« הקודםהמשך »
ally determine each other's motion. A stone falls to the ground; the earth rises to meet it. The earth and moon enforce each other to revolve about their common center of gravity. Also, because of their motion and mutual attraction, the planets and the sun revolve about their common center of gravity, and thereby constitute the solar system a unitary system. This system as a whole revolves about some higher center of the stellar system, a larger whole. Thus again the corporeal universe is a unit, more closely bound into one by virtue of efficient causes. Moreover, these causative interactions are continuous throughout time, bringing past, present and future into a more compact historical whole, binding them into a closer unity by interlinked chains of causes and effects. Thus throughout the universe of space and time, every individual body is causally related to every other.
other. All act upon each, and each upon all.
§ 15. The foregoing are primary conditions of yet another specific relation of the highest import, the relation of means and end. Its philosophic treatment is teleology, which views nature as a kingdom of ends. We shall here consider
space. Gravity, unlike energy, is not transmitted, nor transferred, nor transformed, and is not obstructed. It coexists with its substantial center.
1 To the molar motions indicated are to be added molecular motions, including all vibratory and chemical action.
2 The expression is borrowed from Kant, who says : “ Teleology considers nature as a kingdom of ends. Ethics regards a possible kingdom of ends as a kingdom of nature. In the first case, the kingdom of ends is a theoretical idea, adopted to explain what actually is. In the latter, it is a practical idea, adopted to bring about that which is not yet, but which can be realized by our conduct, provided it conforms to this idea.” - Metaphysic of Morals, in R. and S. ed. of Kant's works, vol. viii, p. 66 note.
" Leibnitz termed the world when viewed in relation to the rational beings which it contains, and the moral relations in which they stand to each other, under the government of the Supreme Good, the kingdom of Grace,' and distinguished it from the kingdom of Nature,' in which these rational beings live, under moral laws indeed, but expect no other consequences Each part
the teleologic relation merely as an existing fact, the end as an effect, not as a design or final cause.
In many individual groups of things the relation of means and end may be discerned, binding the components into an organic whole. Accordingly an organism is defined as a group in which all parts are mutually means and end. is for every other; also each is for the whole, and the whole for each ; all serving all. An organ is a member of an organized group, serving all other members as ends. Every constitutive part is an organ, an instrument, a means. It has certain special functions relating to the rest severally and as a whole; and when it entirely ceases to perform its office, it ceases to be a member of the organism.
It is not a fancy, nor a mere speculation, but a fact, recognized by philosophy and lying at the base of all science, that the universe is a kingdom of ends, an organism constituted of minor organisms. Space is for bodies, and bodies are for space. Time is for events, and events are for time. Space without body, or time without event, is unthinkable. Gravitation draws all bodies toward one center, and radiation disperses to all bodies the store of energy collected in that center. Every star, and every planet, and every satellite, has its peculiar office relative to the rest. The extinction of any one would necessitate a readjustment of the whole. Nature, the great world of all things, is an organized individual, a
from their actions than such as follow according to the course of nature in the world of sense. To view ourselves, therefore, as in the kingdom of grace, in which all happiness awaits us, except in so far as we ourselves limit our participation in it by actions which render us unworthy of happiness, is a practically necessary idea of pure reason. -Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, Meiklejohn's trans., Bohn's ed. p. 492.
1 Final cause, the excitant and object of purpose, implying antecedent efficient cause, and inferring First Cause. On the Aristotelic division of causes into four several kinds, see Elements of Inductive Logic, § 14 note.
2 The word all is ambiguous, meaning either all as an undistributed unity, or all as a distributed plurality ; as in Drink ye all of it. In the above formula, and elsewhere in this connection, both meanings are applicable.
The earth is a cosmic unity. In its series of periodically recurring changes, reproductive life is linked with the seasons, and active life with day and night. It is itself made up
of relatively independent organisms. For example, every animal is an organism. Each of its members, even the least, is an organ serving the sustenance of all others, and receiving sustenance from all. The head is for its hair, and the hair for the head, and both for the trunk. Should any organ cease its functions, it suffers atrophy, or is cast off as excrementitious; and when the chief organs cease their ministry, life ceases, and the integral whole disintegrates. A plant is an organic whole. The root is for the leaf, and the leaf for the root; and the other parts serve the leaf and root, else these could not perform their functions. All are reciprocally related as means and end. As physiology thus resolves living bodies into organized organs, so chemistry teaches that all bodies consist of systems of molecules, and these ultimately of systems of atoms. Every subordinate is a microcosm repeating the macrocosm.
1 Says von Baer, as quoted by Paulsen : “ The animal kingdom cannot exist without the vegetable kingdom ; this again cannot arise before the stony crust of the earth has been disintegrated into loose soil by physical and chemical influences. We must further presuppose that this soil is watered by rains from time to time. The rain can fall only on condition that the water has previously been absorbed by the air, that it has been carried to a higher stratum and then condensed by a change of temperature. The water, again, cannot rise unless the earth is heated by the sun's rays. Hence the smallest blade of grass really calls into play the entire planetary system with all its arrangements and movements, and all the laws of nature." — Int. to Phil., p. 232.
2“Das Staübchen, selbst der unfruchtbare Stein,
Indem er sein Gesetz hat, muss er wirken
Und thätig für das grosse Ganze sein.” – GOETHE. The relations seen in simple cohesion “indicate more than mere resemblance, an inherent kindred. They indicate on the part of two globules of the same elementary body a predisposition perfectly reciprocal to cleave
§ 16. In the kingdom of ends is included the spiritual realm. We conceive that it contains no isolated elements, that throughout its sphere there is organized interaction. Within the range of observation is the human mind, constituted by a complement of faculties whose activities are mutually conditioned, and cooperate to a common end. As in the corporeal so in the spiritual sphere, very many of the most important ends are attained only by means of a combination of energies.
The universe as a total we conceive to be composed of the spiritual and the corporeal united in an interchange of functional activities. Many minor wholes are thus organically constituted. Each individual man is a double organism consisting of body and mind. He is also a member of wider combinations; for none of us liveth to himself, and none dieth to himself.
The family is an organic individual, its members being normally related for mutual service. Every individual community or organized society has a constitution, written or unwritten, whose essence is a definition of the offices of its members in their service of the common interest. The city, the state, the nation, has organic laws constituting it an individual, wherein its citizens are each for all and all for each. The human race is an organized individual, its members being bound into one by natural affinities, and related by teleological interaction. Moreover, the content of an individual life cannot be described except relatively to the historical whole. The entire history of the age and of the entire past is contained in it, and its influence extends throughout the entire future. The kingdom of ends is the universe. Everywhere there is reciprocity, a relation of mutual interdependence, and altruistic subservience, a universal ministry. All serving all is the fundamental, thorough-going, uniform plan of the world.
one another, to hold real relations. They indicate that no particle exists for itself, but that its nature points to relation with other particles. They indicate that though each particle thus exists for others, as well as for itself, it does not exist indifferently for all others of any sort, but for others of its own kind in the first degree, and then for others of different kinds in a second degree.”— Wm. ARTHUR, in the Fernly lecture on the Difference between Physical and Moral Law, p. 49; London, 1883.
Says Leibnitz: “Les âmes agissent selon les loix des causes finales par appétitions, fins et moyens. Les corps agissent selon les causes efficientes ou des mouvements. Et les deux règnes, celui des causes efficientes et celui des causes finales, sont harmoniques entre eux."'— Monadology, $ 79. 1 See Elements of Psychology, § 59.
§ 17. Yet another philosopheme to be considered is the conception of law. It is probable that the notion originated historically in the expressed will of a superior in authority and power. But this meaning has become specific, the notion having been extended to include generically various uniformities, though still retaining, perhaps in all of its applications, a covert suggestion of authoritative imposition. We must look away from this origin for its essence.
The ultimate ground of the notion is in the shock of similarity. When two facts, either things or events, make a striking impression of similarity, one is regarded as a repetition of the other; that is, a phenomenon is said to be repeated when the mind of the observer receives impressions so very similar as to be indistinguishable except as to place or time. When several such impressions recur, the notion of repetition is expanded into the notion of order. This implies a correspondence, more or less constant, among the facts, which is referred either to their inherent nature or to their conformity with some rule, perhaps a mandate, an order, of a ruler. When the order of the facts, either existing or required, is undeviatingly constant, the notion of order is expanded into the notion of strict uniformity.
It has already been pointed out that objective reality presents only related individuals. Now among real things or