« הקודםהמשך »
Fr. nasal m or n, as in embonpoint,
(prime), " (secondary) accents, to indicate
ittle Women, a popular story for chil- stereoscopic views, wooden ware, and fur
dren by Louisa M. Alcott (q.v.), pub- niture. It has a good public library; the buildlished in 1868.
ing is a gift from Andrew Carnegie. The gov
ernment of the town is administered by means it'tlehales, George Washington, Amer- of the annual town meeting. Pop. (1910)
can hydrographic engineer: b. Schuyl- 4,069. kill County, Pa., 14 Oct. 1860. He was gradu
Littoral Deposits. See SANDSTONE, ated from the United States Naval Academy in 1883. He is an associate editor of the Inter
Littré, Maximilien Paul Emile, mäk-sinational Journal of Terrestrial Magnetism,
mil-i-ji pol a-mel le-trã, French philosopher: and has published, The Development of Great
b. Paris i Feb. 1801; d. there 2 June 1881. After Circle Sailing'; "The Methods and Results of
completing his course at school his study of . the Survey of Lower California'; The Mag- medicine was interrupted by the death of his netic Dip or Inclination) ; (The Azimuths of
father. He then engaged in teaching for a liveCelestial Bodies'; and other works, all pub- lihood, took an active part in the revolution of lished by the United States Navy Department.
1830, and soon after was invited by Armand
Carrel, editor of the National,? to write for Lit'tlejohn, Abram Newkirk, American that paper. In 1839 he published the first volProtestant Episcopal bishop: b. Florida, Mont- ume of an edition of Hippocrates in the origigomery County, N. Y., 13 Dec. 1824; d. Wil
nal, with a French translation and copious liamstown, Mass., 3 Aug. 1901. He was grad- notes. This work, in 10 volumes, secured his uated at Union College in 1845 and took orders admission to the Académie des Inscriptions et in the Episcopal Church in 1850. He was rec- Belles-Lettres. He translated Strauss's (Leben tor of St. Paul's, New Haven, Conn., 1851-60, Jesu,” and having adopted Comtist principles, and of Holy Trinity Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
wrote an able and lucid synopsis of them in 1860–9. He was made bishop of Long Island his De la Philosophie Positive (1845). In in 1869, and from 1874 was in charge of Ameri
1854 he was appointed editor of the Journal can Episcopal churches on the continent of Eu- dis Savants) and in 1863 commenced the publirope. He wrote Philosophy of Religion”; “The
cation of his great work, the Dictionnaire de Christian Ministry'; etc.
la Langue française, which has been called Littlejohn, John Martin, American physi- the best dictionary of any living language yet ologist and osteopathist: b. Glasgow, Scotland, published. This was finished in 1873, two 1867. He was graduated from the University of years previous to which Littré had been adGlasgow, afterward studied theology and was
mitted into the Académie Française. Another ordained in 1886. He was a tutor in Glasgow important work of his was an edition of University, principal of Rosemont College 1890, Pliny's Natural History) with a translation of Amity College, Iowa, 1894-7, and has been and notes. During the siege of Paris he represident of the board of trustees of the Amer
tired with his family to Bordeaux, and was ican School of Osteopathy, Kirksville, Mo., appointed professor of history and geography from 1900, and professor there from 1897. He in the polytechnic school there. He was afterhas published 'The Political Theory of the
ward summoned to Versailles to take his seat Schoolmen and Grotius? (1894); (Text-Book in the senate, having been chosen by the departon Physiology) (1898); "Lectures on Psycho- ment of the Seine. He became a life Senator Pathology (1900).
in 1874. Among Littre's other works are 'Ap
plication de la Philosophie Positive Littleton, or Lyttleton, Sir Thomas, Eng. Gouvernement des Sociétés) (1849); «Conserlish jurist : b. Frankley, Worcestershire, 1402; vation, Révolution et Positivisme (1852); d. there 23 Aug. 1481. He was a student at the Paroles de Philosophie Positive) (1859); Inner Temple, sheriff in 1447, recorder of (Historie de la Langue française (1862); Coventry in 1450, and in 1453 was made ser- Auguste Comte et la Philosophie Positive geant-at-law. After holding several legal ap- (1863); Etudes sur les Barbares et le Moyen pointments he became justice of the common
Age (1867); Médecine et Médecins? (1871); pleas in 1466. His treatise on (Tenures,' with
and Littérature et Histoire) (1875). the well-known commentary by Sir Edward Coke, was long the standard authority on the
Lit'trow, Joseph Johann von, Austrian
astronomer: b. English law of real property. It was written in
Bischof-Teinitz, Bohemia, 13
March 1781; d. Vienna 30 Nov. 1840. In 1807 legal French, and first published at London
he obtained the chair of astronomy in the Uniabout 1480. There are many subsequent editions.
versity of Cracow, and in 1810 accepted a sim
ilar chair in Kasan, where he founded the obLittleton, N. H., town, in Grafton County, servatory. He became in 1816 joint director of on the Ammonoosuc River, and on the Boston the observatory of Buda, and from this he re& Maine railroad, When it was first settled in moved in 1819 to become director of the ob1770, it was called Apthrop. When it was in- servatory of Vienna. He completely recorporated, in 1784, the name was changed to organized this establishment, and in Littleton. It is in a section of the State noted his lectures yearly attracted for its beautiful scenery and cool summer cli- audience, not only of ordinary students, mate. The river furnishes considerable water- but of unprofessional persons, power; and the town has several manufactories. them strangers from abroad. His writings, Its chief manufactures are shoes, gloves, chiefly on mathematical and astronomical subwagons and carriages, whetstones, bobbins, jects, are nụmerous, and have generally had
LITTROW - LIUDPRAND
a very extensive circulation. By far the most has a memento of the living before the Pater popular of all is his Die Wunder des Himmels, Noster. of which the 8th edition was published (1895-7). (5) Gallican Liturgy. In this the intercesIt ranks as one of the best works of astronomy sion is divided, that of the living is before confor the use of general readers.
secration, and that of the dead after consecraLittrow, Karl von, Austrian astronomer:
tion. b. Kasan, Russia, 18 July 1811; d. Venice 16
That part of the "Liturgy of the Mass Nov 1877. He was a son of Johann Littrow called the “Canon” is very ancient, and existed (q.v.), whom he assisted in the Vienna Observa- about as at present since the time of the Apostory from 1831, and succeeding him as director tles (see Mass; Missal). The liturgy of the in 1842. He edited the works of his father, Church of England is derived from the Ephesine adding considerably to Die Wunder des Him- original through the ancient Gallican liturgy mels, and was the author of Populäre Geome- which was brought to France by Greek missiontrie) (1839); Verzeichnis der geographischen aries, who were accustomed to use the form Ortsbestimmungen (1844-6).
known as the liturgy of Saint John. There is
no invocation of the Holy Spirit in the present Liturgy (Greek Lectoupyia means a public English form, although the Protestant Episcopal service; used at Athens to mean a public ser- Church has restored the invocation, like the vice which the richer citizens discharged at their Scottish Episcopal Church. There is, however, own expense). The Septuagint translators used
no ritual element wanting in these two English the Greek word leitourgos for that service of forms whether they be compared with the Greek God in the Sanctuary. In the Hebrew it had or Latin liturgies. The liturgy in use in the various kindred meanings; in the Old Testa- Protestant Episcopal Church more nearly rement it usually denotes the service of a Jewish sembles the "Gallican liturgy than any other priest, but in the New Testament it is used of group, but in some respects there is a difference any service rendered to God. In the 4th cen
in arrangement, and also in meaning. There is tury, the word as applied to priestly ministra- no intercession for the dead, and the intercestions was generally recognized; and while it sion for the living comes before the Communion. continued in use as meaning any solemn ser- Bibliography.-Tertullian,
Corona'; vice, it was applied especially to the Eucharistic Cyprian, "Epistle) ; Report of Council in Trulservice. It is in this sense that the word is 1o Probst, Liturgie der drei ersten Jahrhunused by the Greek Church when they say derte, who claims that there was a written "Divine liturgy.”
liturgy before 150; Hammond, Ancient LiturThe records extant which show the exact gies); Smith and Cheetum, Liturgies'; Rock, liturgy of the Christian Church in the ist cen- (The Church of Our Fathers, as Seen in Saint tury are more the allusions found in documents Osmond's Rite for the Cathedral of Salisbury) of the ad century. From the year 150 there (1904); De Herdt, “Sacra Liturgia? (3 vols.). are numerous proofs to show the existence of a fixed order and fixed words for the service of Lit'uus, (1) a crooked staff, represented in the mass or for the Eucharistic service. This works of art as borne by the ancient Roman service or liturgy was not made just when men- augurs in their divinations. It was like a tioned by Cyprian, and in 138 by Justin, and crozier in shape. (2) A trumpet, having a many others who committed to writing the or- mouth which curved upward, and which was der of the services or the liturgy. But there is used by the Roman priests, and cavalry.
(3) not sufficient proof to warrant the assertion that In geometry, a spiral, of which the characterthere was any entire written liturgy before the istic property is that the square of any two radii 4th century. As the liturgies exist to-day vectores are reciprocally proportional to the they may be divided into five groups or families angles which they respectively make with a cerof liturgies, distinguished from each other tain line given in position, and which is an chiefly, though not entirely, by the different ar- asymptote to the spiral. rangement of their parts. Three of the groups
Liudger, li-ood'ger, Saint, the first bishop are Oriental and two are Western. They are: of Münster, Germany: b. Friesland about 744; (1) The West Syrian Group, which includes the d. Billerbeck 26 March 809. He studied in Liturgies of Saint James, Saint Basil, Saint England under Alcuin, and returned to preach Chrysostom, and that of Armenia. In this Christianity to his countrymen. When Witgroup the intercession for the living and the tekind was sent to Friesland in 784, Liudger dead is placed after the invocation of the Holy abandoned his mission and went to Rome. SubSpirit, which in Oriental liturgies follows the sequently he returned to become the first bishop consecration. (2) The Alexandrian Group, which includes collected in the Geschichtsquellen des Bistums
of Münster. The various Vita S. Liudigeri are three Greek liturgies ; Saint Mark, Saint Basil, Münster)" (Diekamp 1881). Consult also the and Saint Gregory, also the Coptic liturgies. Lives by Hüsing (1878); Pingsmann (1879); This group is characterized by the "Great Inter; and Krimphove (1886). cession” for the living and the dead being placed in the midst of the Preface.
Liudprand, li-ood'prănd, Liutprand, or (3) The East Syrian Group includes the Liuzo, Italian historian: b. about 922; d. 972. liturgies in the Syriac language as used by those He was of a noble Lombard lineage. His father, who belong to the Roman Catholic Church. In who was King Hugo's ambassador to Constantithis group the "general intercession” is placed nople, dying when the son was not more than between the words of institution and the invo- five years old, young Liudprand was educated as cation of the Holy Spirit.
a page in King Hugo's court in Pavia, and later (4) The Liturgies of Gaul and Spain. In entered the Church. Hugo's successor, Berenthis group the "Great Intercession” comes just garius, made him chancellor, and in 949 sent after the offertory, though the Mozarabic liturgy him on an important diplomatic mission to Con.
stantinople. Soon afterward he joined himself Liveing, George Downing, English chemto the Emperor Otho I., who, in 962, made him ist and surgeon: b. Nayland, Suffolk, 21 Dec. bishop of Cremona, and in 968 sent him on an 1827. He was graduated at St. John's Colimportant but unsuccessful mission to the court lege, Cambridge, in 1850, and in 1853 he became of the Eastern Church, which called forth his a fellow and lecturer in natural science in that bitter De Legatione Constantinopolitana. His college. He was appointed professor of chem(Antapodosis covering the period from 886-950. istry at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and De Rebus Gestis Ottonis Magni impera- in 1860; and in 1861 professor of chemistry in toris,' from 960 to 964, are important sources of the University of Cambridge. In 1852 he estab10th century history. They are all found in the lished at his own expense the first chemical Monumenta Germaniæ Historica.
laboratory for undergraduates in Cambridge, and Liu-kiu, le-oo'kė-oo', or Loo-choo Islands, may be said to be the founder of the system of Japan, a chain of 37 islands, mostly small, form- experimental teaching that is now such a proming an integral part of the empire, and extending inent feature of that university. He was instruirregularly in a southwestern direction between mental in securing the examination and inspecKiu-shiu and Formosa. The islands were con- tion by the university of secondary schools, and quered by the Prince of Satsuma in 1609. They the admission of girls' schools to the examinaconstitute the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa, tions. He also took an active part in the estabwith an area of 1,863 square miles; pop. 160,000. lishment in 1873 of the Oxford and Cambridge Oshima and Okinawa are the only islands of Schools Examination Board, and in 1875 of the considerable size. Capital, Shiuri in Okinawa. medical examinations for the Diploma of PubSee JAPAN.
lic Health. He promoted the establishment of Liu-Kun-Yi, Chinese statesman: b. Hunan the School of Agricultural Science at Camabout 1820; d. Nanking 6 Oct. 1902. He re- bridge. He has published: On the Transmuceived a military education, and though not a
tation of Matter (Cambridge Essays, ist series, scholar held high official positions. In 1861 he 1855);- Ultra-Violet Spectra of the Elements commanded one of the armies raised to oppose
(with Prof. Dewar, (Transactions of the Royal the Taiping rebels, and defeated them by a series Society, 1883); Chemical Equilibrium the Reof successful maneuvers. At the time of the sult of the Dissipation of Energy) (1885); ReBoxer outbreak he was viceroy of Nanking, the port on the University Colleges) (with Mr. so-called “southern capital» of China, and in Warren, 1897); and many papers on spectrosspite of the vigorous anti-foreign agitation in his copy, crystallization, etc., in the Proceedings own province and the hostile attitude of the Im- of the Royal Society, the “Proceedings of the perial Government at Peking, he refused to join
Cambridge Philosophical Society, and the the anti-foreign movement, and used his foreign
Philosophical Magazine.? drilled troops to suppress all Boxer demonstra- Live Oak, a species of evergreen oak found tions. In this he was supported by the viceroy growing in various parts of the United States, of Wuchang, and tliese two viceroys prevented Central America, and Cuba. See Oak. the spread of the Boxer movement to the valley Live Stock, American. The animals which of the Yang-tse-Kiang, and were consequently emigrants brought from Europe and the British influential in protecting Chinese interests in the Isles gave America a mixed aggregation of traits subsequent peace negotiations.
and types, from which came our native cattle, Liutprand, Italian historian. See LIUD- our wild horses, and the common hog and sheep. PRAND.
From these the pioneers bred; their descendants, Liutprant, li-oot'prănt, or Liutprand, king in turn, improving these breeds by importation of the Lombards (q.v.) from 712 to 744, the and selection, aided by a temperate climate, period of their greatest power: b. about' 688. fertile soil, rich herbage and grasses and grains He was an active and popular prince. He
such as no other country had ever furnished for
captured Ravenna in 728, defeated the dukes of the foundation and development of domestic Spoleto and Beneventum in 741, joined with animals. The result has been to give to the Charles Martel against the Arabs, and extended United States in one century the highest type the Lombard sway over practically the whole of and greatest number of high-grade and pureItaly. His death marked the beginning of the bred animals of any nation on the earth. downfall of the kingdom. His laws are codified
From 4,336,719 in 1850 the number of horses in the Edicta Liutprandi.
in the Union" had increased to 21,203,901 in Livadia, liv-ä-dē’ä, or Lebadea, Greece, a
1900, a ratio of more than one horse to every town. on the Hercyna, 52 miles northwest of States, from 45,610, valued at $3,726,534 in 1884,
family. The imports of horses into the United Athens. It is defended by a castle; and has had decreased to "3,785, valued at $985,738 in manufactures of cotton goods, and a trade in 1901, while the export of horses in 1884, 2,721, small articles of raw produce. Pop. 6,500. Higher up the river, in a narrow gorge, is the valued at $424.317, had increased in 1901 to site of the ancient Hieron, or cave of Trophon- the imported horses are for breeding purposes.
99,809, valued at $10,037,204. The majority of ius, and the fountains of Lethe and Mnemosyne. During the last quarter of the 19th century the Livadia, a
Russian imperial residence rapid increase of the lower grade of horses from near Yalta, on the southern coast of the Crimea, the ranches of the West and Southwest had Russia. It is an extensive and beautiful estate, lowered the price of farm and common draft or with two fine palaces and many less important street horses, and the market was further deprevillas and lodges. It was the favorite residence ciated by the rapid displacement of horses in of Alexander III., who died there i Nov. 1894. street car service by the various electric street
Live-for-ever, or Garden Orpine, a small railroad systems. New avenues for disposal of cultivated stonecrop, Sedum telephium. See the surplus had to be opened, and as even the STONECROP.
price of cured horse meat for shipment to BelI, LIVE STOCK.
gium and Germany fell as low as six cents per River, all brought cattle from the countries nearpound, many thousands of inferior animals, un- est the ports from which they sailed. The cattle employed and disabled horses, found their way of Normandy came in with the French around to fertilizer factories. These factories buy cast- Quebec, and the Spanish cattle from South off horses as low as $2 per head; the hide is America and Mexico made their impress on the worth, on an average, $3.25, the bones $1.25, Southwest, as seen in what are now called Texas the fat and tankage about as much more; and cattle. The shorthorns have been more used, with the resultant fertilizer yields handsome perhaps, than any other beef breed for improveprofits. The result of the wholesale destruction ment of stock; and the early settlers were more and diminution of these inferior animals has interested in developing cattle that could concenbeen a rapid improvement, still progressing, in trate the wealth of grass and corn of the fertile the quality of the American horse. See various valleys into beef than into butter and cheese. articles under title Horse for information re- Soon after the Revolutionary War a few garding that animal.
shorthorn cattle had been imported into Virginia. In the west and south the mule, as a draft They were well fleshed, and the cows gave as and farm animal, has long been of great service. much as 32 quarts of milk a day. In 1783, Gen. Washington was America's first success- Matthew Patton, Sr., of the South Fork of the ful breeder of mules. The king of Spain pre- Potomac, imported a longhorn bull. In 1785 sented Washington with a jack from his roya thrce of Patton's sons moved to Kentucky, taking stud in 1787. Gen. Lafayette also presented him with them some of the half-bred heifers. In with one, which sired Washington's favorite 1795 they sent back to Virginia and Maryland jack, Compound. To him he bred his best coach for cattle known as milk cattle. In 1803 the mares, and produced such valuable animals that Pattons brought out the milk bull” Pluto 825, the southern planters began to use their thor- a noted breeder. Descendants of this bull and oughbred mares for raising mules. The mule another named Mars, and a cow, Venus, found being more steady at a draft, less liable to in- their way into the Virginia Reservation of Ohio, jury or disease, less subject to lameness, and and laid the foundation for future improvement being able to endue heat and hardship better of cattle in the West. In 1817, Lewis Sanders, than the horse, his price for heavy work has of Lexington, Ky., imported three bulls and three kept as high as that of draft horses. The num- heifers from England, which were of so good a ber of mules in the United States increased from quality that they laid the foundation of many 3,438,523 in 1900 to 4,123,000 in 1910. There is excellent herds. In 1818, Cornelius Coolidge, of no import trade in mules, the trade being wholly Boston, Mass., imported a heifer and a bull. domestic and export. From 1,965, valued at About 1820 several public-spirited men in the $238,591, were exported in 1891; in 1900, 50,179, neighborhood of Boston brought out at different valued at $4.757,892; in 1916, 4,512, valued at times a number of valuable animals, whose de$614,094. The large exports of horses and mules scendants are still numerous in New England. in 1900-1901 was in great part due to the de- In 1823, General Stephen Van Rensselaer, of mand for war purposes in South Africa. In Albany, N. Y., imported the bull Washington 1902 the export of horses was 60,694, value $6,- and two heifers. In 1824, Colonel John Hare 086,012; in 1910, 28,910, valued at $4,081,157. Powell, of Philadelphia, began to import short
In American cattle, not only good health but horns, and bred largely at his estate near the good blood is remarkable; the immense herds city, selling them to go into Ohio and Kentacky. have been singularly free from the diseases The first drove of fat cattle from the fertile which from time to time have swept off the cat- Scioto country and the Virginia Reservation tle of middle and southern Europe. Pleuro- crossed the Alleghanies in the spring of 1805. pneumonia and anthrax entered our shores with Of the 68 head, 22 were disposed of at Morefield, imported cattle from lands where such diseases Va. The remainder were driven on to Baltimore have a hold, but these plagues spread over no where they were sold at a net profit of $31.77 great extent of country, Under the efficient per head. The problem of getting cattle from organization of the U. S. Bureau of Animal In- the grazing lands of the West to the Eastern dustry, outbreaks of any contagion speedily dis- markets was solved, and its effects were as great appeared; and every cargo of cattle leaving as those of the successful shipment later of the our ports carries with it a clean bill of health. first cargo of fat cattle to England, or the first Fresh importations are continually being made, efforts of Swift & Company, in sending dressed and in our herds is the blood of the choicest of beef from Chicago to New England. The Virginthe Devon, the shorthorn, the longhorn, the ians of Ohio and Kentucky co-operated in the Hereford, the Sussex, and the Norfolk of Eng- exchange and improvement of their best cattle. land; the Ayrshires, Angus, and Galloway of Not content with the slow improvement of catScotland; the Kerrys of Ireland; the Alderney, tle, various Ohio breeders under_the lead of Guernsey, and Jersey of the Channel Islands, ex-Governor Duncan McArthur, Felix Renick, and the Holstein from Holland.
George Renick, William Renick, and S. S, DenThe first English colonial settlement on the ney, resolved to try the experiment of direct James River, brought cattle from England as importation from Great Britain, and formed a early as 1607. Succeeding colonies brought company 2 November 1833, with ample capital cattle from the countries whence they emi- and unlimited public spirit, as no subscriber exgrated. In 1625. the settlers of New York pected any profit on the money invested. Mr. made an importation from Holland, which was Felix Renick, E. J. Harness, and Josiah Renick followed by further importations, each leaving were sent to England to buy the best cattle they its impress on the cattle of that region. The could find, regardless of price. Their first imEnglish colonies in Massachusetts and New portation consisted of seven bulls and twelve Hampshire, the Dutch in New Jersey, the Swedes cows and heifers. Further importations fo:in Delaware, and the Danes on the Piscataqua lowed. In 1835 and 1836 Felix Renick had