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6. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "I regard with pleasure your brilliant virtue, making no great display of itself in sounds and appearances." The Master said, "Among the appliances to transform the people, sounds and appearances are but trivial influences. It is said in another ode, 'Virtue is light as a hair/ Still, a hair will admit of comparison as to its size. 'The doings of the supreme Heaven have neither sound nor smell/—That is perfect virtue."

The above is the thirty-third chapter. Tsze-sze having earned his descriptions to the extremest point in the preceding chapters, turns back in this, and examines the source of his subject; and then again from the work of the learner, free from all selfishness, and watchful over himself when he is alone, he carries out his description, till by easy steps he brings it to the consummation of the whole empire tranquillized by simple and sincere reverentialness. He farther eulogizes its mysteriousness, till he speaks of it at last as without sound or smell. He here takes up the sum of his whole Work, and speaks of it in a compendious manner. Most deep and earnest was he in thus goi7ig again over his ground, admonishing and instructing men :shall the learner not do his utmost in the study of the Work?

the She-king, Pt IV. Bk I. Sect. L iv. 3. But in the She-king we must translate,—" There is nothing more illustrious than the virtue of the sovereign, all the princes will follow it." Tsze-sze puts another meaning on the words, and makes them introductory to the next paragraph. The "superior man " must here be " he who has attained to the sovereignty of the empire," the subject of chapter xxix. Thus it is that a constant shuffle of terms seems to be going on, and the subject before us is all at once raised to a higher and inaccessible platform. 6. Virtue in its highest degree and influence. See the She-king, Pt III, Bk I . viii. 7. The " I" is God, who announces to king Wan the reasons why he had called him to execute his judgments. Wan's virtue, not sounded nor emblazoned, might come near to the being without display of the last paragraph, but Confucius fixes on the word " great" to show its shortcoming. It had some, though not large exhibition. He therefore quotes again from Pt III. Bk III. vi. 6, though away from the original intention of the words. But it does not satisfy him that virtue should be likened even to a Mir. He therefore finally quotes Pt III. Bk L i. 7, where the imperceptible working of Heaven, in producing the overthrow of the Yin dynasty, is set forth as without sound or smell. That is his highest conception of the nature and power of virtue.




Ability, various of Confucius, IX. vi.
Able officers, eight, of Chow, XVIII.

Abroad, when a son may go, IV. xix.
Accomplishments come after duty, I.

Ti.; blended with solid excellence,

VI. xvi.

Achievement of government, the great,
XIII. ix.

Acknowledgment of Confucius in es-
timating himself, VII. xxxii.

Acting heedlessly, against, VII. xxvii.

Actions should always be right, XIV.
iv. ; of Confucius were lessons and
laws, XVII. xix.

Adaptation for government of Yen
Yung, &c, VI. i.; of Tsze-loo, Sc.,
VI. vi.

Admiration, Yen Yuen's, of Confucius'

doctrines, IX. x.
Admonition of Confucius to Tsze-loo,

XI. xiv.

Advanced years, improvement difficult

in, XVII. xxvi.
Adversity, men are known in times of,

IX. xxvii.
Advice against useless expenditure,

XI. xiii.

Age, the vice to be guarded against in,

XVI. vii.
Aim, the chief, I. xvi.
Aims, of Tsze-loo, Tsang-sih, &c, XI.


An all-pervading unity, the knowledge
of, Confucius' aim, XV. ii.

Anarchy of Confucius' time, III. y.

Ancient rites, how Confucius cleaved
to, III, xvii.

Ancients, their slowness to speak, IV.

Antiquity, Confucius' fondness for
VII. xix. ; decay of the monuments
of, III. ix.

Anxiety of parents, II. vi.; of Con-
fucius about the training of his dis-
ciples, V. ii.

Appearances, fair, are suspicious, 1.
hi., and XVII. xvii.

Appellations for the wife of a prince,
XVI. xiv.

Appreciation, what conduct will in-
sure, XV. v.

Approaches of the unlikely, readily
met by Confucius, VII. xxviii.

Approbation, Confucius', of Nan Yung,
XI. v.

Aptitude of the Keun-tsze, II. xii.

Archery, contention in, III, vii. ; a
discipline of virtue, III, xvi.

Ardent and cautious disciples, Con-
fucius obliged to be content with,
XIII. xxi.

Ardour of Tsze-loo, V. vi.

Art of governing, XII. xiv.

Assent without reformation, a hopeless
case, IX. xxiii.

Attachment to Confucius of Yen Y uen,
XI. xxiii.

Attainment, different stages of, VI.

Attainments of Hwny, like those of

Confucius, VII. x.
Attributes of the true scholar, XIX. i.
Auspicious omens, Confucius gives up

hope for want of, IX. viii.
Avenge murder, how Confucius wished

to, XIV. xxii.

Bad name, the danger of a, XIX. xx,
Barbarians, how to civilize, IX. xiii.

Becloudings of the mind, XVII. viii.

Bed, manner of Confucius in, X. xvi.

Benefits derived from studying the
Odes, XVII. ix.

Benevolence, to be exercised with pru-
dence, VI. xxiv.; and wisdom, XII.

Blind, consideration of Confucius for

the, XV. xli.
Boldness, excessive, of Tsze-loo, VII.


Burial, Confucius' dissatisfaction with

Hwuy's, XI. x.
Business, every man should mind his

own, VIII, xiv., and XIV. xxvii.

Calmness of Confucius in danger, VII.

Capacity of Mang Kung-ch'iS, XIV.

Capacities of the superior and inferior

man, XV. xxxiii.
Careful, about what things Confucius

was, VII. xii.
Carriage, Confucius at and in his, X.

xvii. ; Confucius refuses to sell his,
to assist a needless expenditure, XI.

Caution, advantages of, IV. xxiii.;
repentance avoided by, I. xiii.;
in speaking, XII. iii.) and XV.

Ceremonies and music, XI. i.; end of,

I. xii. ; impropriety in, III. x. ; in-
. fluence of in government, IV. xiii.;

regulated according to their object,
III. iv. ; secondary and ornamental,

III, viii.; vain without virtue, III.

Character (s), admirable, of Tsze-yu,
&c, XV. vi. ; differences in, owing
to habit, XVII. ii.; different, of
two dukes, XIV. xvi. ; disliked by
Confucius, and Tsze-kung, XVII.
xxiv. ; how Confucius dealt with dif-
ferent, XI. xxi.; how to determine,

II. x.; lofty, of Shun and Yu, VIII.

xviii.; of four disciples, XI. xvii.;
of Kung-shuh Wan, XIV. xiv; of
Tan-t'ae Meen-ming, VI. xii.; vari-
ous elements of in Confucius, VII.
xxxvii.; what may be learnt from,

IV. xvii.

Characteristics, of perfect virtue, XIII.

xix. ; of ten disciples, XI. ii.

Claimed, what Confucius, VII. xxxiii.

Classes of men, in relation to know-
ledge, four, XVI. ix.; only two
whom practicecannotchange, XVII.

Climbing the heavens, equalling Con-
fucius like, XIX. xxv.

Common practices, some indifferent

and others not, IX. iii. ,
Communications to be proportioned to

susceptibility, VI. xix.
Comparison of'Sze and Shang, XI. xv.
Comparisons, against making, XIV.

xx xi.

Compass and vigour of mind necessary
to a scholar, VIII. vii.

Compassion, how a criminal-judge
should cherish, XVIII. xix.

Complete man, of the, XIV. xiii.;
virtue, I. XIV., and VI. xvi.

Concealment, not practised by Con-
fucius with his disciples, VII. xxiii.

Concubines, difficult to treat, XVII.

Condemnation of Tsang. Woo-Chung,
XIV. xv.; of Confucius for seeking
employment, XIV. xli.

Condition, only virtue adapts a man
to his, IV. if.

Conduct that will be everywhere ap-
preciated, XV, v.

Confidence, enjoying, necessary to serv-
ing and to ruling, XIX. x.

Connate, Confucius' knowledge not,
VII. xix.

Consideration, of Confucius for the
blind, XV. xli.; a generous, of
others, recommended, X VI II. x.

Consolation to Tsze-new, when anxi-
ous about his brother, XII. v.

Constancy of mind, importance of,
XIII. xxii.

Constant Mean, the, VI. xxvii.

Contemporaries of Confucius described,
XVI. xi.

Contention, the superior man avoids,
III. vii.

Contentment in poverty of Tsze-loo,

IX. xxvi.; of Confucius with his

condition, IX. xi.; of the officer

King, XIII. viii.
Contrast of Hwuy and Tsze, XI. xviii.
Conversation, with Chung-kung, XII.

ii. ; with isze-chang, XII. vi., vii.;

XX.ii.; with Tsze-kung, XIV. xviii.;

with Tsze-loo, XIV. xiii., xvii.;

with Tsze-new, XII. iii.; with Yen

Yuen, XII. i.
Countenance, the, in filial piety, I.

Courage, not doing right from want of,
II. xxiv.

Criminal judge, should cherish com-
passion, XIX. xix.

Culpability of not reforming known
faults, XV. xxix.

Danger, Confucius assured in time of
IX. v.

Dead, offices to the, I. ix.

Death, Confucius evades a question
about, XI. xi.; how Confucius felt
Hwuy's, XI. viii., ix. ; without re-
gret, IV. viii.

Declined, what Confucius, to be reck-
oned, VII. xxxiii.

Defects of former times become modern
vices, XVII. xvi.

Defence, of himself by Confucius, XIV.
xxxvi. ; of his own method of teach-
ing, by.Tsze-hea, XIX. xii.; of
Tsze-loo, by Confucius, XI. xiv.

Degeneracy, of Confucius' age, VI.
xiv. ; instance of, XV. xxv.

Delusions, how to discover, XII. x.,

Demeanour of Confucius, X. i. to v.,

Departure of Confucius, from Loo,
XVIII. iv.; from Ts'e, XVIII.

Depreciation, Confucius above the reach

of, XIX. xxiv.
Description of himself as a learner, by

Confucius, VII. xviii.
Desire and ability, required in disciples,

VII. viii.
Development of knowledge, II. xi.
Differences of character, owing to

habit, XVII. ii.
Dignity, necessary in a ruler, XV.


Disciples, anxiety about training, V.

Discrimination of Confucius in reward-
ing officers, VI. iii.; without sus-
piciousness, the merit of, XIV.

Dispersion of the musicians of Loo,

XVIII. xi.
Distinction, notoriety not, XII. xx.
Distress, the superiorman above, XV. i.
Divine mission, Confucius' assurance

of a, VII. xxii., IX. v.
Doctrine of Confucius, admiration of,

IX. x.

Dreams of Confucius affected by dis-
appointments, VII. v.

Dress, rules of Confucius in regard to
his, X. vi.

Dying counsels to a man in high sta-
tion, VIII. iv.

Dynasties, Yin, Hea, and Chow, VIII,
iv., III. xx.; Yin and Hea, III. ix.;
Chow, &c, III. xiv. ; certain rules
exemplified in the ancient; eight
able officers of the Chow, XVIII.
xi.; three worthies of the Yin,
XVIII. i. ; the three, XV. xxiv.

Earnest student, Hwuy the, IX. xix.

Earnestness in teaching of Confucius,
IX. vii.

Egotism, instance of freedom from,
VIII. v.

Eight able officers of the Chow dynasty,

XVIII. xi.

Emolument, learning for, II. xviii.;
shameful to care only for, XIV. i.

End, the, crowns the work, IX. xxi.

Enjoyment, advantageous and injuri-
ous sources of, XVI. v.

Equalled, Confucius cannot be, XIX.

Error, how acknowledged by Confu-
cius, VII. xxx.

Essential, what is, in different services,
III. xxvi.

Estimate, Confucius' humble, of him-
self, VII. ii., iii., IX. xv., XIV.
xxx.; of what he could do if em-
ployed, XIII. x.

Estimation of others, not a man's con-
cern, XIV. xxxii.

Example, better than force, II. xx.;
government efficient by, &C., XII.
xvii., xviii., xix.; the secret of
rulers' success, XIII. i. ; value of,
in those in high stations, VIII, ii.

Excess and defect equally wrong, XI.

Expenditure, against useless, XI. xiii.
External, the, may be predicated from

the internal, XIV. v.
Extravagant speech, hard to be made

good, XIV. xxi.

Fair appearances are suspicious, I. iii.,
and XVII, xvii.

Fasting, rules observed by Confucius
when, X. vii.

Father's vices, no discredit to a virtu-
ous son, VI. iv.

Faults of men, characteristic of their
class, IV. vii.

Feelings, need not always be spoken,
XIV. iv.

Fidelity of his disciples, Confucius'
memory of, XI. ii.

Filial piety, I. xi., IV. xix., xx., xxi.;
argument for, II. vi.; cheerfulness
in, II. viii. ; the foundation of vir-
tuous practice, I. ii.; of Meen Tsze-
keen, XI. iv.; of Mang Chwang,

XIX. xviii.; reverence in, II. vii.;
Been in care of the person, VIII. iii.

Firmness of superior man, based on

right, XV. xxxvi.
Five excellent things to be honoured,

XX. ii.; things which constitute
perfect virtue, XVII. vi.

Flattery of sacrificing to others' an-
cestors, II. xxiv.

Food, rules of Confucius about his, X.

Foreknowledge, how far possible, II.

Forethought, necessity of, XV. zi.

Formalism, against, III. iv.

Former times, Confucius' preference
for, XI. i.

Forward youth, Confucius* employ-
ment of a, XIV. xlvii.

Foundation of virtue, I. ii.

Four bad things, to be put away, XX,
ii.; classes of men in relation to
knowledge, XVI. ix.

Frailties from which Confucius was
free, IX. iv.

Fraternal submission, I. ii.

Friends, rules for choosing, I. viii., and
IX. xxiv. ; trait of Confucius in re-
lation to, X. xv.

Friendship, how to maintain, V. xvi.;
Tsze-chang's virtue too high for,
XIX. xvi.

Friendships, what, advantageous and
injurious, XVI. iv.

Frivolous talkers, against, xv, xvi.

Funeral rites, Confucius' dissatisfac-
tion with Hwuy's, XI. x. ; to pa-
rents, I. ix.

Furnace, the, and the S. W. Corner, of
a house, III. xiii.

Gain, the mean man's concern, IV.

Generosity of Pih-e and Shuh-ts'e,
V. xxii.

Glib-tongued, Confucius not, XIV.

Glibness of tongue and beauty, es-
teemed by the age, VI. xiv.

Glossing faults, a proof of the mean
man, XIX. viii.

Gluttony and idleness, case of, hope-
less, XVII. xxii.

God, address to, XX, i.

Golden rule, expressed with negatives,
V. xi., xv, xxiii.

Good fellowship of Confucius, VII.

Good, learning leads to, VIII. xii.

Good man, the, XI. xix. ; we must
not judge a man to be, from his dis-
course. XI. xx.

Governing, the art of, XII. xiv.; with-
out personal effort, XV. iv.

Government, good, seen from its effects,
XIII. xvi.; good, how only obtained,
XII. xi.; may be conducted effi-
ciently, how, XX. ii.; moral in its
end, XII. xvii. ; principles of, I. V.;
requisites of, XII. vii.

Gradual progress of Confucius, II. iv.;

communication of his doctrine, V.

Grief, Confucius vindicates his, for

Hwuy, XI. ix.
Guiding principle ofConfucius, XVIII.


Happiness of Confucius among his
disciples, XI. xii.; of Hwuy in
poverty, VI. ix.

Haste, not to be desired in government,
XIII. xvii.

Heaven, Confucius rested in the order-
ing of, XIV. xxxviii.; knew him,
Confucius thought that, XIV.
xxxvii.; no remedy for sin against,
III. xiii.

Hesitating faith, Tsze-chang on, XIX.

High aim proper to a student, VI. x.;
things, too much minding of, XIX.

Home, Confucius at, X. xvi.; how
Confucius could be not at, XVII. xx.

Hope, Confucius gives up, for want of
auspicious omens, IX. viii.

Hopeless case, of gluttony and idleness,
XVII. xxii. ; of those who assent
to advice without reforming, IX.
xxiii.; of those who will not think,
XV. xv.

House and wall, the comparison of a,
XIX. xxiii.

Humble claim of Confucius for himself,
V. xxvii. ; estimate of himself, VII.
ii., iii., IX. xv., XIV. xxx.

Humility of Confucius, VII. xxvi.

Hundred years, what good govern-
ment could effect in a, XIII. xi.

Idleness of Tsae Yu, V. ix.; case of,
hopeless, XVII. xxii..

Ignorant man's remark about Con-
fucius, IX. ii.

Impatience, danger of, XV. xxvi.

Imperial rites, usurpation of, III. i.,
ii., vi.

Improvement, self, II. xviii.; difficult
in advanced years, XVII. xxvi.

Incompetency, our own, a fit cause of
concern, XV xviii.

Indifference of the officer King to
riches, XIII. viii.

Indignation of Confucius at the usurp-
ation of imperial rites, III. i., ii.; at
the support of usurpation and extor-
tion by a disciple, XI. xvi. ; at the
wrong overcoming the right, XVII.

Inferior pursuits, inapplicableto great
objects, XIX. iv.

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