodox, as our author affirms. See 1. p. 1–96, and improved by some learned and important || Lardner's Credibility, &c. vol. ix. p. 13; see also Athanas. additions. See also tom. i. fascic. iii. and p. 607*of the de Synod. N. vi. vii. compared with Socrat. -10. l'. cap. latter work. The laws, enacted against the followers | xviii. xix. of Apollinaris, are extant in the Theodosian Code, tom. Or in 375, as is concluded from Jerome's jorua.c.e. vi. See an account of Apollinaris, and his heresy, in the -Mati. Larroque, de Photino, et ejus multinlini con English edition of Bayle's Dictionary.
demnatione.-Thom. Ittigius, Historia Photiin, in ap. x See Montfaucon's Diatriba de' Causa Marcelli in librum de Hæresiarchis Ævi Apostolici. Nora Collectione Patrum Græcoruin, tom. II. p. 51; as Socrat. Hist. Eccles. lib. iv. cap. iv. solco Gerraise, Vi: de S. Epiphane, p. 42.
Socrat. lib. v. cap. viii. Sozomen, lib. vii. tap. rij.
counted in their number several persons highly ence between their ductrine, and that of the eminent for their learning and piety. Among Manicheans, was not very considerable. For others, Priscillian, a layman, distinguished by they denied the reality of Christ's birth and his birth, fortune and eloquence, and after- ! incarnation; maintained, that the visible uniwards bishop of Abila, was infected with this verse was not the production of the Supreme odious doctrine, and became its most zealous Deity, but of some dæmon, or malignant prinand ardent defender. Hence he was accused ciple; adopted the doctrine of æons, or emana by several bishops, and, by a rescript obtained || tions from the divine nature; conside red human frorn the emperor Gratian, he was banished bodies as prisons formed by the author of evil, with his followers from Spain;* but he was re to enslave celestial minds; condemned marstored, some time after, by an edict of the same riage, and disbelieved the resurrection of the prince, to his country and his functions. His body.” Their rules of life and manners were sufferings did not end here; for he was accused | rigid and severe; and the accounts which many a second time, in 384,+ before Maximus, who have given of their lasciviousness and intemhad procured the assassination of Gratian, and perance deserve not the least credit, as they are made himself master of Gaul; and, by the or- totally destitute of evidence and authority der of that prince, he was put to death at Tre- | That the Priscillianists were guilty of dissimu ves with some of his associates. The agents, | lation upon some occasions, and deceived their however, by whose barbarous zeal this sentence adversaries by cunning stratagems, is true; but was obtained, were justly regarded with the ut- that they held it as a maxim, that lying and most abhorrence by the bishops of Gaul and perjury were lawful, is a most notorious falseItaly;| for Christians had not yet learned, that hood, without even the least shadow of proba. giving over heretics to be punished by the ma- bility,* however commonly this odious doctrine gistrates, was either an act of piety or justice.ş has been laid to their charge. In the heat of (No: this abominable doctrine was reserved controversy, the eye of passion and of preju for those times, when religion was to become dice is too apt to confound the principles and an instrument of despotism, or a pretext for opinions of men with their practice. the exercise of pride, malevolence, and ven
XXIII. To what we have here said concerngeance.)
ing those sects which made a noise in the world, The death of Priscillian was less pernicious it will not be improper to add some account of to the progress of his opinions, than might na- | those of a less considerable kind. turally have been expected. His doctrine not Audæus, a man of remarkable virtue, being only survived him, but was propagated through excommunicated in Syria, on account of the the greatest part of Spain and Gaul; and even freedom and importunity with which he censo far down as the sixth century, the followers | sured the corrupt and licentions manners of of this unhappy man gave much trouble to the the clergy, formed an assembly of those who bishops and clergy in those provinces.
were attached to him, and became, by his own XXII. No ancient writer has given an accu- appointment, their bishop. Banished into rate account of the doctrine of the Priscil-Scythia by the emperor, he went among the lianists. Many authors, on the contrary, by Goths, where his sect flourished, and augmenttheir injudicious representations of it, have ed considerably. The ancient writers are not highly disfigured it, and added new degrees of agreed about the time in which we are to date obscurity to a system which was before suffi-| the origin of this sect. With respect to its reciently dark and perplexed. It appears, how- | ligious institutions, we know that they differed ever, from authentic records, that the differ- in some points from those observed by other
Christians; and, particularly, that the followers O * This banishment was the effect of a sentence
of Audæus celebrated Easter, or the Paschal pronounced against Priscillian, and soine of his followers, feast, with the Jews, in repugnance to the exby a syuod convened at Saragossa in 380; in consequence press decree of the council of Nice. With reof which, Idacius and Ithacius, two cruel and persecuting | spect to their doctrine, several errors have been mentioned. See Sulpit. Sever. Hist. Sacr. lib. ii. cap. imputed to them,t and this, among others, that xlvii.
they attributed to the Deity a human form. 16 f Upon the deaih of Gratian, who had favoured XXIV. The Grecian and Oriental writers Priscillian toward the latter end of his reign, Ithacius place, in this century, the rise of the sect of This prince appointed a council to be holden at Bour- the Messalians, or Euchites, whose doctrine dcaux, from which Priscillian appealed to the prince and discipline were, indeed, much more anhiinself. Sulp. Sever. lib. ii. cap.
287. OG I It may be interesting to the reader to hear the character of the first person that introduced civil per * See Simon de Vries, Dissert. Critica de Priscilliansécution into the Christian church. “ He was a inanistis, printed at Utrecht, in !745. The only defect in abandoned to the most corrupt indolence, and without the this dissertation is the implicit manner in which the least tincture of true piety. He was talkative, audacious, | author follows Beausobre's History of the Manicheans, impudent, luxurious, and a slave to his belly. He ac- taking every thing for granted, which is affirmed in that cused as heretics, and as protectors of Príscillian, all work. See also Franc. Girvesii Historia Priscillianista. those whose lives were consecrated to the pursuit of rum Chronologica, published at Rome in 1750. We find, picty and knowledge, or distinguished by acts of mortifi moreover, in ine twenty-seventh voluine of the Opuscula cation and abstinence,” &c. Such is the character Scientifica of Angelus Calogera, a treatise entitled Bachiwhich Sulpitius Severus, who had an extreme aversion arius Illustratus, seu de Priscilliana Hæresi Dissertatio; to the sentiments of Priscillian, gives us of Ithacius, but this dissertation seems rather intended to clear up bishop of Sossuba, by whose means he was put to death. the affair of Bachiarius, than to give a full account of thi
See Sulp. Sever. Hist. Sacr. edit. Leips. 1709, where Priscillianists and their doctrine. Martin, the truly apostolical bishop of Tours, says to | Epiphanius, Hæres. lxx. p. 811.-Augustin. de Maxinus,
norum esse et inauditum nefas ut causam Hæres. cap. I. Theodoret. Fabul. Hæret. lib. iv. cap. ecclesiæ judex seculi judicaret.” Sce also Dial. iii. deix.-J. Joach. Schroder, Dissertat. de Audæanıs, pubvita Martini, cap. xi. p. 495.
il lished in Voigt's Bibliotheca Historiæ læresiolog. rom. i Vol. I.-17
cient, and subsisted, even before the birth of by contemplation and prayer. The externa. Christ, in Syria, Egypt, and other eastern air of piety and devotion, which accompanies countries, but who do not seem to have been this sect, imposed upon many, while the Greeks. formed into a religious body before the latter on the other hand, opposed it with vehemence part of the century of which we now write. in all succeeding ages. These fanatics, who lived after the monkish It is proper to observe here, that the title of fashion, and withdrew from all commerce and Massalians or Euchites had a very extensive society with their fellow creatures, seem to application among the Greeks and the Orienhave derived their name from their habit of tals, for they gave it to all those who endea continual prayer. * They imagined that the voured to raise the soul to God by recalling mind of every man was inhabited by an evil and withdrawing it from terrestrial and sensidæmon, whom it was impossible to expel by ble objects, however these enthusiasts might any other means than by constant prayer and differ from each other in their opinions upon singing of hymns; and that, when this malig- other subjects. nant spirit was cast out, the pure mind return XXV. Toward the conclusion of this centued to God, and was again united to the divine ry, two opposite sects involved Arabia and the essence from which it had been separated.” adjacent countries in the troubles and tumults To this leading tenet they added many other of a new controversy. These jarring factions enormous opinions, which bear a manifest re-went by the names of Antidico-Marianites and semblance to the Manichean doctrine, and are Collyridians. The former maintained, that the evidently drawn from the same source whence Virgin Mary did not always preserve her immathe Manicheans derived their errors, even from culate state, but received the embraces of her the tenets of the Oriental philosophy. * In a husband Joseph after the birth of Christ. The word, the Euchites were a sort of Mystics, who latter, on the contrary, (who were singularly imagined, according to the Oriental notion, favoured by the female sex,) running into the that two souls resided in man, the one good, opposite extreme, worshipped the Blessed Virand the other evil; and who were zealous in gin as a goddess, and judged it necessary to hastening the return of the good spirit to God, appease her anger, and seek her favour and pro
tection, by libations, sacrifices, oblations of * Epiphanius, Hæres. lxxx. p. 1067.—Theodoret. cakes (collyridæ,) and the like services. ** Hæret. Fabul. lib. iv. cap. x. p. 672.-Timotheus, Pres Other sects might be inentioned here; but byter, de receptione Hæreticor. published in the third they are too obscure and inconsiderable to do volume of Cotelerius' Monumenta Eccles. Græcæ.lac. To!lii Insignia Itineris Italici, p. 110.- Asse.nani !! serve notice. Bibliotheca Orientalis Vaticana, tom. i. et ii.
* See Epiphan. Hæres. Ixxviii. lxxix
TIE FIFTH CENTURY.
THE EXTERNAL HISTORY OF THE CHURCH.
they ruled with an absolute inde pendence, in Concerning the Prosperous Events that happened, particularly from the dominion exercised by
their respective governments; and, as appears to the Church.
Theodoric in Italy, they left nothing to the I. In order to arrive at a true knowledge of eastern emperors but a mere shadow of power the causes to which we are to attribute the out- and authority.* ward state of the church, and the events which II. These constant wars, and the inexpressihappened to it during the fifth century, we ble calamities with which they were attended, must keep in view the civil history of this pe- were undoubtedly detrimental to the cause and riod. It is, therefore, proper to observe, that, progress of Christianity. It must, however, in the beginning of this century, the Roman be acknowledged that the Christian emperors, empire was divided into two sovereignties; one especially those who ruled in the east, were acof which comprehended the eastern provinces, tive and assiduous in extirpating the remains the other those of the west. Arcadius, the em- of the ancient superstitions. Theodosius the peror of the east, reigned at Constantinople; | younger, distinguished himself in this pious and Honorius, who governed the western pro- and noble work, and many remarkable monuvinces, chose Ravenna for the place of his re- ments of his zeal are still preserved;t such as sidence. The latter prince, remarkable only the laws which enjoined either the destruction for the sweetness of his temper and the good of the heathen temples, or the dedication of ness of his heart, neglected the great affairs of them to Christ and his saints; the edicts, by the empire; and, inattentive to the weighty which he abrogated the sacrilegious rites and duties of his station, held the reins of govern- ceremonies of Paganism, and removed from all ment with an unsteady hand. The Goths, offices and employments in the state such as taking advantage of this criminal indolence, persisted in their attachment to the absurdities made incursions into Italy, laid waste its fair- of Polytheism. est provinces, and sometimes carried their de This spirit of reformation appeared with less solations as far as Rome, which they ravaged | vigour in the western empire. There the feasts and plundered in the most dreadful manner. of Saturn and Pan, the combats of the gladiaThese calamities, which fell upon the western tors, and other rites that were instituted in part of the empire from the Gothic depreda- || honour of the pagan deities, were celebrated tions, were followed by others still more dread- || with the utmost freedom and impunity; and ful under the succeeding emperors. A fierce persons of the highest rank and authority puband warlike people, issuing from Germany, licly professed the religion of their idolatrous overspread Italy, Gaul, and Spain, the noblest | ancestors
. This liberty was, however, from of all the European provinces, and erected new time to time, reduced within narrower limits; kingdoms in these fertile countries; and Odoa- and all those public sports and festivals, which cer, at last, at the head of the Heruli, having were more peculiarly incompatible with the conquered Augustulus, in 476, gave the mor- genius and sanctity of the Christian religion, tal blow to the western empire, and reduced all were every where abolished. Italy under his dominion. About sixteen years
III. The limits of the church continued to after this, Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, extend themselves, and gained ground daily made war upon these barbarian invaders, at the upon the idolatrous nations, both in the eastern request of Zeno, emperor of the east; con- and western empires. In the east, the inhabiquered Odoacer in several battles; and obtained, as the fruit of his victories, a kingdom for p. 280.-Muratori, Antiq. Ital. tom. ii. p. 578, 832.
* Car. du Fresne, Dissert. xxiii. ad Histor. Ludovici 8. the Ostrogoths in Italy, which subsisted under Giannone, Historia di Napoli, tom. i. p. 207. --Vita various turns of fortune from the year 433 to Theodorici Ostrogothorum Regis, a Johanne Cochlæo, 052.*
printed in 1699, with the observations of Peringskiold.
+ See the Theodosian code, tom. vi. These new monarchs of the west pretended See the Saturnalia of Macrobius, lib. i.-Scipio to acknowledge the supremacy of the empe- || Maffei delli Anfiteatri, lib. i. p. 56.-Pierre le Brun, Hist
. rors who resided at Constantinople, and gave above all, Montfaucon's Diss. de Moribus Tempore come faint external marks of a disposition to
Theodosii M. et Arcadii, which is to be found in Latin, reign in subordination to them; but, in reality, in the eleventh volume of the works of St. Chrysostom,
and in French, in the twentieth volume of the Memoires de * See, for a fuller illustration of this branch of history, I l'Academie des Inscriptions et des Belles Lettres, p. 197. the learned work of M. de Bos, entitled, Histoire Criti ♡ Anastasius prohibited, toward the conclusion of this que de la Monarchie Francoise, tom. i. p. 258• as also century, the combats with the wild beasts, and other Mascow's History of the Germans.
Il shows. Aseeman. Biblioth. Orient. Vatit. tom. I. p. 246