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cerity to attain it, and by pride and extravagance he will fail of it.
19. There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient.
20. The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of his life.
21. Never has there been a case of the sovereign loving benevolence, and the people not loving righteousness. Never has there been a case where the people have loved righteousness, and the affairs of the sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there been a case where the wealth in such a State, collected in the treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign's possession.
22. The officer Mang Heen said, "Hewho keeps horses and a carriage does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which keeps its stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob it of its revenues." This is in accordance with the saying: —" In a State, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness."
benevolence, and righteousness." 19. This is understood by K'ang-shing as requiring the promotion of agriculture; and that is included, but does not exhaust the meaning. The consumers are the salaried officers of the government. The sentiment of the whole is good ;—where there is cheerful industry in the people, and an economical administration of the government, the finances will be flourishing. 20. The sentiment here is substantially the same as in paragraphs seven and eight. The old interpretation is different:—" The virtuous man uses his wealth so as to make his person distinguished. He who is not virtuous, toils with his body to increase his wealth." 21. This shows how the people respond to the influence of the ruler, and that benevolence, even to the spattering of his wealth on the part of the latter, is the way to permanent prosperity and wealth. 22. Heen was the honorary epithet of Chung-sun Mee, a worthy minister of Loo, under the two dukes, who ruled before the birth of Confucius. His sayings, quoted here, were preserved by tradition or recorded in some
23. When he who presides over a State or a family makes his revenues his chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean man. He may consider this man to be good; but when such a person is employed in the administration of a State or family, calamities from Heaven, and injuries from men, will befall it together, and, though a good man may take his place, he will not be able to remedy the evil. This illustrates again the saying, "In a State, gain is not to be considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness."
The above tenth chapter of commentary explains the government of the State, and the making the empire peacef ul and happy.
There are thus, in all, ten chapters of commentary, the first four of which discuss, in a general manner, the scope of the principal topic of the Work; while the other six go particularly into an exhibition of the work required in its subordinate branches. The fifth chapter contains the important subject of comprehending true excellence, and the sixth, what is the foundation of the attainment of true sincerity. Those two chapters demand the especial attention of the learner. Let not the reader despise them because of their simplicity.
work which is now lost. On a scholar's being first called to office, he was gifted by his prince with a carriage and four horses. He was then supposed to withdraw from petty ways of getting wealth. The high officers of a State kept ice for use in their funeral rites and sacrifices.
THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN.
My master, this philosopher Chung, says, "Being without inclination to either side is called, Chung; admitting of no change is called Yung." By Chung is denoted the correct course to be pursued by all under heaven; by Yung is denoted the fixed principle regulating all under heaven. This work contains the law of the mind, which was handed down from one to another, in the Confucian school, till Tsze-sze, fearing lest in the course of time errors should arise about it, committed it to writing, and delivered it to Mencius. The book first speaks of one principle; it next spreads this out, and embraces all things ; finally, it returns and gathers them all up under the one principle. Unroll it, and it fills the universe; roll it up, and it retires and lies hid in mysteriousness. The relish of it is inexhaustible. The whole of it is solid learning. When the sMlfid reader has explored it with delight till he has apprehended it, he may carry it into practice all his life, and will find that it cannot be exhausted.
The Title Of The Work.— Chung Yung, " The Doctrine of the Mean." It is hardly possible amid the conflicting views of native scholars, and the various meanings of which the terms are capable, to decide categorically on the exact force of the terms in the title. The Work treats of the human mind:—in its state of chung, absolutely correct, as it is in itself; and in its state of harmony, acting ad extra, according to its correct nature. —In the version of the Work, given in the collection of " Memoires concernant I'histoire, les sciences, $c., des ChinoU," vol. I., it is styled—"Juste Milieu." Remusat calls it " L'invariable Milieu" after Ch'ing E. Intorcetta, and his coadjutors, call it—" Medium constansvel tempUernnm." The book treats, they say, "De Medio Sempiterno, sive de aurea medi
Chapter I. 1. What Heaven has conferred is called The Nature; an accordance with this nature is called The Path of duty; the regulation of this path is called InStruction.
2. The path may not be left for an instant. If it could be left, it would not be the path. On this account, the superior man does not wait till he sees things, to be cautious, nor till he hears things, to be apprehensive.
3. -There is nothing more visible than what is secret, and nothing more manifest than what is minute. Therefore, the superior man is watchful over himself, when he is alone.
4. While there are no stirrings of pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, the mind may be said to be in the state of Equilibrium. When those feelings have been stirred, and they act in their due degree, there ensues what may be
ocritate ilia, qua est, ut ait Cicero, inter nimium et parvum, eonstanter et omnibus in rebus tenenda." Morrison says, "Chung Yung, the constant (golden) medium." Collie calls it—" The golden medium." The objection which I have to all these names is, that from them it would appear as if the first term were a noun, and the other a qualifying adjective, whereas they are co-ordinate terms.
1. It has been stated, in the prolegomena, that the current division of the Chung Yung into chapters was made by Choo He, as well as their subdivision into paragraphs. The thirty-three chapters, which embrace the work, are again arranged by him in five divisions, as will be seen from his supplementary notes. The first and last chapters are complete in themselves, as the introduction and conclusion of the treatise. The second part contains ten chapters; the third, nine; and the fourth, twelve.
Par. 1. The principles of duty have their root in the evidenced will of Heaven, and their full exhibition in the teaching of sages. What is taught seems to be this :—To man belongs a moral nature, conferred on him by Heaven or God, by which he is constituted a law to himself. But as he is prone to deviate from the path in which, according to his nature, he should go, wise and good men—sages—have appeared, to explain and regulate this, helping all by their instructions to walk in it.
Par. 2. The path indicated by the nature may never be left, and the superior man—he who would embody all principles of right and duty— exercises a most sedulous care that he may attain thereto.
Par. 3. It seems to me that the secrecy here must be in the recesses of one's own heart, and the minute things, the springs of thought and stirrings of purpose there. The full development of what is intended here is probably to be found in all the subsequent passages about "sincerity."
Par. i. "This," says Choo He, "speaks of the virtue of the nature and passions, to illustrate the meaning of the statement that the path may not be left." It is difficult to translate the paragraph, because it is difficult to understand it.
called the state of Harmony. This Equilibrium is the great root from which grow all the human actings in the world, and this Harmony is the universal path which they all should pursue.
5. Let the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.
In the first chapter which is given above, Tsze-sze states the views which had been handed down to him, as the basis of his discourse. First, it shows clearly how the path of duty is to be traced to its origin in Heaven, and is unchangeable, while the substance of it is provided in ourselves, and may not be departed from. Next, it speaks of the importance of preserving and nourishing this, and of exercising a watchful self-scrutiny with reference to it. Finally, it speaks of the meritorious achievements and transforming influence of sage and spiritual men in their highest extent. The wish of Tszesze was that hereby the learner should direct his thoughts inwards, and by searching in himself, there find these truths, so that he might put aside all outward tempta
Par. 5. On this Intorcetta and his colleagues observe :—" Quis non videt eo dwmtaxat collimasse philosophum, ut hominis naturam, quam ab origins sua rectam, sed delude lapsam et depravatam passim Sinenses docent, ad pHmarvum innocentia statum reducere? Atque ita reliquas ret ereatas, hominijam rebates, et in ejusdem ruinam armatas, ad pristinum obsequiwn veluti revocaret. Hoc f. I. s. I. libri Ta Med, hoc item Mo et alibi non semel indicat. Etsi autem nesciret philosophus nos a prima felicitate propter peccatum primi parentis excidisse, tamen et tot rerum quee adversantur et infesta sunt homini, et ipsivs natures human<B ad deteriora tam prona, longo usu et contemplatione didicisse videtur, non posse hoc universum, quod homo vitiatus quodam modo vitiarat, connaturali sva integritati et ordini restitui, nisi prius ipse homo per victoriam swi ipsius, eam, quam amiserat, integritatem et ordinem recuperaret." I fancied something of the same kind, before reading their note. According to Choo He, the paragraph describes the Work and influence of sage and spiritual men in the highest issues. The subject is developed in the fourth part of the Work, in very extravagant and mystical language. The study of it will modify very much our assent to the views in the above passage. There is in this whole chapter a mixture of sense and mysticism,—of what may be grasped, and what tantalizes and eludes the mind.
Concluding Note. The writer Yang, quoted here, was a distinguished scholar and author in the reign of Ying-Tsung, A.d. 1064—1085. He was a disciple of Ch'ing Haou, and the friend both of him and his brother, E.